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Full text of "Rambles in eastern Asia, including China and Manilla, during several years' residence : with notes of the voyage to China, excursions in Manilla, Hong-King, Canton, Shanghai, Ningpoo, Amoy, Fouchow, and Macao"

Boston 

Medical Library 

8 The Fenway 



RAMBLES 



IN 



EASTERN ASIA, 



INCLUDING 



CHINA AND MANILLA, 



luring Sttaral fens' ^mkm. 



WITH NOTES OF 



THE VOYAGE TO CHINA, EXCURSIONS IN MANILLA, HONG-KONG, CAN- 
TON, SHANGHAI, NINGPOO, AMOY, FOUCHOW, AND MACAO. 



BY 

B. L. BALL, M. D. 



BOSTON: 

JAMES FRENCH AND COMPANY 

1855. 



/ ^pt: 



2-0~0 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1855, by 
JAMES FRENCH & CO. AND B. L. BALL, 

In tlie Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



$30 4 v 



Stereotyped by 

HOBABT & ROBBINS, 

New England Type and Stereotype Foundery, 



boston . 



PREFACE. 



When the writer of the following pages left America, on a 
foreign tour, the idea of writing a book, as the results of his ex- 
perience, was by no means entertained by him. But, on his return, 
having visited China, Java, Singapore, Kamschatka, the Arctic 
Ocean, and the Sandwich Islands, &c, — completing a voyage 
around the world, — he was induced, by friends abroad and at 
home, to give to the public an account of his travels. 

In preparing the manuscript, which was from the notes of his 
private journal, it was found that all could not be contained in a 
single volume ; accordingly this work has been confined to China 
and Manilla, and the other countries omitted, at least for the 
present. 

With the view of reducing the work to the present size, many 
passages have been withheld ; which, it is to be hoped, will suf- 
ficiently account for any apparent discrepancies. 

And here the writer would take the opportunity to extend to 
his friends abroad, mentioned and unmentioned, a grateful remem- 
brance for the many kindnesses and hospitalities received at their 
hands. At the same time, it is with pleasure he takes the liberty 
of inscribing to them his Kambles in Eastern Asia. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Page 
Letter to a Friend. — Commencement of the Journal. — Letter of Adieu to Parents. — 
Out at Sea. — A Novelty in Cookery. — Storm at Sea. — Letter to a Brother, etc., . . 11 

CHAPTER II. 

Sunday at Sea. — The Nautilus. — Sea Pare. — Altercation on Shipboard. — Plying 
Fish. — The Booby. — A School of Porpoises, 22 

CHAPTER III. 

Equator. — Crossing the Line. — Ferdinand Narkona. — Coast of Brazil. — Tedious- 
ness of the Sea. — Phosphorescent Appearances. — A Dream. — Boisterous 
Weather, and Table Discomforts, 32 

CHAPTER IV. 

Sea-birds off the Cape. — Tristan de Acuhna. — Sunset Scene. — Storm Scene. — Cape 
of Good Hope. — The Black Cloud. — Buds and Fish — Porpoise taken. — Fourth 
of July on Board, 41 

CHAPTER V. 

Rainbow. — Gale. — Storm Scenery. — Sea Motion. — Albatross. — Sea Living. — 
Tropic of Capricorn. — Phosphorescent Light, 50 

CHAPTER VI. 

Description of Flying-fish. — Look out for Land. — The Booby. — Land Birds. — Land 
in Sight. — Water-spout. — Straits of Sunda. — Java, 57 

CHAPTER VII. 

Inhabitants of Java. — Dress. — Natives Bartering Commodities. — Cushman. — Ap- 
pearance of Angier. — Landing. — Reception by the Governor. — Cushman's House 
and Family — Mohammedan Mosque. — Leave Angier. — Danger from Rocks, ... 62 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Leave Java. — Dangerous Position. — Sumatra Shores. — The Two Brothers. — Gasper 
Straits. — St. Lucas Island. — Turtle Meat. — Calm Weather. — Intense Heat. — 
Frolicking Fish. — Letter to a Brother. — Unwelcome Sea-baths, 72 

1# 



VI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

Flying-fish for Food. — Chinese Fishing-boats. — Islands. — Accident. — Chinese Pilot- 
boat. — Arrival at Hong-Kang. — Appearance of the Place . — Americans. — Letter to 
a Sister, and Incidents. — Hong-Kong. — Chinese Servants. — Their Necessity to 
Foreigners. — Chinese Small Feet, etc., 78 

CHAPTER X. 

Description of Hong-Kong. — "Walk through the City. — People. — Different Nations. 

— Letter to Sister H. — Typhoon: its Violence and Effects. — .Distinctions among 
Servants. — Sedan Chairs. — Tricks of Chinese Boatmen, 89 

CHAPTER XI. 

Leaving for Canton. — Fishing Crafts. — Islands, Rivers, Forts and Pagodas, etc. — 
Whampoa. — The Chop. — Boston Jack. — Arrival in Canton. — Appearance of the 
City. — Mosquito Annoyances, 96 

CHAPTER XII. 

Commissioner Davis and Governor Su. — View from Dr. Parker's House. — River. — 
Boat Population. — Flower-garden. — Visit to "Whampoa. — Religious Worship at Can- 
ton. — Chinese Shopkeepers. — Visit to Dr. B. — My Boy's Chase. — Boat Pulling. 

— Diplomacy of the American Minister and Chinese Official, 104 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Visit to a Pagoda. — Tour around the City Walls. —Visit to Temple, etc., 110 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Visit to the Country Residences of Powtinqua and Howqua. — Execution of Criminals. — 
Noisy Cries of Chinese. — Typhoon, and Overflowing of the River, 122 

CHAPTER XV. 

Beggars. — Sing-song. — Visit to Leper Village. — Chinese Superstitions. — Dogs and 
Cats as Food. — Walk with a Chinaman. — Voyage to Manilla, 129 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Arrival at Manilla. — Hotel. — Calcada. — Orang-outang. — Feast of Santa Cruz. — 
Interviews with the People. — Indian Theatre, etc., 140 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Letter to a Brother. — Excursion to Lagunas. — Crossing the Lakes. — Indian House. 

— Letter to a Sister. — Excursion, continued. — Crocodile Lake. — Ducks, 149 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Continuation of Excursion to the Lagunas and Volcano. — Arrival at Columbo. — Per- 
plexity of Landing. ■ — Preparations and Departure for Volcano. — Ride by Night. — 
Detention at an Indian House, 157 



CONTENTS. VII 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Distant View of the Volcano. — Tarl Lake. — Ascent of the Mountain. — Character of 
the Volcano. — View from the Edge of Crater, etc., 166 

CHAPTER XX. 

Suspicious Indians. — Dismal Night. — Indians Feasting and Dancing. — Disagreeable 
Predicament, 173 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Expedition to a Cave. — A Call at San Pedro Macato. — Gorge of tke Mountains, 
and Rapids. — Exploration of a Cave, etc., 180 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Letter. — Casino. — Second Excursion to a Volcano. — Indian Town. — Town-hall, or 
Council-house. — Indian Ceremonies. — Volcano View by Night, etc. , 184 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Visits to Families of the Spanish. — Cigars and Smoking. — Feast of Pandackan. — 
Incidental Descriptions. — Country-seat of Dona M , etc., 191 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Savages at the Theatre. — Marriages. — Departure from Manilla, etc., 198 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Passage from Manilla to Hong-Kong. — Letters from Home. — Chinese Servants 

Their Cheating, etc. — Chinese Pirates. — Opening of the City Gates, 202 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

Treaty of 'the English and Chinese. — Letter to a Sister. — Visit to a Chinese School 

Letter to Dr. F. — Chinese Edicts. — Punishment of Chinese Offenders. — Dilemma, 213 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

Leave for Shanghae. — Ninepin Island. — Annoyances from Cockroaches. — Island of 
Formosa. — Chusan Islands. — Yantz-tze-kiang River. — Woosung. — Arrival at 
Shanghae, 219 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

New Boy. — Dr. Lockhart's Hospital. — Walk into the City. — Visits with Sedan-chairs. 

— Loss of Vessels. — Missionaries. — Country around Shanghae. — Letter to a Sister. 

— Chinese Ladies, etc., 227 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

Letter to a Brother. — Thoughts of Home. — Visit to Pagoda. — Interview with a Mis- 
sionary. — Duck-hatching Factory. — Visit to Missionary School, 236 



VIII CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXX. 

Fourth of July in China. — Departure for Ningpoo. — Woosung. — On Board Portu- 
guese Lorcha. — Excursion with Mr. West. — Nuwong. — Mountain Ascent. — 
Funeral Observances, 242 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

Departure for Teen-Tung. — Mountain Chairs. — Monastery. — First Building of the 
Temple. — Other Buildings. — Fourth or Ancestral Temple. — Lady and Priest. — 
Pagan Monastic Observations, 254 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

Excursion to Teen-Tung Monastery, continued. — Description of Temples, Monks, Re- 
ligious Observances, etc., 261 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Teen-Tung Mountains. — Ascent. — Deceptive Peaks. — View from the Summit. — 
Descent. — Monastic Mummery, etc., 270 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Departure from the Monastery. — Incidents by the "Way. — Chinese City of Machtzeien, 277 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

Crossing the Lake. — Causeway. — Quarries. — Chinese Workmen. — Return to Ning- 
poo. — Small Feet. — Ningpoo Pagoda. — House of Chinese Doctor. — Trip into the 
City. — Excursion to Chusan. — English Cemetery. — Return to Ningpoo. — Tea- 
drinking. — Infanticide, 287 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Chinese Opium-smoking. — Demands of Ransom-money of Pirates. — Worms in Teeth. 
— Impositions of an Old Woman. — Visit to Lucong. — Leave for Shanghae by the 
way of Chapoo, and across the Country, 298 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Letter to a Sister. — Engage Passage by the " Coquette " for Hong-Kong. — Walk 
about the City. — Great Wall of China. —Letter to a Sister, 308 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Letter to a Sister. — Tea Shipment. — Chinese Promises. — Chinese Boatmen. — Serv- 
ants, etc. — Letter to a Brother. — Departure from Shanghae. — Arrival at Amoy, . 313 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

Visits at Amoy. — Sail in the Harbor. — Visit at the English Consulate. — Chinese 
Admiral and Pirates. — Temples at Amoy, 318 



CONTENTS. IX 

CHAPTER XL. 

Trip across the Channel. — Ramble upon the Hill. — Visit to the Six Islands. — Equip- 
ment of the Receiving-ships. — Sail for Fou-chow. — Stop at Chin-chew. — Continu- 
ance of the Passage, 337 

CHAPTER XLI. 

Passage to Fou-chow, continued. — Arrive at Minn River Station. — Sporting on Shore. 

— Boat Trip up the River. — Disagreeable Position on Landing at Fou-chow. — 
Walk in the City. — Fou-chow Bridge, 345 

CHAPTER XLII. 

Letter to a Sister. — Chinese Culprit. — Ride and "Walk on the City Walls. — Chinese 
Troops. — Target-shooting. — Hot Springs. — Theatre. — Audience. — Retreat. — 
Chinese Ladies, • 355 

CHAPTER XLIII. 

Leave Fou-chow. — Escape of Missionaries from Pirates. — On Board the " Denia " 
for Hong-Kong. — Call at Chin-chew. — Amoy and Namoo. — Arrive at Hong-Kong, 362 

CHAPTER XLIV. 

Letter to a Sister-in-law. — Visit to the Second Bar Pagoda. — Singular Rocks, or 
Palisadoes. — Curious Basin. — Row of Caves. — Crumbling Pagoda. — Ancient 
Wall. — Letter to a Brother. — Execution Ground at Canton. — Statistics of Exe- 
cutions for a Number of Years. — Descriptions of the Factories. — The Lord's Prayer 
in Chinese. — Letters on the Manufacture and Preparation of Tea, 368 

CHAPTER XLV. 

Letter to a Brother. — Dutch Folly. — Excursion to Golden Hill. — Visit to China- 
man's Family. — Chinese Squeeze-pigeon. — Medicine among the Chinese. — Treat- 
ing a Patient. — A Procession. — New Year's. — Cruelty to Beggars. — Chinese Cries, 384 

CHAPTER XLVI. 

A Sunday in China. — Lost in the Streets. — A Chinese Rabble. — Chinese System 
of Names. — Trip up the River. — Gates. — Pen Pagoda. — Sugar Manufactory. — 
Mob. — Missiles Thrown. — Landing. — Dishonesty of Boatmen. — Of Servants. — 
Counterfeits, etc., 396 

CHAPTER XLVII. 

Letter to a Sister. — Arrival at Macao. — Aspect by Evening. — Mr. Smith's Hotel. 

— Malicious Boatmen. — The Praya Grande. — View from the Hotel. — Public 
Square. — Visit to the Cathedral, Cemetery, Mr. Marque's Garden, and Barrier, . . 40? 



JOURNAL OF TRAVELS 



TO 



CHINA AND MANILLA. 



CHAPTER I. 

LETTER TO A FRIEND. COMMENCEMENT OF THE JOURNAL. LETTER OF 

ADIEU TO PARENTS. OUT AT SEA. A NOVELTY IN COOKERY. 

STORM AT SEA. LETTER TO A BROTHER, ETC. 

Boston, May 7th, 1848. 
Dr. E. F. B. 

My dear Friend : I am off to-morrow. Yesterday Mr. Bacon 
said, " If the ship does not get off to-day, she will on Monday ; and 
if not by wind, she will by steam ; " so, therefore, I have now only one 
day more before I leave this country. 

You will be surprised, no doubt, to learn of this sudden move 
of mine ; but it is not an impulsive thought, having been meditated 
for some years. You may recollect that, when we closed our course at 
the medical school here, we arranged to go to Paris together, to spend 
a year or two at the lectures, and, afterwards, to travel in other parts 
of Europe. You went, and I remained behind. As each succeeding 
spring has returned, I have nearly resolved to go alone, and as often 
have failed. Two or three weeks since, during an evening visit, con- 
versation turned upon the subject of travelling, and the lady of the 
house, Mrs. G., remarked, that she should think I would like to 
journey. I replied that it was what I had always much desired, but 
that I had not yet decided where to go. She suggested that China 
was an interesting country. I thought favorably of it, and, return- 
ing home, it occupied my mind much of the night. I considered 
that China is a country as distant as any other ; that it is as diverse 
from ours as any ; that the people are as much our antipodes in 
dress, customs, religion, &c, as in their geographical position ; and I 



12 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

thought I should like to make the experiment of attempting to intro- 
duce dentistry and medicine among the Chinese. Some other con- 
siderations impressed me favorably, and, before morning, I had 
determined on a tour to China. Before this, the thoughts of a voyage 
" to the other side of the globe" so far away, had deterred me from 
considering it for more than a few moments at a time ; but now it 
seemed an easy matter. I can go and return within a year ; or, at 
most, two years will be the extent that I should wish to be gone. 

During the day, I ascertained that a vessel was ready to sail soon, 
and that Mr. and Mrs. B., and others, were to be among the pas- 
sengers, and I resolved at once to go; but sickness in the family 
prevented. A few days since, I engaged passage in the " Thomas W. 
Sears," which was to have sailed yesterday; but the want of wind 
prevented, and leaves us, at this present time, suspended between 
Saturday and Monday. Yours, very truly, 

B. L. B. 

Boston, May 8th. — Last night was my last at the Winthrop 
House. I spent the latter part of the evening in the company of a 
few friends, socially ; and I occupied for the night a part of the 
pleasant quarters of my friend, Mr. A. H. So little did he think 
I was going abroad, that, when I remarked to him that I wished 
to rise early in the morning, as I was to leave for China during 
the day, he said, "Yes, very likely. I expect to go, too." But 
this morning I was up early, and awaiting the summons for our 
departure, which I expected would have been about noon ; yet I 
busied myself in purchasing various little articles, not all of which 
do I believe a person would get through with, had he six months 
before him for its accomplishment. I took leave of Mr. H., who 
still looked doubtful, though a little less so, and appeared to express 
in his countenance, "Perhaps he is going. I shouldn't be sur- 
prised : " and so we parted. 

Nine o'clock came, and with it my brother J. ; and, directly 
after, in great haste, came another messenger, saying that I must 
hasten to the wharf, as the vessel was ready to sail, and all were 
on board awaiting my arrival. I started, met my brother-in-law, 
Mr. M., who accompanied me, stopping only at the office of the 
Advertiser, to procure a file of papers, and soon arrived at Con- 
stitution Wharf. All was ready ; the sails set, and the vessel held 
only by its cable. A large party was congregated on the end of the 
wharf, and each person — crew, officers and passengers — was taking 
leave of his own particular friends. I took leave of my brothers and 
sisters, and a few friends, regretting that I could not see others who 



LETTER TO PARENTS. 13 

were to have been there an hour or two later, and then stepped 
quickly on board, somewhat afraid that the vessel would sail even 
then without me. 

The cable was loosened, the vessel floated with the tide, a light air 
pressed the sails, and we commenced our voyage. The breeze soon 
freshened a little, and the city began slowly to recede from view. 
The sailors, as they hoisted more sail, broke forth into a loud song, 
which, to my ears, sounded " Cheerily, cheerily," enough ; but it 
was singularly and strangely impressive. Soon we could hardly dis- 
tinguish people on the wharves, with whom, by the waving of hand- 
kerchiefs, we exchanged our final adieus. At last, people, wharves, 
vessels and houses, were all blended in one mass, which gradually dis- 
appeared from our sight. 

The captain having introduced Mr. R. Rotch, of New Bedford, Mr. 
Dane, of Boston, and Dr. B. L. Ball, of Boston, to each other, as the 
passengers of the " Thomas W. Sears," and wished us a pleasant 
passage, we turned our faces towards our respective quarters. 

LETTER TO PARENTS. 

C On board ship " Thomas W. Sears," 
\ Boston Harbor, May 8. 

My dear Father and Mother : I have now commenced my an- 
ticipated voyage to China. I think you will be surprised to be thus 
informed ; for, when I took leave of you at Northboro, you said, by 
your countenances, " You may bid good-by, but we do not fear your 
carrying that project into effect ; you may start, but you will not 
leave the city." That such were your thoughts was as evident as if 
you had plainly spoken them. I was not quite sure myself that I 
should go through with it ; and therefore I thought I would say little 
about it at first. 

"We left the wharf at half-past nine a. m., to-day, and had a fine 
sail until near Governor's Island, when the wind died suddenly away, 
and we came to anchor under the fortifications of Fort Warren. It is 
now about four p. m., and we are yet stationary. The pilot has just 
remarked that there is a prospect of a good wind at sundown, and 
that he should take advantage of it. I hardly know whether to feel 
pleased or sorry. At first, I thought I would not care if something 
should detain us, so that I might go back and take a " genuine " leave 
of you. But I have concluded, as we are all on board and fairly off, 
that we had better remain so until we arrive here on the homeward 
voyage. 

It is now between nine and ten o'clock in the evening, and there is 

a prospect of our remaining here all night. The motion of the vessel 

here is anything but agreeable, chained as she is by the head, and 

rolling from side to side. I am not yet sea-sick, but I perceive some- 

2 



14 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

thing a little peculiar, -which admonishes me that I had better get into 
my berth in anticipation. The other two passengers have been gone 
some time to theirs; so, " good-by " once more. The cakes, pre- 
serves, &c, with the notes from L., M., H., S., and mother, are 
received ; but I have hardly noticed them yet. I hope when I return, 
as I trust I may, that I shall find you all well, — the same as I leave 
you. 

May 9th. — Here we are in the same position this morning at five 
o'clock that we were in last night. They are now hoisting anchor 
for another move. The wind is in the east against us, and it begins 
to rain a little. I am afraid we shall have a bad time in getting 
out. 

The ship is now under way, and the pilot is attempting to take 
her " outside." There is considerable motion to the vessel this morn- 
ing. My stomach feels in a precarious condition, and my head sym- 
pathizes not a little. My movements are not very graceful when I 
attempt to walk, but I hope to get over this kind of feeling in the 
course of a week. 

Messrs. Rotch. and Dane, my fellow-passengers, are preparing 
notes to send home by the pilot, as that will be their last opportunity. 
Neither of them yet complain of sea-sickness. The captain expects it, 
and is promenading back and forth on deck to ward off its effects for 
the time. 

Half past eleven o'clock a. m. — The pilot says he shall leave the 
ship to the captain after we have gone a mile or two further. The 
captain is, so far as I can judge, a pleasant man. He insisted yester- 
day upon our going into the cabin and taking a glass of beer in each 
other's company, at the commencement of our voyage, and he gave, as 
a sentiment, " Hoping that we may all continue in harmony with 
each other, from the first to the last of the voyage." We all, of course, 
concurred in that sentiment. Mr. Rotch and Mr. Dane appear very 
agreeable and well-disposed so far. We have pretty thoroughly used 
up the time in conversation, and have become quite well acquainted. 
I think we shall remain on the best of terms with each other. 

We are off now, at the rate of seven miles an hour, with most of 
the sails set. There were a number of articles I intended to have pro- 
vided myself with, but could only think of them when out of reach 
of the wharf. I find the pen from J. comes into use very soon. 
The ring from E. B. looks well, though I have not much fancy for 
jewelry. E. C. B.'s pencil is very convenient in taking notes, &c. 
But the pilot is off, and the notes must go. Adieu — again adieu ! 

B. L. B. 

Boston Bay, Tuesday, May 9th. — Here I will commence a little 
journalizing of our voyage — that is to be — to China. 

The " Thomas W. Sears " is considered a first-class vessel — a ship, 
I think they said, of about eight hundred tons. Captain Graves, 
from Salem, has the reputation of being a good seaman, and fully 
competent to the command. Mr. Hood, of Salem, and Mr. Burgess, 



OFF CAPE COD. 15 

of Barnstable, are the first and second officers, and are competent to 
the discharge of their duties. With these, and twenty fine, hardy 
sailors for a crew, we, the three passengers, think we shall not 
regret having committed ourselves to their care for the next four 
months. 

Yesterday we left Boston, and for this whole long day we have been 
sailing — sailing — sailing! Now, at evening, we are leaving Cape 
Cod behind us, — a blue bank in the distant western horizon. 

I arose early this morning, and the first thing I knew, after turning 
out of my berth and stepping upon the floor, was that I had landed 
against my state-room door. What does all this mean ? thought I. 
Before I could fairly recover myself, I pitched against it again ! 1 
sprang and clenched my berth-board with both hands, thinking that 
my head was out of its equilibrium. On looking about, I discovered 
where the trouble was. My head was right, but a strong side-wind 
caused the vessel to careen towards the opposite side ; so that, if I 
attempted to walk, I must lean backward, or be pitched headlong for- 
ward. " No wonder that I fell against the door ! " thought I, endeav- 
oring to excuse myself for such an act ; and it was with no little 
difficulty that I succeeded in washing and dressing. All day we could 
not get over the singular sensations produced by being obliged in 
the cabin to lean forward when walking one way, and backward 
when walking the other. It was like going against a powerful 
wind. 

At eight o'clock we breakfasted, and the table was so much canted 
on one side that a rack was necessary to keep the dishes from sliding 
off. It was made of thin pieces of wood crossed and standing edge- 
wise, forming rows of squares, which, fastened on the table, receive 
the dishes. There was, now and then, some motion, and I could not 
help often thinking, " Well, this is not quite like breakfasting at the 
Winthrop House, those comfortable quarters which I have so re- 
cently forsaken ; but we are in for it." During the forenoon, the 
pilot delivered up his charge of the vessel, and the captain assumed 
the command. 

At half-past one we dined : had a very good dinner of soup, roast 
beef, potatoes, hard crackers, pickles and pudding. During our meal 
an amusing incident occurred, though, at first, it was a little startling. 
We had come to the pudding, which looked very nice. On tasting, it 
was very sour. We looked at each other to see who would speak first, 
and proceeded to eat. One remarked to another, 



16 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

" What kind of pudding is this ? " 

" This has a queer taste ! " 

" It is very sweet ! " 

" It is very sour ! " &c. 

We continued to eat of it, though it was so rich that we could eat 
but little at a time. We thought it might be made tart by lemons, 
and we called it pretty good. The captain was also at a loss. Per- 
ceiving that it produced a strange sensation in the throat, all stopped 
eating to consider. No one spoke; but, from the peculiar look of 
countenance, it could be easily seen that each had " poison" in his 
mind. The captain called out to the black — 

" Steward! " 

" Sir," was the answer. 

" Here," says the captain. 

" Ay, ay, sir," answered the steward, entering the cabin. 

" What did you make this pudding of ? " 

" Rice-flour and eggs, sir." 

" How many eggs did you put in ? " 

" Four, sir." 

" Well, you must not use the eggs so fast ; we shall want some to 
boil, by and by. What else did you put into the pudding ? " 

" Nothing, sir." 

" Yes, you have ; the pudding is sour." 

" Well, I do not know what it is, sir. I put in nothing else, sir." 

Mr. R. thought it must be made of lemons. I said I thought the 
flour might be sour ; but revolved in my mind that some bad mistake 
might have been made, and tried to think in what part of my trunk 
the emetics were packed, for they might be needed. We concluded, 
however, to have the flour examined, and further eating was suspended. 
The steward brought the box of flour which he had used ; I tasted it, 
and it was sour, sure enough. On further examination, it proved to 
be cream of tartar ; the steward had used cream of tartar instead of 
flour ! We all burst into a laugh, and the other box was brought. It 
was marked " rice-flour," and, on tasting, proved to be such. We 
proceeded with our dinner, and made a good finish with a pudding 
made of eggs, sugar and cream of tartar, and concluded that no medi- 
cine was necessary. The steward slunk away, ashamed of the blunder 
he had made. 

Towards evening, we saw the last of Cape Cod. As the land dis- 
appeared, we gazed on it till even the blue haze which surrounded it 



AT SEA. 17 

was no longer visible. Casting some expressive glances at each other, 
and drawing one long, deep breath, expressive of " Well, it is all gone, 
— all is water, and there is no help for it now," we turned our backs 
on the scene, and responded to the steward's call of ; ' Gentemum, 
tea's, sirs, ready ! " 

We sat down to the table, and were all satisfied with a cup of tea 
and a piece of hard biscuit. Milk we had no longer on board, and 
had to drink our tea without it. This, with the rebellious state of 
our stomachs, and the sickening heavings of the vessel, produced 
rather a solemn cast of countenance at the moment of swallowing. 
We tried to force ourselves into a happy frame of mind ; but, as soon 
as a smile or laugh had passed, the solemnity of our feelings would 
succeed. A few minutes at the tea-table were sufficient, and to 
attempt to stand upon the rocking floor was out of the question. We 
were glad to repair to our berths, where we could lie down, believing 
that even there we should find quite motion enough for us new begin- 
ners at sea. 

After dinner to-day, while lying an hour or two in my berth, I 

dreamed that we were just leaving the harbor, and that Sister C , 

who has been dead several years, appeared to me. Her form was 
white and flowing, her step quick, and her motion wavy like a feather. 
She seemed to emerge from darkness, stood by me, and talked to me 
of the voyage I was about to take. I was so surprised at seeing her 
that I did not reply, and the thought never occurred to me that she 
had been dead. She gave me several kisses, and was passing on as if 
she had something important to do. I then endeavored to speak, and 
ask her to stop, that I might talk a little with her. She shook her 
head, and I clasped my arms around her to detain her ; but she passed 
from me, and disappeared like a vapor. I awoke at the moment, and 
it was almost impossible to persuade myself that I had been dreaming. 
Even now, I hardly realize, so vivid is it on my mind, that it was more 
of a dream than a reality ; and it brings strongly to my remembrance 
the understanding she in life made with me, — " that whichever of us 
might die first should appear to the other, if in any manner per- 
mitted in the spirit-world." 

At Sea, Wednesday, 10th. — Early this morning I arose ; but, recol- 
lecting the adventure of yesterday, I looked first to see where and how 
I was going to land, keeping my hand hold of something firm as I 
attempted to move, and fell against the door lightly. I went on deck, 
and, the sun shining brightly and the air being cool, I enjoyed a little 



18 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

promenade with the captain. Casting my eyes around, I could see 
only one broad expanse of water, and a few scattering sails in the 
horizon. We were sailing along very well, at seven knots an hour, 
but with a rolling, disagreeable motion. I soon returned to my berth, 
and there spent the day, with the exception of an occasional visit on 
deck, by way of change. My two companions I scarcely saw, they 
also remaining quiet in their rooms. None of us appeared at the 
dinner-table ; and the captain told us that he did little more than to 
go through the forms of eating, and afterwards did not retain what 
he had taken. As I lay in my berth, I well knew, from certain sounds 
issuing from the cabin, that others were in full sympathy with him. 
I was not sick, but giddy, with a sensation of great disgust towards 
myself. 

Thursday, 11th. — "We were up at seven. All night long I was 
rolling about in my berth according to the vessel, first on one side and 
then on the other, and I am more tired than I was last evening. The 
timbers over head were constantly creaking and squeaking, as if their 
joints must soon open. There was no sleep for me, nor was I suffered 
to remain long enough in one position to fall asleep. The articles of 
my wardrobe, hanging on the walls of my room, had a curious appear- 
ance, swaying back and forth with the regularity of a clock pendulum. 
This swinging roll of the ship has become very tiresome, to say nothing 
of the sensation it produces. I should very much like to have it stop, 
and give me a respite for half an hour. I can only compare it to the 
see-saw we used to practise when little boys, with a board laid across 
the fence. Now the same sensation of going up and coming down, of 
sidling around, and the continuation of this night and day, is what 
we should like to be rid of ; but we must submit to it. We are sailing 
eight knots an hour to-day, having gained one mile an hour since 
yesterday. 

LETTER TO A BROTHER. 

At Sea, May 12th. 

Dear Brother A : With a disagreeable nausea about me all 

day, I have spent much of the time in promenading the deck, and in 
endeavoring to throw off the ugly feelings which crowd upon me. To 
remain below, unless lying in the berth, tends to increase rather than 
diminish these sensations. I have interested myself much in watching 
Mother Carey's chickens, as they skim over the waves, rising and 
falling with the water, and following in the wake of the vessel. 

The barometer this morning fell rapidly, indicating a storm at 
hand. Preparations have been made accordingly, in anticipation of it. 



GULF STREAM. 19 

The carpenter was sent for, who came with nails, cleats and hammer, 
and went through all our state-rooms and the cabin, fastening trunks, 
boxes, &c, and adding an extra side-board to the berths. All the 
crockery and articles likely to be broken are put into good trim. 

It is near night, and things begin to assume a foreboding aspect. 
We are in the Gulf Stream ; the wind increases ; the seas mount 
higher ; the hens are screeching ; the pigs squealing ; and the ocean 
is in a state of agitation. The captain looks at the barometer, which 
every hour continues to fall ; and he seems to be exercising more than 
ordinary care on deck. There is little in the sky to indicate bad 
weather ; yet there seems an influence pervading the air indicative of 
some change. In the midst of the excitement, noise and motion, I 
must suspend further writing until to-morrow. 

Saturday, 13th. — I was on deck with the captain a part of last 
evening. From the afternoon the storm went on increasing, until we 
had a gale, which lasted until this morning. The captain did not 
seem alarmed, but looked anxious. As for myself, I could not help 
thinking that we were in a critical situation, but thought I would not 
be the first to take alarm, especially before the captain had expressed 
any fear himself. The waves ran very high, and were constantly 
increasing in size and frequency. I stood where I could hold on well, 
and observed them with much interest. The ship was kept on her 
side by the force of the wind, and would rise and sink with the waves 
about twenty feet ; and then she would plough through the sea, 
making the water boil and foam. It was a grand sight to see her 
lifted upon the top of a wave nearly erect, then to reel one side and 
plunge as if she was a living being, and had received a wound that 
made her desperate. 

After a while I changed my position, and sat on the leeward side of 
the vessel, where I remained for half an hour. There, as she plunged, 
I could touch the water with my hand, and could observe the waves 
chasing each other. They would come, one after the other in suc- 
cession, from ten to fifteen of them in a minute. At a short distance, 
they seemed as if they would sweep over and annihilate the vessel ; 
but as they neared, she would gradually rise upon their tops, and 
they would pass beneath. I sat there, very quietly, observing a scene 
such as I had never witnessed before. The rage of the sea was yet 
increasing, but I was in what I considered a safe position for holding 
on. Presently I heard the captain's voice above the tumult of the 
waves, and the next moment I was immersed in a sea which had 
broken over the decks. For a few moments it seemed as if I had been 
crushed, and that I was in the ocean. I clung to a large spar and 
ropes, and, the sea having passed, I found myself safe on board. This 
was the first experience I ever had that falling water had any per- 
ceptible weight. I did not tarry for a repetition of the bath, but 
retreated with haste to the cabin. On informing the captain that I 
had the benefit of that sea, he said it was a chance that I had not 
been carried overboard ; and, had he known that I was on deck, he 
should have warned me of the danger. He had observed the sea 



20 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

advancing with threatening aspect, and, supposing the passengers to be 
in their rooms, had cried out for the crew to secure themselves. 

Returning to my berth, I lay down in my wet clothes, feeling any- 
thing but safe. The vessel rolled from side to side, and seemed almost 
to jump from one sea to another. The timbers creaked and strained 
as if they would separate. Suddenly there was a tremendous crash, 
which made the ship tremble as if she was breaking up, and the water 
came rushing down into the cabin ; but it was only another sea which 
had fallen upon the decks. 

About eleven o'clock at night I again crawled out upon deck, and 
laid hold of a rope. Ah, what a scene was this ! Noise, tumult and 
confusion, reigned abroad ! Yet everything about the ship went on 
like clock-work. The captain, perfectly calm, stood on the deck, 
giving orders. With lungs stentorian, he raised his voice above that of 
the raging elements, which seemed to vie with him as to which should 
be master. To me not a word was intelligible ; but the sailors' accus- 
tomed ear quickly understood, and they executed their duties with 
the necessary despatch, cheerful and happy even to merriment, for 
they directly broke out into a wild sailor's glee, which, in the con- 
fusion of noises, fell on the ear as if in mockery of the commingled 
elements. In the raging storm they knew no fear. They sprang into 
the rattlings with as much security as if the sun was shining, and all 
was calm and quiet. The scene before me was grand, and excitingly 
impressive. I felt sad, and I felt happy. I could laugh or I could 
cry, and yet I did neither. It was of that strange mixture of feeling 
and sensation which I cannot describe. I gazed out upon the broad 
expanse as far as vision could penetrate, with intense interest. What 
a troubled mass of roaring billows ! It seemed as if all the imps of 
the lower regions had been let loose to stir up, in the watery world, 
such a commotion : that old Neptune and Eolus had actually combined, 
and were about to make an attack in concert. Eolus furiously spent 
his energies on the sails and masts, while Neptune charged upon the 
hull with equal determination. The storm tore through the rigging 
with its mournful howls and shrill whistlings, vainly endeavoring to 
strip her of her thin covering ; while the battering engines below 
made her groan and tremble fore and aft. Long lines of merciless 
waves, with curling tops, rushed onward in quick succession, and 
poured upon her their devoted might. 

I retreated to the cabin ; and what a state of things was there ! 
Life seemed to have endowed everything which before we supposed 
inanimate. Boxes were skipping and shuffling from one side of* the 
cabin to the other ; barrels were unloosed, and rolling back and forth 
between decks ; crockery and glass-wares had broken into each other's 
dominions, and were keeping up a great jingling with their destruc- 
tive propensities ; bottles and tin dishes were banging at each other 
in mortal strife ; lamps were whirled from the table almost as fast as 
they could be replaced ; and the barometer, suspended from the ceil- 
ing of the cabin, was cutting the air to and fro with evident reluctance. 
Looking into my state-room, everything inside seemed to be in motion, 
and the tilings on the floor were perfectly crazy, having a regular 



STORM AT SEA. 21 

dance together. There I detected my black beaver and the old white, 
my umbrella, cane, boots and shoes, bundles, flute, books and bottles, 
trunks and boxes, in perfect recklessness going up and down, right 
and left, balance, turn off, first one then the other. It being as much 
as I could do to take care of myself, I turned away from them in dis- 
gust. I should have attempted to pick them up, but I thought I 
might have to gather up myself as often as them, and at some risk of 
my bones ; besides, I knew that there was no place in which they 
would stay except on the floor, and I did not interrupt their happiness. 
When I heard the confused and deafening roar without, and the 
crashing sounds within, as if reducing all to chaos, I shrank back 
with many conflicting thoughts and doubts of security, and clung to 
the door. We could stand hardly better than if inside a water-wheel, 
and the ship seemed to be tossed and hurled about like a large hogs- 
head, so little impression did it make on the rolling seas. 

In my berth I was obliged to batten myself in with pillows, boxes, 
coats, &c, and I found it necessary to brace with my knees, press 
with my feet, and cling with both hands, to prevent being thrown out. 
At times I stood in my state-room doorway, holding onto both sides, 
watching and listening. It did not seem possible that the creaking 
and working timbers could hold together much longer. I cast my 
eyes many times at different places, wondering how they could 
bear such wrenches without giving way, and expecting to see the joints 
actually open. I presume I was some alarmed, as I had taken out 
my life-preserver ; but I knew that everything had been made as 
secure as possible, and an occasional glance at the captain's face told 
me that he had no fear, though he had anxiety, and if we were to be 
lost, nothing more could be done to avert it, and we might as well go 
down calmly as to go frightened out of our senses. I could not, how- 
ever, but believe that, if the vessel did not go to pieces, it would be a 
wreck before morning ; yet I kept my thoughts to myself, while my 
ears were filled with the din around me. The mournful whistlings of 
the wind through the sails, its dead, low hum through the rigging, 
the water rushing sullenly past us, striking against and breaking over 
the vessel, the waves splashing one upon the other, with the jar and 
tumble as she plunged her bows into a sea, the pigs squealing, hens 
squalling, lumber rattling, the heavy tramping of feet on deck, and 
the tumbling of boxes and barrels, the cries of the sailors as they 
pulled the ropes, and the loud, grum voice of the captain as he poured 
forth his orders, all blended with the heavy, dismal roar of the ocean, 
were really startling. Suffice it to say that the old T. W. resisted the 
enemy, and sustained herself throughout in a manner highly worthy 
of her good reputation. The storm had been indicated for a day or 
two, the sailors foolishly say, by Mother Carey's chickens following in 
the wake of the vessel. The lightning was very vivid last night, ac- 
companied with thunder. We have another blow this evening. The 
captain says that we shall be more free from these squalls when we 
leave the Gulf Stream. We were, of course, all happy to hear that. 

We have thus had a little experience of sea life, the first week out. 
My two companions are heartily sick of it, and I cannot say that I 



22 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

enjoyed it very much, though I have no wish to give up the voyage, 
as they say they would like to do. My impression is that if they 
were on shore just at this time they could not be induced to go on 
board again. 

I shall transmit these journalizings by the first vessel we speak that 
will stop long enough for me to get them on board. I now feel as if 
the experience of this storm will very much, if not quite, remove any 
fear of future storms at sea. Yours, truly, 

B. L. B. 



CHAPTER II. 

SUNDAY AT SEA. THE NAUTILUS. SEA FARE. — ALTERCATION ON SHIP- 
BOARD. FLYING FISH. THE BOOBY. A SCHOOL OF PORPOISES. 

Sunday, May l&h, latitude 38° 2' north, longitude 58° 24/ west. — I 
went up on deck before breakfast, and it looked like Sunday. The 
sun shone clear and warm, and the sea was little disturbed. Not a 
breath of wind whistled through the sails, and none of the usual noises 
of the sailors were heard, as on other days. There was only for a 
while the sound of the pump. The sailors were taking turns, two at 
a time, to free the vessel of water in the hold ; for she had sprung a 
small leak during the storm of the other night. I read a few chapters 
in the Bible, and some of the periodicals which my friend, E. S., Esq., 
had kindly furnished me. I was quite fatigued with the exertion that 
had been necessary during the whole night to prevent myself from 
rolling backwards and forwards in my berth, and which, after all, I 
did not succeed in accomplishing. This eve it began to blow pretty 
hard, with a violent rain-storm. It poured down finely. The wind 
is dead ahead, from the south-east, and it has been so calm during the 
day that we have made scarcely any progress. The captain was on 
deck, with his India-rubber coat, boots and hat, in all the storm, 
taking charge of the ship. 

Monday, May 15th. — The morning seemed inviting to sleep. We 
had a fine breeze all day, and we go ahead nicely. Read the biog- 
raphy of Herman Blennerhassett, and was much interested in it. 
This evening is a beautiful moonlight. We went on deck and tried 
to sing some, but did not accomplish much. The sailors had some 
music with flutes and accordeons, which sounded very well at night. 



ship's bells. 23 

We enjoyed ourselves for an hour together ; and this is the first 
evening we have been able to do that. 

Tuesday, May l§th. — We are now nearly in the latitude of Wash- 
ington, D. 0. We have had a fine run, and are more than a thousand 
miles from Boston. The weather is very pleasant. Our living con- 
tinues good. At breakfast to-day we had fried ham and eggs, johnny- 
cake and butter, hard crackers, and coffee without milk. I have taken 
a dislike to coffee and tea lately, even the smell now being disagreeable, 
and often nauseating. How long such feelings will remain I cannot 
say, but I drink only water at present. For dinner we have soups, 
baked beans, roast chicken, potatoes, hard crackers, and fried pan- 
cakes, eaten with sugar and butter ; and for supper, cold meat, baked 
beans, and buttered toast of crackers. This last appears to be the 
universal bread on shipboard. The captain is ill this evening with 
rheumatism, has taken colchicum, &c, and gone to bed under the 
influence of hot tea for a sweat. Mr. D. is ctill quite unwell from 
sea-sickness. Mr. R. is much better, and my giddiness is improving. 
We enjoyed a portion of the latter part of the evening on deck, chatting 
of home and friends. All was quiet and still, save the creaking of 
our own vessel as it rolled on the swells. We seemed to be in the 
centre of all things, enclosed by the sky above and the water below, 
limited to the circular horizon only. A few strains of my flute 
sounded prettily as they were wafted in gentle undulations upon the 
air. 

Wednesday, May 17th. — The striking of the ship's bells at eight this 
morning called us up. These are struck at every half-hour during 
the night and day. The whole twenty-four hours are divided into six 
watches of four hours each, commencing at twelve, four, eight, and 
twelve again. Each watch commences with one bell for the first half- 
hour, two for the second, three for the third, and so on up to the 
eighth. For instance, if it is half-past twelve, night or day, the man 
at the helm strikes the bell once ; if it is one o'clock, two bells ; half- 
past one, three bells ; and at four o'clock, eight bells. Again, when 
it is eight o'clock, morning or evening, or at noon or midnight, the 
bell is struck eight times, and the intermediate hours made to corre- 
spond. So we say that we rise at seven bells (half-past seven), break- 
fast at eight bells (eight o'clock) ; dine at three bells (half-past one) ; 
and take tea at four bells (six o'clock) . The object of the bells is for 
the regulation of the crew, and that all on board may know how the 
time is going. When the helmsman strikes the bell, it is imme- 



24 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

diately answered with the same number of strokes by another in the 
forward part of the ship. 

We arose this morning refreshed, for the first time, with a fine rest 
and sleep. As each of us remarked on it, we concluded it was one of 
the greatest of luxuries ; and the captain, being well of his rheumatism, 
joined with us in the same opinion. 

Thursday, May 18th. — Arose at four bells (six o'clock), and took a 
promenade on deck. It is very mild, but nothing can be seen save the 
sky and the broad ocean, as far as the eye can reach. I have, every 
day for a week, been watching for a sail, but in vain ; there are none 
within the scope of our vision. Read for several hours the Exploits 
of General Scott. 

Friday, May \§th. — At seven bells arose, and went on deck to take 
fresh air, and to look about before breakfast. Our vessel is speeding 
along at a great rate. The wind had a reinforcement during the 
night, and now comes with redoubled power. For several days we 
have passed large quantities of a substance called the gulf- weed, 
which comes from the Gulf of Mexico, being brought out by the Gulf 
Stream. The first officer said that some flying-fish were about, but I 
watched for some time, and could see none. I have seen nothing of 
Mother Carey's chickens for several days. Many sailors suppose these 
birds to be the spirits of their comrades lost at sea, and they have a 
superstitious fear of injuring one of them. In their belief, it would 
be as well to give up the ship to the mercy of the waves as to destroy 
one of them, certain punishment being the consequence. One of the 
men has so joined the two ends of a rope, making it an endless rope, 
that we cannot detect the joint. There is considerable ingenuity 
among sailors. We have had a discussion on the differences of religious 
belief, and left off much as we commenced, as is generally the case in 
all controversies on such subjects. 

Saturday, May 20th, latitude 30°, about that of New Orleans, lon- 
gitude 39°, near the middle of the Atlantic, seventeen hundred and thirty- 
eight miles out. — Read to-day the " Dark Lady of Doona." In the 
afternoon we were visited by a black squall, with heavy showers. It 
appeared very threatening, and the captain had the sails taken in, 
preparatory to its approach. But it did not blow very hard. We are 
all pretty well now, except Mr. D., who does not get over his sea- 
sickness ; he still continues to keep his berth a great part of the time. 

Sunday, May 21st. — This Sunday is very much like the last. There 
is. little wind, and little motion to the ship, and the water is almost 



THE NAUTILUS. 25 

still. The sun shines warm and pleasant, but I have not yet seen it 
shine as clear as on the land. I suppose that this is owing to evapora- 
tion from the great extent of water exposed to the air. We cannot 
here see people going to church to-day, nor hear the ringing bells ; yet, 
on looking around, and seeing all so quiet on board, busy with their 
books, we are reminded that it is Sunday. 

After trying a long time, I caught a piece of the gulf-weed, and 
examined it. It looks very pretty as we float past it, though it appears 
to float past us. We see large quantities of it to-day. It has little 
water-berries upon it, and runs something like a strawberry-vine, or 
woodbine, before the leaves appear. In the water it resembles large 
pieces of sponge, and is of a golden color. Saw numerous (so called) 
" Portuguese men-of-war," or a species of nautilus, sailing on the 
water. They look very pretty, like a sail in miniature. They float 
on the water, with the sail above them, apparently regulating them- 
selves to the wind, according to the direction they wish to go. 

Read temperance stories and the Bible during the day. 

Monday, May 22d. — The day is beautiful. The weather is so 
mild and warm that I slept last night with my window open. From 
the deck may be seen, under sail, many of those beautiful Portuguese 
men-of-war. I attempted, with a pail let down by a rope, to capture 
one. After repeated trials for more than an hour, I succeeded. The 
captain and some of the sailors immediately cautioned me against 
touching certain parts of it, which, they said, were full of stings. 
These parts resemble a bunch of silken cords of a burning red color, 
from two to twelve inches long, and covered with a thin, transparent 
membrane. They form a gelatinous mass about the body, or sepa- 
rating into longer or shorter fibres, which they drag after them like so 
many little streamers. The sail part looked like a handsome shell, but 
was a white, delicate, satin-like membrane, filled with air, reflecting 
rich prismatic colors. The large ones are about the size of a triangle 
five inches high, and the smaller like pea-buds just blossoming. The 
body part is a mass of unshapen, pulpy substance, of the texture of 
the blood-sucker, but of a purple color. It is, however, destitute 
of stings ; but those parts are of a poisonous nature, which produces 
the smarting and burning. I read to-day in the Letters of John 
Adams. 

This afternoon, as far as we can see, the surface of the ocean is 
completely studded with these nautili ; they are little things, much 
smaller than those above described, and can hardly be called " men-of- 
3 



26 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

war," — perhaps they would be better denominated Portuguese sloops- 
of-war. I presume they cannot sail so fast as the larger ones, their 
pioneers, which accounts for their always bringing up the rear. For 
the first hundred miles only the larger ones appeared, then the next 
in size, then a size still smaller and lastly, came those still smaller, 
— all covering a surface several hundred miles in extent. On deck in 
the evening, one of the young sailors — Daniel Dana — came and 
played to us on the accordeon for an hour. It is a beautiful evening. 
The stars, like glittering diamonds, ornament the broad canopy over 
us. 

Tuesday, May 23d. — Arose at six o'clock. Before breakfast, I 
stitched up and dressed a wound in the first officer's hand, he having 
cut himself, and severed a small artery. 

A vessel passed three or four miles to the north of us. When she 
reached the nearest point, we raised the American colors, which were 
immediately answered by the British flag. We had been on the watch 
to see which should discover the first vessel ; but the credit of this one 
fell to the captain. About two hours later, I perceived a mote in the 
horizon, which shortly proved to be another vessel, which passed five 
or six miles to the south of us. The day has been pleasant, and the 
sea pretty smooth. 

Latitude between 2G° and 27° north. 

I read in the Letters of John Adams, and am much interested in 
them. I wish that I had also the Letters of Mrs. Adams, though I 
have a very good stock of others, — light reading, medical and scientific. 
The nautili have nearly all disappeared. They are now so reduced in 
size as to resemble pea-buds floating on the surface of the water, and 
are unable with their tiny sails to keep up with the larger ones ahead. 

Wednesday, 24/A, latitude 23° north. — We are near the tropic of 
Cancer, — about the latitude of Cuba. We have now entered the 
regular trade-winds, and can reckon on a steady and favorable breeze. 
They have taken us along at a fine rate to-day. The weather is 
excellent, and our thick clothes are not uncomfortable. The passen- 
gers are agreeable, the captain cheerful, the officers respectful, and 
the crew orderly. We have enough to eat and drink, plenty of time for 
sleep, and all goes on harmoniously, even down to the pigs and hens. 
But I should like to go on shore to stretch myself and turn round once 
or twice on the land, where there is plenty of room. To be cooped 
up here in so small a space begins to be a little irksome. I must say 
that I do not like it ; but I presume we shall get accustomed to it in 



MONOTONY OF THE SEA. 27 

time. I read to-day from the " Diary of a Physician," and in the 
morning saw a flying-fish. This evening one of the young sailors — 
before named — came aft, and played to us a while on the accordeon. 

Thursday, May 25th. — Arose at seven bells, and took a promenade on 
deck, where I go every morning, before breakfast, to gaze around upon 
the desert sea in search of new objects, and also to look for sharks. I 
wish to see one of these animals taken, and the captain thinks I shall 
be gratified before the voyage is ended. 

After breakfast, with a pail and a rope, I went to the vessel's side, 
and, throwing the pail over, set about catching some little animals 
that were floating on" the water. They were of a purple color, and 
coiled up like a watch-spring or revolving torpedoes. I worked away 
for an hour or more, and succeeded in catching one of them. I was 
then but little better off, for I could not make out what it was, nor 
find any one that could. I did not like to touch it, for it looked as if 
it might be poisonous. I shall dry and preserve it. 

The captain says that to-day, at twelve o'clock, the sun will be 
directly over head. 

Friday, May 26th. — It begins to be a little monotonous. We seem 
to be in the same place every day. From the deck we look out on the 
water, and see that the vessel is sailing. We perceive that she runs 
away from certain waves and bubbles marked with the eye ; that, as 
she ploughs along, she makes the water foam and splash about her 
bows, which it would not do if lying still ; and yet we cannot see that 
she is not this morning in the same place as yesterday, and the morn- 
ing before, and even for the whole week. The horizon looks the same ; 
its distance is the same ; the sky is the same ; the sun, the moon and 
waves, are all the same. There is no land, no house, no tree, no any- 
thing, to show that we are progressing. Like the horse in the tread- 
mill, we keep moving, but do not appear to be making headway. The 
water appears to move past us, but the vessel remains in the same 
place. Still I am contented, knowing that we are speeding on ; that 
we are to-day two degrees beyond where we were yesterday ; that we 
are this day within eighteen degrees of the equator ; whereas, at the 
commencement, we were forty-two distant from it. We do not go 
exactly to the south, but to the south-east. We sail about two hun- 
dred miles a day, but are not two hundred miles nearer our destina- 
tion ; for, governed by the wind, we have to deviate from the direct 
course ; and now we are steering towards the coast of Africa. A 
vessel has just appeared in the horizon, but quickly disappeared, bound 



28 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

towards Havana. We have a strong breeze, and are getting on briskly, 
at the rate of nine knots an hour. 

I commenced reading again the " Dark Lady of Doona," it being 
the second novel I have read during ten years. I read only one chap- 
ter of it a day, my taste being more for facts than fiction. 

Our dinner to-day consisted of baked beans, boiled tongue, baked 
rice-pudding, &c. We live much better on shipboard than I expected 
to, from all the stories I had previously heard. 

Saturday, May 27th. — We are now two thousand eight hundred and 
thirteen miles out. Our latitude is between 15° and 16° north, and 
we are near the Cape de Verde Islands, off the western coast of Africa. 
The air is mild and pleasant. They killed a pig on board to-day, and 
they are supplied with a sufficient number to provide one for every 
Saturday. The vessel makes near ten knots an hour. 

Sunday, May 28th. — Early this morning, at about four o'clock, the 
captain called to us that a vessel was in sight. We were all in our 
berths; but, hearing those startling sounds — "Sail, ho!" — were 
quickly up. The vessel came within about a mile of us, and then kept 
on her way. She contented herself by showing British colors, which 
were answered by the American. I was disappointed in not being able 
to send letters by her. Another vessel appeared soon after, but she 
kept at a distance of several miles. One also appeared in the night, 
and passed nearer to us than any of the others. They all passed on 
the windward side, to the left of us. 

I wrote a letter to S. It is very still and quiet on board, and, 
indeed, seems like Sunday, it being the third one of our voyage. The 
weather is fine, the air mild and soft, and the breeze strong and steady. 
It is less warm than we expected to find it here. I cannot yet drink 
tea or coffee, and the smell of them is quite disagreeable, — the remains 
of my nausea from sea-sickness, though we feel pretty well now, in com- 
parison with the first week. My appetite is about one half as good as 
when on land, and I eat only about half of the extent of my appetite, 
thinking to make myself better by eating less, We are still weak, 
sore and tired, from the movements of the vessel so constantly exer- 
cised upon us. If we lie or sit long in one position, we ache, and 
seem to stiffen to it. Mr. D. is still obliged to maintain a recumbent 
posture ; if he rises, he is sure to be sick. The captain is better off 
than the rest of us ; but we shall, no doubt, soon get used to it. 

While talking with the captain on deck to-day, we heard the cry 
of " Murder, murder ! " We rushed forward, from whence the cry 



A BUTCH SHIP. 29 

proceeded. My first thought was of mutiny, though I could imagine 
no cause for it, and I was determining to go through thick and thin to 
the last, if necessary, for the government of the ship. We soon saw 
that there was trouble among the crew, and one of them had a bloody 
mouth. It appeared that an altercation had arisen between Mr. B., 
the second officer, and one of the sailors. Mr. B. gave the man an 
order for doing something to the rigging, calling him by the name of 
" Pill Garlic." The man was a spruce young sailor, and, feeling 
injured by the epithet, refused to answer to that name. This brought 
B. down on him, and disposed him to cry out " murder" The cap- 
tain told him to behave himself, or he should have a whipping ; that 
it was his business to mind what was told him, whatever he was called 
by. He then took Mr. B. aside, and spoke to him, requesting him, as 
I suppose, to be civil to the men. 

I read to-day in the Testament, and from the " Life of Swedenborg." 

Monday, May 29th. — I was up at sis bells. The weather is very 
beautiful and warm, with a fine breeze. Latitude between 9° and 10° 
north ; longitude 26°. We are now within ten degrees, or six hun- 
dred miles, of the equator, and in less than a week we shall expect to 
cross the line. I thought it would be uncomfortably warm here, but 
it is not. I wear all my thick clothing and flannels. 

A ship appeared in the horizon at about half-past eleven, and met 
us at twelve. She passed but a short distance from us. We bore up 
to her as near as the wind would allow, but she seemed to incline 
away from us. She could have come nearer if she would, for she bore 
off (as the captain said) several points from her course. She hoisted 
the Dutch flag to our Yankee stripes. Captain G. took the speaking- 
trumpet, and, hailing her, called out something with his powerful 
voice. She either could not hear, could not speak, or else did not 
understand English. The two captains contented themselves with 
looking at each other with their spy-glasses, and passed on. The cap- 
tain said that she was the most rusty-looking thing he had ever seen at 
sea. We thought, when this vessel first came in sight, that we should 
certainly send home letters by her ; but, like the others, it proved an 
illusion. I was really excited when I saw her so near. I felt like 
one who had been for a long time alone, wandering in the woods of 
some unknown island, meeting with no living being, and at last to 
have fallen in with a friend. 

I saw yesterday a large sea-bird, called a booby, fluttering and whirl- 
ing about near the surface of the water. I watched its purpose, and 
3* 



30 CHINA. AND MANILLA. 

soon perceived a number of flying-fish, pursued by a large fish of some 
other kind. These, to escape their enemy in the water, were forced to 
take to their Avings, and, the moment they rose from the sea, the 
booby was ready to attack them. Thus, when obliged to flee from 
danger in their own element, they encountered it the moment they 
sought safety in another. And yet they are doubly provided ; for 
nature has supplied them with fins for swimming, and wings for flight. 
I could but pity the poor creatures, and would gladly have given them 
protection. 

The booby is web-footed, and looks like a large hawk. Its name is 
given to it on account of its stupidness in allowing itself to be easily 
caught. This one alighted on board in the evening, and perched on 
one of the boats. We went up and put our hands upon him before 
he would attempt to fly, and caught him, though he used his hooked 
and pointed bill as if in earnest. 

We encountered to-day a school of porpoises, and had to laugh 
outright, they appeared so ludicrously. They acted like a parcel of 
dogs, starting off in company. Sometimes three or four, with their 
noses together, would try to head each other off, and then they would 
swim back and forth, leaping out of the water, whirling one side, or 
around and underneath the vessel, but generally keeping in front and 
dodging about the bows. One of them leaped about ten feet out of 
the water, and turned a complete somerset, coming down and striking 
flat, with a loud splash; then, as if frightened at himself, he scam- 
pered off, and, making a circuit, returned again. They blow in a 
similar manner to the whale, having the spout-holes at the base of a 
long snout. When they come about in the night, their noise is like 
the suppressed breathing of boys in swimming. 

We seem to be advancing into a warmer region. The thermometer 
to-day is 77° F. Another vessel is in sight, about live miles to the 
north-west. We are making ten miles an hour* 

Tuesday, May 30th. — The weather is still warmer, the thermometer 
having risen to upwards of 80°, and this under a clouded sun and 
frequent showers. We all sensibly felt its debilitating effects, and I 
was quite unwell. 

Wednesday, May 31st. — It rained some during the night, with 
hardly any wind. A good part of this day the vessel has been be- 
calmed, rolling lazily from side to side, but with scarcely any move- 
ment ahead. We have had, however, several little rain-squalls, from 
half an hour to an hour each, which sent us along at the rate of six or 
eight knote, and then left us again nearly becalmed, with the weather 



AMUSEMENTS. UNSUCCESSFUL FISHING. 31 

warm and close. This kind of weather is always expected in the 
neighborhood of the equator. The sun was obscured to-day, and, for 
the first time, no observation could be taken, and, therefore, no lati- 
tude was reckoned. I have commenced reading "Jane Eyre," and 
find it interesting. I like to read novels occasionally, yet I cannot 
much approve of them. 

Thursday, June 1st. — None of us, as yet, feel well and strong. Mr. 
D. has grown quite thin, and I find that it requires considerable resolu- 
tion to make the effort to go on deck ; yet we all contrive to do so 
several times each day. We try to vary the monotonous routine of 
the hours, by promenading on deck, reading a while below, and then 
changing again to the deck ; — chatting with each other or to the cap- 
tain, looking at the fowls and pigs, climbing the rattlings, climbing 
out upon the bowsprit, watching the weather, examining the horizon 
for vessels, or searching for fishes and birds. 

At the table we all practise on the cold-water principle, excepting 
the second officer, because we do not yet relish tea and coffee. The 
term " cold water," however, may not be strictly correct in this hot 
climate. I will not complain, so long as it remains as good as it is 
now, but I would give twenty-five cents for one glass of ice-water 
such as I was in the habit of getting at home. It would be a 
luxury ; but luxuries like this are not to be purchased here. "We 
gradually fell off from tea and coffee, one after the other, — Mr. R. 
bringing up the rear, — and now we call ourselves temperance men. 

We have not taken the latitude to-day, the sun being still obscured. 
I have concluded " Jane Eyre ; " it was so interesting that I did not 
like to leave it till I had finished it. In the evening I conversed with 
the captain respecting it, he having read it also. We agreed pretty 
well as to the merits and demerits of its characters. We also played 
three-handed whist. This game has lately become a part of the even- 
ing's routine. Yesterday, for a little variety, I tried my hand at 
fishing. I engaged the mate to fix me up a hook and line, and then, 
during a calm, took my stand on the deck, with a piece of mackerel 
for bait. I threw my line, and, while letting it out and watching the 
bait as it sunk, away went hook, line, bait and all ; the line having 
been rolled up in two or three pieces, and not joined at the ends, 
which I had not examined. Afterwards, again equipped, I tried once 
more. I threw over my line, and waited patiently for half an hour, 
but could not get a bite, not even a " glorious nibble." I persevered 
for another half-hour, with the same success, and then gave it up, 
satisfied with my fishing for the day. 



CHINA AND MANILLA. 



CHAPTER III. 

EQUATOR. CROSSING THE LINE. FERDINAND NARKONA. COAST OF 

BRAZIL. TEDIOUSNESS OP THE SEA. PHOSPHORESCENT APPEARANCES. 

A DREAM. BOISTEROUS "WEATHER, AND TABLE DISCOMFORTS. 

Friday, June 2d. — Since yesterday our course is changed to the 
south-west, towards the coast of South America. Soon we shall be on 
the equator, which is now about two hundred miles further south. 

I finished the two volumes of " J. Adams' Letters," and think I 
have been well paid for reading them. There is so much sense, so 
much principle, so much of reality, about them ; and then he expresses 
so much feeling, — real, ardent, unaffected feeling, — domestic and 
public, true, noble and patriotic feeling, — ever high-minded and firm, 
and yet as humble as a child, — that he seemed to stand with one foot 
on Right, and the other on Principle, immovable from his position. 

Saturday, June ?>d. — We are three thousand eight hundred and 
one miles from home. A vessel had been several miles ahead of us, 
and going the same course, but we passed her during the day. She 
would neither show her colors nor bear towards us to speak us, but 
kept further off. We concluded that she preferred to remain unknown 
rather than to have it said that she was thus outsailed by another 
vessel. We left her five or six miles astern at night. 

This is an exceedingly fine day, with a cool breeze. Thermometer 
stands 85° in the cabin. I wrote to brother J., but the vessel we saw 
gave us no opportunity to send. At evening, went on deck and 
enjoyed a gaze at the stars in the beautiful clear sky. It is a pretty 
sight, at sea, to behold a perfect dome sparkling with glittering gems, 
set upon a circular base of water, our vessel in the centre, and over- 
shadowing us as if for our especial benefit. Its sides seem to extend 
below the water, enclosing within, a large level lake of an exact circle, 
with one solitary object, our ship, floating at its very centre. 

Equator, Sunday, June kth. — Here we are at the equator, at last, 
though there is no perceptible difference to the view. The sun, the sky, 
the sea, the horizon, are all the same ; but the weather is warmer, and 
the sea calmer. We have had a light breeze all day, which makes it 
delightful to sit on deck. The heat is not so great as we expected. 
Thick clothing would not be really uncomfortable, although we have 
put it aside, and all have appeared to-day in thin clothes. In the 



CROSSING THE LINE. 33 

latter part of the afternoon we crossed the equator ; but, as the little 
girl said to her father on a similar occasion, " Though often seen on the 
map, I can't see it here, — Where is it ? " 

There was some talk about a visit from old Neptune and his tribe, 
as is yet customary with many ships, but it was not carried into 
execution. The ceremony goes, I believe, by the name of the " crossing 
of the line." It is conducted by the sailors something in this manner : 
They dress themselves in disguise, with buffalo-skins and other odd 
things, and with painted faces, so as to appear like outlandish giants. 
They let themselves down into the water on the outside. The pas- 
sengers, at a preconcerted signal, are called on deck to see the queer- 
looking people coming out of the ocean. Not suspecting anything, 
they arrive in season to see a strange set of beings clamber up over the 
vessel's sides, dripping with water. The one who personifies old 
Neptune advances and salutes the captain and officers. After a few 
compliments and inquiries about the vessel and voyage, &c, the cap- 
tain making answers to correspond, they take the passengers who have 
never " crossed the line," and apply a lather of warm tar to their 
faces, and shave or scrape them with a piece of rusty iron hoop, — 
unless they choose to ransom themselves by paying money, liquor, or 
whatever is demanded as a substitute by the visitors. Those who have 
before crossed the line are allowed to pass unsubjected to the ordeal. 

We have now encountered a strong current, which sets towards the 
northern coast of South America ; in consequence of which our course 
is towards the coast of Brazil. The captain thinks we may not be 
able to clear that coast without taking a tack to the eastward. 

I have read a few chapters in the Bible, a Christian Register, — one 
of a roll Mrs. C. gave me, — and in the " Life of Swedenborg," with 
which I am much interested. I find that we have lost sight of the 
north star, nor can we see it again till we return to the north of the 
equator. 

Monday, June 5th. — We are now two hundred and forty-eight 
miles south of the equator. The air is clear and breezy. I have 
commenced reading "Don Quixote." The captain thinks that we 
may pass the ' ' Pyramid rock ' ' during the night, and possibly near 
enough to see it. This rock is very high, and inclines as if it would 
fall. It is on the island Ferdinand Narkona. This lone island is 
inhabited almost entirely by Brazilian exiles, the governor himself 
being also an exile. It can be seen at a distance of eight or ten miles, 
has four or five thousand inhabitants, and is defended by fortification. 



34 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

We shall not pass nearer than fifteen miles of it, and therefore shall 
not have the gratification of seeing it. 

Every day my medical works come in for a portion of my reading. 

Wednesday , June 7 th. — It is a queer sensation at sea to awake in 
the morning, or to be half-awake, and be doubtful where you are. 
The other morning, I was thus situated ; I was enough awake to see, 
but not enough to think clearly ; I saw clothing hanging about a little 
room, some books on a little shelf, a little sky-light above, a window 
on the side, and seemed as if some one was shaking the bed. I said to 
myself, " Where am I ? This is not my room in Boston. It is not at 
father's. Is it at Dr. F.'s? No. Where in the world am I? It 
appears to me that I am going up and down ; I must be crazy — and 
yet I know that I am alive somewhere ; it is not at the Winthrop 
House — no ; nor at Mr. M.'s. Did I come out to Quincy last night? 
What sent me out here ? Let me think — how is it ? " 

" Doctor ! " calls a voice to me. 

" Holloa ! " says I, willing to answer some one or to anything. 

" Seven bells," says the steward. 

0, yes ! I know ! here I am, in the old ship, still ; there is no get- 
ting away from that ! 

Friday, June 9th. — Mr. D. does not appear to acquire any fondness 
for the sea, having been unwell all the time since the first day out. He 
says that he would like to be set ashore somewhere, or to get on board of 
a ship home bound. Mr. R. says that he " did not know what it was," 
when he engaged his passage ; that he would like to be " off the old 
sea," has " had enough of it," and had rather be " at home " on his 
farm, in Delaware, where he could drive his horses, and ride in his 
carriage. If I was to give my opinion, I should agree with him. I 
have had about as much of ocean life as I care for. It has become 
quite tedious, and I feel that when through with this voyage I shall 
not very soon want another. Indeed, I should be well satisfied now 
to be somewhere on the land. I see not how any one can take a voy- 
age for the pleasure of it. When a person has rode horseback ten or 
twenty miles, he generally feels like getting clear of the animal, at 
least for a while. That is much as I feel. I should like to stop a 
while, to clear myself from the ship. It would be a relief to rest on 
the land for an hour, and then I would go on again. On board, one 
cannot sit, stand, walk or move, with quiet comfort. If you are seated 
and trying to be quiet, you are tossed backwards and forwards, jerked to 
the right and left, and perhaps whirled round on one leg of your chair ; 



MOULDY CAKE. 35 

or, if you are lying down, it is impossible to keep the same position. 
On the transom, you are going hitch, hitch, until you are sliding 
off, unless you are well braced. In your berth you are often rolled 
out, or, what is nearly as bad, you think you are going to be. If 
you stand still, you cannot tell which way you may go next. Nov/ 
you are on a run-down-hill across the cabin, and then you bring up 
on the table or oyer the settees. When you start you cannot calcu- 
late, for a certainty, where you will land. In walking on deck we 
get along very well ;. for there we can see, as well as feel, the inclina- 
tions of the vessel. 

Our latitude to-day is 12 S., longitude 34 E., and nearly five thou- 
sand miles out. Of late the weather has been squally, with wind and 
rain, and the sea rough. It will toss us about some to-night, but we 
are becoming accustomed to it. 

Sunday, June 11th. — We have another pleasant day for the Sab- 
bath. When I went on deck this morning, the same contrast between 
this and other days of the week presented itself to my mind as there 
always was in Boston. There seemed almost a magical influence 
above and around us, charming everything on board to stillness: and 
so it has continued throughout the day. The weather being about 
the same, no alteration was required in the sails, so that the crew 
spent almost the entire day in reading. 

Monday, June 12th. — The breeze is favorable. I have spent the day 
in reading astronomy, surgery, &c, and have examined my private 
stores. As six weeks had elapsed, I thought it necessary to look after 
the large tea-chest of cake which my sisters provided for me. Thus 
far I have had very little desire for cake or sweets of any kind, and 
instead of sweets I crave something sour. A bottle of nice pickles, 
which I keep in my room, is often in demand. I took out the chest 
and placed it on the table ; all were interested in the contents. We 
opened through the different layers of coverings, and came to the in- 
side, but were surprised to find the top layer all beautifully frosted, 
not with sugar, but with mould. About half the chest was more or 
less tinctured with this frosting, and had to be separated from the rest. 
I sent it forward, and some of the sailors disposed of it, hardly noticing 
it. Of the other, we had some for tea, and it was very good. The 
captain had some very rich cake, which he opened, and found it had 
kept perfectly. He says that, to have cake keep well at sea, it must 
be rich, and have brandy put into it when made. 

A very beautiful phosphorescent appearance of the water, in dark 



36 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

nights, is observed near the equator, extending from one tropic to the 
other. As the surface of the sea is disturbed, it rolls up to view whole 
volumes of little luminous bodies, similar to so many glow-worms or 
fire-flies, as if they were blown up by a blacksmith's bellows. And at 
night the wake of the vessel is like a canal filled with agitated white 
foam , beautifully illumined with sparks and globules of white, sun- 
like fire. 

Tuesday, June \2>th. — Two unknown vessels passed at a distance 
early this morning. We had an animated discussion for several hours 
this evening on the elements of the earth — the comparative extent 
of water, its depth, &c. The opposite argued that where the depth 
of the sea is so great that the bottom could not be sounded, the water 
is continuous to the other side. 

Retired to my berth, and passed a night full of incidents. Me- 
thought I had been travelling two years among the Chinese, and was 
on my way home overland. I called at Constantinople, where I pro- 
posed to stop a month to see the strange things of that city. Among 
the various places of notice was the slave-market. There I saw, 
exposed for sale, thirty slaves, all handsome Circassian females, with 
the exception of two blacks, with curly hair and thick lips ; their 
ages ranging from fourteen to twenty-five years. One of them, about 
twenty years of age, attracted my particular attention. From her 
many pleasing qualities I felt quite an interest in her. To say that 
her beauty influenced me some, I of course could not deny ; but her 
amiable and affectionate deportment did more. I glanced over the 
group, but no one appeared equally interesting. She was modest and 
retiring, blushing, seemingly because of so public an exposure. I 
walked among them, and learning that they were to be sold in an 
hour, I was at the appointed place. Many were the people, mostly 
Turks, who were now examining them. One was looking at a hand, 
another at an eye, another at the hair and teeth, and still others at 
the feet, to see that they were perfect. One apparently suited in every 
particular came behind his choice, unconsciously to her, and snapped 
his fingers near her ear. Satisfied that her hearing was quick, from 
the surprise she evinced, he walked away with an air that said, " Ah ! 
she will do ! " 

I was content to view them at a greater distance, and many painful 
sensations arose in my mind regarding the fate awaiting them. 

I will give a short description of one who pleased me most. She 
was about five feet in height, with form well developed, but deli- 



A DREAM. 37 

cate. Her head was of a medium size, and evenly shaped ; her hair, 
dark and long, hung in thick clusters down her back. The contour 
of the face was oval, and rather long, and wore an expression of sad- 
ness. Her eyes were black, small, but full and piercing ; her eye- 
brows dark and regularly arched ; eyelashes long and curved ; nose 
and chin small and smoothly moulded, and complexion a clear red, 
approaching to a dark brunette. More particulars I will not speak. 
Suffice it to say that amiability of disposition radiated from every 
feature of her countenance, and, had I been making a picture of a 
beautiful creature, I should have made it as like her portrait as pos- 
sible. 

As I gazed on the scene before me, I stood still and reflected. I said 
to myself, "Is it possible that these beautiful beings are to be sold 
for money ; disposed of to persons they know not ; brought from 
their native country to serve in unknown parts ; degraded to a con- 
dition worse than the slaves of our own country ; subjected, per- 
haps, to the will and passion of a tyrant master ? Can it be that they 
are thus to be sacrificed?" Such thoughts occupied my mind for 
some time ; and when I raised my head from the revery into which I 
had fallen, my eyes encountered those of that slave-girl. For some 
moments I could not withdraw them. And what a look she gave me ! 
It penetrated my very soul ! It spoke in volumes and tones not to be 
misunderstood ! With all the eloquence of which silent language is 
capable, it said, " Save me ! 0, save me! Do save me ! " My feel- 
ings keenly responded to the request. I thought again : " How can 
I save you ? What can I do ? That I might change the fate of you 
and your companions is my sincere wish ; but you are doomed to be 
sold a slave, and I cannot prevent it." 

A rustling, humming noise now arose above every other sound. 
The sale had commenced, and all eyes were turned towards the group 
of slaves. A few words, in an unknown tongue, were spoken ; a lit- 
tle delay followed, down went the hammer, and the fate of one was 
sealed ! In the space of a few minutes down again went the hammer, 
and another was gone ; down again, and another. In quick succession 
eight were disposed of. Fifteen were to be sold to-day, and the tenth 
was of particular interest to me. Ten minutes elapsed, and the ninth 
was gone. The ugly-looking Turk auctioneer, as he seemed to me 
now, stepped quickly along, placed one hand on the head of the tenth, 
and with the other raised his hammer high over his turban. Her 
4 



38 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

head was bowed, and resting upon her bosom. A rich red scarf, 
twirled over her forehead, was gathered in folds, and with one hand 
pressed to her chest. Her turn had come to be sold : several bids 
were made. That her fine proportions might be better displayed, the 
auctioneer pulled off her shawl, and in a manner so rough that I was 
much inclined to pull off his large turban also. She raised her eyes, 
which again met mine. There was the same imploring look, but 
mingled with dejected sadness and despair, which said, " Save me ! 0, 
save me ! I have no friends — no, not one ! " I felt myself to tremble 
with emotion ; and I turned and near by leaned on a block of marble, 
that I might the better conceal my agitation. I thought, " What can 
I do ? If I purchase you, you are no better off; you are still a slave. 
If I could marry you, and take you to America, we should both be 
discarded ; and never could I endure to make a servant of you, even 

if I had occasion for one, and " But the sharp tones of the 

auctioneer's voice rose above everything else, though I understood not 
a word he said. 

" How much," said I to the American consul, who had kindly ac- 
companied me, and who stood near — " how much is there bid upon 
her now ? " 

" Just eight hundred dollars," he answered ; " and shall I bid for 
you ? " said he. 

I knew not what to say, but, after some hesitation, the rapid artic- 
ulations of the auctioneer again falling upon my ear, my lips involun- 
tarily allowed to escape the words, " Yes, sir, do so, if you please." 

" Twenty-five dollars a bid," said he to me, " and now it is nine 
hundred. Over there is your opponent, — that Jew." 

I looked, and saw an old, haggard man, dressed in a long robe, with 
a brown turban on his head. He had a gray, flowing beard, which 
fell upon his breast. The bids continued between the Jew and myself 
— all the others stopped at nine hundred. 

" Nine hundred and seventy-five dollars now," said the consifl to 
me. 

I was watching closely, first the auctioneer, then the slave-girl, 
then the Jew, and again my friend. I saw the hammer raised, and 
as if coming down for the last time. 

" Go on," said I to the consul. 

The few remaining moments were a torturing suspense, and ended 
in the consul's saying, 

" Just one thousand dollars, and she is yours." 



A DREAM. 39 

I felt now as badly as before, for I did not know what course to 
pursue with her. The sale being concluded, she appeared in great 
distress, gazing wildly around ; but when she saw me pay the 
money, she became calm, and, for the first time, smiled. I had her 
conducted to the hotel, and a room provided for her, opposite mine. 
We could not understand a word said to each other, and for some days 
I was in much perplexity. I was frequently in her room, and, with 
the aid of an interpreter, I learned much of her history. A more 
beautiful and amiable being I thought I had never met. If she had 
such things as faults, I was too blind to perceive them ; and I resolved 
to marry her, if she would consent, even were I obliged to live in ob- 
scurity the remainder of my life. Happiness was my motto, and the 
proposal was made through the interpreter. In answer, she said that 
she could not believe I was in earnest, for she was nothing but a slave ; 
and could I marry a slave? I said, " I truly am in earnest." She 
then answered, that if I really could condescend to make her my 
wife, she should consider herself very happy, and would go with me to 
any part of the world. 

At the end of a week our marriage took place, and we immediately 
set out to seek a spot secluded from communication with the world. 
In three months we arrived at our destination — an uninhabited island 
in the Indian Ocean, called St. Paul's. Here we lived, somewhat after 
the Robinson Crusoe style, though not in so destitute a condition ; for 
we had anticipated our many wants, and brought a great variety of 
articles for our comfort. We had books, clothes, furniture, axes, 
knives, vegetable and fruit seeds, paper, pens, ink, &c. &c. We built 
two houses, one on the ground to live in during the day, the other for 
the night, upon posts twenty feet high, and made by sawing off the 
tops of trees. At dark we always pulled up the ladder, for we did 
not know what animals might be on the island. We never wanted for 
employment. Each day brought something to occupy our minds and 
hands, either in preparing the land for the little crop, exploring the 
island, gunning, fishing, examining the minerals and ores, the volcanic 
crater, or attending to the various domestic affairs. Still considerable 
time was consumed in reading, writing, &c, and in numerous expla- 
nations to each other in our respective languages. But, should I give 
a full relation of our happy life, I should have to write a volume, and 
imagination must supply the deficiency. You would like, I suppose, 
to know how long we sojourned here in this romantic state. It must 
have been more than six years ; for when we were grouped together, 



40 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

one sunny morning, in front of our little cottage, and my wife, hav- 
ing learned the English language, was engaged in teaching the chil- 
dren, who only knew how to converse in a language half Circassian 
and half English, I remarked to her that our little boy was five years 
old yesterday ; that to-morrow the little girl would be three ; that 
they were now old enough to learn ; that their education would en- 
tirely depend on her, and that, as I should continue to teach her, she 
must teach the children. Conversing on the singularity of our life, 
and of our respective friends at home, she commenced a history of her 
life, previous to the time I first saw her. She had told me of their 
family — their affluence and respectability, the high rank of their rela- 
tions before the wars had impoverished their country, — their " beauti- 
ful Circassia," — the accomplishments of music, languages, painting, 
&c, which her father had bestowed on her ; the wealth of her father ; 
his reduced circumstances and loss of property afterwards ; the dis- 
posal of herself to cancel a debt of five hundred dollars ; the heart- 
rending separation, and her departure for the slave-market at Con- 
stantinople. I was deeply interested in her account, for she had never 
related it before, fearing, as she said, that it might diminish my love 
for her, but which she did not then fear. I was listening with the 
deepest emotions, when suddenly strange sounds seemed to fill the air. 
My senses became confused. I saw ourselves becoming enveloped in 
thick clouds of Avhite vapor. My lovely Circassian wife was sinking 
away from my sight. Children, houses, island and all, were disappear- 
ing together. I sprang to overtake and save them, and, at the same 
time, I fancied I heard, in the midst of all, terms several years before 
familiar to me — 

" Doctor ! Doctor ! " 

The next moment I perceived that I was in a small room, and I 
gazed around in a half-bewildered state. To my astonishment, I found 
myself sitting up in my berth, in my own state-room. In the half- 
opened door was the black face of the steward, with lips stretched into 
an exulting grin, and crying out, for the second time, 

" I say, Doctor ! eight bells — breakfast now." 

And thus the dream of my short-lived happiness terminated by a 
return to the realities of sea life. 

June Wth. — I was thus aroused at eight bells. A vessel has fol- 
lowed astern of us, just in sight, all clay, but could not overtake us ; 
and now she is lost to view. Yesterday I wrote on a piece of paper 
our latitude and longitude, the captain's name and passengers', " all 



MORE DISCOMFORTS. 41 

well," &c, enclosed it in a bottle, and threw it overboard, so that if 
it should get ashore, or be picked up, the vessel might be reported ; 
yet there is little probability of its ever being seen again, though I 
may yet hear from it. There was a sudden squall, with some thunder 
and lightning. We staid on deck to watch the bustling of the crew 
while furling the sails. The squall did not last long, but it rained 
considerably. 

Thursday, June 15th. — The wind is more blustering to-day, and the 
sea more rough, — with a rolling and disagreeable motion, causing the 
water to break over the deck. At the table we have to look out for 
our plates, knives, forks, tumblers, &c, or they are suddenly depos- 
ited in our laps, or are rattling on the floor. Sometimes, while lifting 
food to our mouths, we have to drop our knife or spoon, and catch 
our tumbler or other articles. Occasionally something is thrown from 
the table to the floor, and is broken. In this kind of weather it is 
difficult to do anything by way of pleasure or improvement. I shall 
be glad to reach the end of our voyage. 

At dinner to-day I received in my lap a part of a plate of hot soup. 
One of our number, in biting off a piece of hard cracker, had to drop 
it to catch his plate, which was en route for my lap ; and the cracker 
fell with a splash into the soup, spattering it over us. Mr. R. 
remarked, " Well, this is hard eating. How comfortable it will be to 
get home again, and sit at a table in your own house, where every- 
thing is not on the move ! ' ' 

Several Cape-of-Good-Hope birds made their appearance to-day 
about the vessel, and must have flown a long distance. 



CHAPTER IV. 

SEA-BIRDS OFF THE CAPE. TRISTAN DE ACUHNA. SUNSET SCENE. STORM 

SCENE. CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. THE BLACK CLOUD. BIRDS AND 

FISH. PORPOISE TAKEN. FOURTH OF JULY ON BOARD. 

Friday, June 16th. — The last was the longest night I have yet had 
on shipboard. I was very anxious to get asleep, but could not, such 
was the rolling motion of the vessel ; and my continued efforts to fix 
myself in an immovable position served to lengtheu out the night. 

4* 



42 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

It has been quite rough all day, the sea running high, the vessel 
careening first on one side and then the other, and then shooting down 
the inclined surfaces, and burying her nose in the opposing sea. We 
had to use considerable tact in taking our dinner, such was the tend- 
ency of the dishes to discontinue all connection with the table : as an 
illustration of which, Mr. R.'s tumbler of water went over to the other 
side, and into Mr. H.'s plate and lap. "We have a rack on the table to 
restrain the movements of the articles there, yet they manifest every 
indication of life. At these times the steward holds the pitcher and 
castor, and in that way we use from them. Many things have to be 
dispensed with, or brought on singly and then carried away again 
when used. 

Many Cape-birds follow in the wake of the vessel, though we are yet 
some two thousand miles from the Cape. 

They are the Cape-pigeon, albatross, and other birds, the names of 
which we do not know. I tried to catch some of them with a hook 
and line ; but it was too windy, — they could not seize the bait when 
we were going at nine or ten knots an hour. 

We have made two hundred and thirteen miles, south and east 
during the day. The carpenter has been down and put extra boards 
on our berths, to prevent our falling out. The weather is becoming 
culder as we go south, obliging us to change our clothing again, and 
put on flannel, although it is little more than a week since we put 
on thin clothes. I expect another rough night ; the sea increases, 
though the sky is now clear, after some little rain-squalls yesterday 
and to-day. I reluctantly take to my berth at eleven p. m. ; for the 
sea is tossing us about, as it did the first Friday night, and I do not 
fancy it at all. 

Saturday, June 17th. — Six thousand and ninety-seven miles out. — 
Well, we had last night another Friday night, similar to that the first 
week out, and I could get no sleep. We are now midway between 
Africa and South America, in 29° south, steering towards the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Sunday, June ISth. — I rested well last night, which was quite a lux- 
ury, the sea having gone down in the night. I read in Swedenborg's 
works and the Boston Christian Register, which made me feel at home, 
until something diverted my thoughts, and reminded me where I was. 

Towards night I let my line over, and caught one of the sea-birds. 
I do not know its name ; but it looked like a crow, though larger, and 
web-footed. They are about the size of a young goose, or a full-grown 



SDNSET SCENE. 43 

duck, but are not the albatross, many of which are among them. ■ The 
hook caught in the upper part of its bill, and it was thus drawn up 
easily, though not so easy for the bird. These sea-birds cannot stand 
on the deck. They are so constantly on the water that they have no 
occasion to use their legs, and when they attempt to stand they cannot 
support the weight of their own bodies. As they cannot raise them- 
selves upon their legs, they cannot fly from the deck ; and they 
look amusingly stupid, flapping their wings, vomiting, and tumbling 
about. 

Monday, June 19th. — The weather is quite cold. Our progress to- 
day will not compare well with that of a few days past, when we have 
made in a single day two hundred and thirteen miles. We have sailed 
to-day but ninety miles. The time seems long in getting from the 
equator to the Cape. Cape-birds of several species abound here. 
They follow in the wake of the vessel for the crumbs and offal thrown 
overboard, and manifest very little fear, alighting often under the 
stern, and leisurely picking at their food. At other times they seem 
constantly on the wing. 

Tuesday, June 20th. — The weather is pretty cold, and with Mr. R. 
I have exercised in walking the deck, it being rather cool sitting long 
in the cabin. We have no conveniences for fire, and shall have none 
during the passage, however cold it may be. We are now near the 
island of Tristan de Acuhna. 

Last evening we had a most beautiful sunset. I could but remember, 
what I had often heard, that there " was nothing like the sunsets of 
southern latitudes." And this was the most splendid of anything of 
the kind I had ever seen, not excepting some very beautiful ones from 
the Winthrop House, in Boston. The whole expanse of water within 
the circle of the horizon was enveloped in darkness, except the part 
towards the west. The sun had sunk from sight for an hour. The moon 
had not yet risen. The stars shone brightly out of blackness, and the 
milky-way added only a faint streak to the dark but glittering dome 
which seemed placed over us for the occasion. Beyond a world of 
black massive clouds the rays of the sun were sending upwards a 
flood of blood-red light. The clouds in front presented a bulwark 
dark and threatening, as if to separate this world from that beyond. 
The upper part was a broad, serrated, and broken bank, extending in 
an irregular line ; and over it a black pall was thrown, as if to hide 
from view a portion of the fiery glare, and then behind this, extending 
backward and gradually upward into space, the clouds had assumed 



44 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

the forms of immense boulders of rock-costal. These were of every 
degree of transparencj^, and every variety of color. They were tumbled 
into such positions as to disclose among them gulfs, seas, plains, 
and caverns, deep chasms, ravines and abysses of unfathomable depth : 
some formed themselves into mountains, ridges, and intersecting 
valleys. The contrast between the black barrier in front and the 
indescribable glowing back-ground was exceedingly impressive. The 
rich red and white, and the golden light mingled with the blue, like 
a burning mixture floating within, illuminated the whole to electrical 
brightness. It spread over every surface, and penetrated every object 
with an infinite variety of colors the most gorgeous. Here the huge 
masses were of a deep and fiery red, the color deepening or becoming 
fainter as they extended towards the opposite surface ; and there they 
were yellow, soft, and light. Some were of a glowing white, as if near 
the melting point ; and other portions were of a gaudy, shining tinsel, 
of blue and red, blending into all the various shades of purple, and 
these modified by the fervid hues of yellow. There were the crimson, 
the orange, pink, violet, azure, with all their intermediate tints, in all 
the softness of yelvet ; and some of the clouds were bordered with 
stripes of liquid silver and gold, glistening with great brilliancy. 
This scenery seemed within bullet-shot, and it appeared so hard and 
natural, that, could I get to it, I might enjoy myself in surmounting 
its fairy heights. 

South Atlantic, Thursday, June 22d. — The wind blew strongly last 
night, and has given us a fine run of two hundred and thirty-six miles 
for the last day. The sea has been increasing in its turbulence 
through the forenoon : what it will end in I cannot say. The wind 
also increases in violence, and the waves begin to show some paroxysms 
of a frothy nature. I wish it was in my power to describe the 
appearance of the ocean as it is now to be seen around us, or that I 
could paint a picture of it in its true colors ; but paint cannot exhibit 
motion. 

A storm is evidently brewing. The captain does not mean to be 
caught napping. He has had the sails double reefed, and the ship 
generally put in trim. On deck, boats, hen-coops, pig-pens, &c, are 
all made fast. 

The pigs, partaking of the general excitement, are standing on their 
hind legs, with heads raised above the pens, snuffing the air, and look- 
ing anxiously and inquiringly, as if wondering what all the stir can 
be about. Now and then a volume of spray comes splashing across 



A GALE. 45 

their faces, which causes them, with fitful squeals, suddenly to drop 
their heads and shrink away, apparently disgusted with their life at 
sea. This, however, is the place to expect rough weather ; for we are 
in the dominion of the Cape of Good Hope, which bears such a stormy 
character. 

In the middle of the afternoon, when below trying to read, Mr. R. 
called me from the companion-way to " come up and take a look at 
things now." 

I went on deck ; and what a magnificent spectacle did the ocean 
present ! How truly sublime was the whole scene around ! What a 
turbulent and agitated world of billows ! "With what ferocity did the 
seas form and whirl themselves up, and with what mildness did they 
sink away ! How fawning their curling summits, and how threaten- 
ing their yawning chasms ! But it is mockery to attempt a description 
of the storm. The wind is furious and the waters are mad, is all that 
I can say. And yet, how I like to gaze on it ! I look at it all the 
time, yet I cannot see it enough. For two hours have I gazed, and my 
eyes are not tired. 

How resolutely does the vessel glide along, and dash head foremost 
into the foaming sea ! How desperately does she plunge her head into 
the opposing wave, reeling with the shock as if she would make 
each her last ! And, again, with what recklessness, and yet ease, does 
she sweep her masts from side to side, and strike her spars into the 
water beneath ! 

The gale continued till eight o'clock, when it suddenly ceased, and 
the sea became so calm that we ventured to try a game of whist ; but 
the motion of the vessel made it a short one. At about eleven in the 
evening we again went on deck, and admired the grandeur of the scene 
as it appeared after the storm, spending an hour very pleasantly. It 
is after a storm, more than during its continuance, that the sea appears 
the most dangerous. The billows continue to rise and fall, tumbling 
and splashing in all directions, and lashing each other with utter 
recklessness, with no sympathy for the poor vessel, which now, with- 
out the wind to steady it, is knocked about entirely at their mercy. 
Mr. D. could not enjoy this scene, he being quite sea-sick. 

We have had the wind from the north, which came warm from the 
equator, till now, when we have it as the winter's blast from the 
south pole. The sailors, as they hurried from place to place, were 
drenched through by the seas constantly breaking over. Now and 
then, as the vessel rocked from side to side, she would ship large vol- 



46 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

umes of water, which rolled in torrents the whole length of the deck, 
and occasionally penetrating the cabin. It is very disagreeable on 
board ship at these times. Everything is cold and wet, both above 
and below. 

Friday, June 23c?. — To-day it is cold, the thermometer standing at 
forty degrees Fahrenheit. It is June, and yet we have our great-coats 
on and the cabin-door shut. A few degrees further south, and we 
shall have weather the reverse of that at home — winter in July. 

"We have now some company — many birds following the vessel, 
flying around, and alighting in the water. They are the Cape-pigeon, 
the albatross, and a species of bird that I should call a crow-duck. 

Off Cape of Good Hope, Sunday, June 25th. — Our Sundays seem 
destined to be calmer, milder and pleasanter, than any other days in 
the week, which we all are very glad to see. I read the Christian 
Register, a few chapters in the Bible, and Swedenborg's work on the 
Soul. I am not a Swedenborgian,but like to read his writings. For 
the last two or three days we have made very little progress in sailing. 

Monday, June 26th. — The winds in this latitude are very variable, 
being sometimes rough and boisterous, increasing to a gale, and at 
other time slight and unsteady, or decreasing even to a calm. To-day it 
blows from one quarter, and to-morrow from another. Yesterday the 
wind was from the north, bringing along warm breezes from the 
equator ; and to-day is very comfortable, the wind being from the same 
quarter. 

Wednesday, June 28th. — This is a cold, cloudy, cheerless day, and 
we keep as snug as possible in the cabin ; but I find that the most 
comfortable place is in my own room. However cold it may be, we 
contrive to exercise some on deck every day. 

A large albatross, and numerous other birds, made their appearance 
to-day. I have noticed, for a week past, the " black cloud " (so 
called) , which is seen only in southern latitudes. It appears in the 
south-westerly part of the heavens, about fifty degrees from the horizon. 
It looks like a cave in the sky, as if a portion of the dome, arched 
with bright stars, had been broken out, leaving a deep and black 
cavern. It can always be seen in the evening, when not obscured by 
clouds. I find myself frequently gazing on it, and wondering what 
can be its character. It cannot be a black cloud ; for a cloud cannot 
always remain stationary. I can, or fancy I can, look into it, and see 
a depth, with lighter and darker shades upon its irregular sides, like 
the view of a cave by moonlight. 



ALBATROSSES AND PORPOISES. 47 

Off the Cape, Thursday, June 29th. — We are nearly becalmed, the 
weather is warm and spring-like ; some eight or ten large albatrosses 
are flying around us, and a few birds of other kinds. Every species of 
bird seems to have a distinct province on the ocean, and goes but little 
beyond it. The crow-ducks, and some others, Ave have left to the north, 
and their places are supplied by the silver-bird, about the size of a 
night-hawk ; a large brown bird, of the size of a duck, or larger ; and 
the albatross, which looks something like a goose, and has a white body, 
with dark-colored wings. The wings of the silver-bird, on the under side, 
appear like molten silver when the sun shines on them. A few of the 
Cape-pigeons are still to be seen. They have two prominent white 
spots on each wing, resembling half-moons. Mother Carey's chickens 
have not been seen for a long time. 

I tried a long time to-day to catch one of the large albatrosses with 
a line and hook, baited with a bit of pork. 1 dropped it over the 
stern. One after another of the different kinds of birds flew down, 
until they were a large flock on the water, picking at the bait, cack- 
ling, quarrelling, and screaming. One was soon caught, but before I 
could draw it on deck the hook had pulled from its mouth. Others 
were caught, and escaped in the same way ; and, thinking that I would 
cause pain to no more of them, I amused myself in toling them after 
the vessel, by throwing over crumbs of bread. 

A shoal of porpoises made us a visit to-day. They came around 
twice this afternoon, fifty or a hundred in a shoal. Mr. Burgess 
threw a harpoon into one of them, but before the porpoise could be 
hauled up its weight pulled away from the harpoon, and it escaped. 
The blood poured out of its wounds, and the others immediately gave 
chase (as they always do), worrying the wounded one until it dies. 
A shoal of porpoises is one of the prettiest and most animating of 
sights at sea. They generally appear first under the bows of the 
vessel, sporting with each other like a pack of dogs before a horse. 
They seem to think that the vessel is a big fish of their own species, 
and delight in running just ahead of it, darting back and forth, below 
and upward, beneath the bows, chasing each other around and under- 
neath the vessel. Often, in their excited racings, they leap entirely out 
of the water. (Seep. 30.) They usually remain near the vessel for 
about half an hour. 

We are nearly becalmed this evening, which is very interesting for 
people who are in a hurry ; but we are past the Cape of Good Hope, 



48 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

running along the southern coast of Africa, though a long way 
from it. 

Friday, June 30th. — This is another spring-like morning. There 
is hardly any wind, and the sea is very smooth ; all of which makes 
the captain, as well as ourselves, very impatient. To compensate a 
little, I again tried fishing for the albatross, — with the success of 
yesterday. 

Indian Ocean, Saturday, July 1st. — Here, it is in the middle of 
winter. It sounds very queer to say July, one of the winter months. 
Though it is winter, it seems more like April to-day ; but there is 
no knowing what may be to-morrow. The thermometer stands at 
sixty-eight in the cabin. We can now say that we have entered the 
Indian ocean ; which, when a little boy, I used to think was a great 
ocean of hot water. It is cold enough now, at all events. 

We have kept in latitude thirty-nine degrees, so far to the south, to 
avoid the westerly current, which runs around the "great bank." 
This bank extends some sixty miles from the Cape. We have had 
more showers towards night. 

It seems hardly possible that we have been nearly two months on 
the sea. The old vessel appears like home to us now, although we 
are tired. I think it would rest me to step out and go on foot for a 
few miles. I am sometimes almost tempted to jump over the ship's 
side. It would be a great luxury to lie down for an hour on the still 
ground on shore. If any of you have rode a whole day cramped up 
in a full stage-coach, till thoroughly tired, you can imagine something 
of our feelings. We are now anticipating, in two or three weeks, to 
make St. Paul's Island, or Christmas Island, which to us caged birds 
will, no doubt, be a rich treat. It lies to the south of east of us. • 

Thus far we have been blessed with comfortable weather around the 
Cape. The captain says that he never had a more pleasant voyage 
than the present, in this part of the ocean ; but there is time enough 
yet for bad weather. 

Sunday, July 2d. — I noticed last evening the two white clouds 
called the " Magellan clouds." They are the beacon-clouds for the 
south, as the north star is for the north. They resemble portions of 
the milky-way, but look more like chalk rubbed on the blue vault of 
the sky. We have had another pleasant Sunday, and almost a calm, 
with slight showers at noon. We have mock-turtle soup for dinner 
every Sunday, which is made from fresh pork, &c, and is very nice. 

Monday, July Zd. — A porpoise was captured to-day, and so little 



FOURTH OF JULY AT SEA. 49 

noise was made that we knew nothing of it till it was dressed and 
hung up. xlpart from the color, which was very dark, it resembled 
the carcass of a pig. It had a nose or snout some twelve inches long, 
and I should say it would answer to the sea-hog, as there are other 
animals to answer to the sea-elephant, sea-lion, &c. The flesh was 
like meat rather than fish ; the kidneys looked like bunches of grapes. 
We had some of the meat for breakfast, and I took a few mouthfuls, 
but directly discovered that I was not particularly hungry, its taste 
being disagreeably fishy, and I turned away to something else. 

Tuesday, July 4th. — This is the gtorious fourth, the first I ever 
spent at sea. It is also the coldest one, it being now mid-winter. We 
are to the south of the lowest point of Africa, in latitude 39° south, 
and longitude 32° east, in the latitude of the northern part of Patagonia, 
and the longitude of Constantinople. We were up between six and 
seven to catch a glimpse of the sun as it came up from the sea. We 
all wished to behold a sunrise at sea, and thought that the fourth 
would be the best day, by which it might be more vividly remembered. 
We were, however, disappointed ; for, a short time before the sun 
arose, it was obscured by gathering clouds. 

The wind is north from the African coast, and at evening it is quite 
brisk, so that we travel much faster by night than by day. We have 
celebrated the day on board in a small way ; but it was very select, 
being confined to the captain and passengers. All our fire-arms were 
mustered on deck, consisting of two fowling-pieces and quite a variety 
of pistols. With these we made considerable noise, and our salutes 
were-very good. We had no oration, but we talked a good deal, and 
discussed how the day was probably being carried out in America, &c. 
While firing his pistol, Mr. R. made a narrow escape. He had 
snapped it without its firing ; he turned it up and looked into its 
muzzle, and, bringing it down by his side, said, " The rusty old thing 
won't go off." I exclaimed against the act, but, before all the words 
were spoken, its contents were discharged on the deck. 

Our time is seven hours faster here than in America ; and seven p. m. 
corresponds to twelve in Boston. I did not forget my arrangement with 
C. Mayo, Esq., to drink to each other's health at noon on this day, 
wherever we might be. At seven p. m. I was alone, and, including with 
Mr. M. my other friends at home, fulfilled my part of the engage 
ment. 

Wednesday , July 5th. — The captain announced to us at six this 
morning that a vessel was close by. We had not seen one for a long 
5 



50 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

time, and were very glad to hasten up. Hoisting her colors, she proved 
to be an English bark. She crossed before us, steering more southerly, 
and by noon was out of sight, being probably bound for New Holland. 

The weather was quite foggy yesterday and to-day, so as to make 
the vessel's decks quite wet. Those on board who are experienced 
with this region off the Cape say they never knew such pleasant and 
moderate weather. 

Thursday, July Qth. — Another vessel was discovered this morning 
by the first officer. She was soon lost sight of, but reappeared during 
the forenoon, and bore down* upon us. We also kept up a little 
towards her. 

She finally steered directly for us ; but, being a slower vessel, fell 
astern, and towards night was nearly again out of sight. I was 
desirous to speak her, whoever she might be ; but this could only be 
done by delaying our vessel for her to come up, which Captain G. 
did not consider himself justified in doing. At length her colors 
appeared, and showed her to be British. She then run up her numbers 
to commence a conversation. Our captain did not answer, saying 
that he had not the requisite corresponding numbers on board. From 
his manner I concluded that he had been shabbily treated on some 
former occasion, and was not anxious to communicate now. So we 
were disappointed in not making an acquaintance, and leaving, per- 
haps, an impression that we were wanting in those common courtesies 
which should be displayed between all vessels upon the broad sea. 

The weather is warm and sunny, like a day in the first week of 
April. This afternoon we varied our exercises by joining in those 
more athletic, — climbing the shrouds hand -over-hand, &c. 



CHAPTER V. 

RAINBOW. GALE. STORM SCENERY. SEA MOTION. ALBATROSS. 

SEA LIVING. TROPIC OF CAPRICORN. PHOSPHORESCENT LIGHT. 

Saturday, July 8th. — About four o'clock this morning, one of our 
crew — an Englishman — had an altercation with the mate, which 
resulted in his got ting his head severely cut in two places. I dressed the 
wounds, after which he was put below in irons, where he is to remain 
for the present. At noon we exchanged signals with a Dutch vessel. 



A RAINBOW. 51 

Sunday, July 9th. — It has rained all this forenoon, — the only 
unpleasant Sunday we have had since leaving home. 

To-day I have read ten chapters in Matthew's gospel ; and an ancient 
atlas before me added to it a ten-fold interest. I noted the place where 
Jesus was born — Bethlehem ; from thence I traced his flight to 
Egypt, to escape the persecution of Herod, in compliance with the 
warning given to Joseph in a dream, and his return to his own country, 
after the death of Herod. I marked his residence at Nazareth, living 
in fear of Herod's successor; the place of his baptism by John, at 
Bethabara, beyond the Jordan ; his sojourn in the wilderness, where he 
was tempted of the devil ; his removal from Nazareth to Capernaum, 
where he heard that John was in prison ; the place of his first meet- 
ing with his disciples ; the scenes of his miracles, and of his travels 
from one part to another in fulfilment of his holy mission. 

I also read Svvedenborg on the Soul ; an interesting confession of 
Herod concerning the conviction of Christ, found written in Latin in 
France, and translated into English for the Massachusetts Ploughman 
of May 5th ; also a letter of John Q. Adams to his son, which was 
very instructive. 

Monday, July IQth. — We have a brisk breeze this forenoon, and the 
ocean's repose seems much disturbed. The birds fly nearer and in 
greater numbers than they have done for a week past, which is gener- 
ally regarded by the sailors as the precursor of a storm. We have 
had singularly moderate weather in this latitude, having had no real 
storm since we neared the Cape ; and we have seen no ice nor snow, 
except some sleet one night. To-day we have made two hundred and 
thirty-one miles. 

This evening is very lovely, and almost as light as day. The water 
shines like bright silver. It is too cold on deck to do without an over- 
coat, and we are sailing at the good rate of ten knots an hour. 

Wednesday, July 12th. — "We are nearly in the latitude of the Cape 
of Good Hope, and in the longitude of Persia. It is a little rainy 
this morning, with a fine rainbow in the west. Yesterday there ap- 
peared the most beautiful one that I ever beheld. Every color was 
distinct, gorgeously rich, and dazzlingly bright ; and yet they were so 
softly blended that we could not tell where one commenced or another 
was lost. Both ends of it dipping into the sea, it encircled an arc of 
the horizon, converging so as to have met exactly at our feet, had it 
reached as far ; but it was lost at a few feet distant from the vessel. 
I gazed upon it, wholly absorbed with its beauty, and forgetful of the 



52 • CHINA AND MANILLA. 

rain then falling on me, until it disappeared. Its counterpart, formed 
by the ends which dipped into the ocean, and extended through the 
water, was, I suppose, a reflection of the other ; it was a circle, with 
the exception of the few feet broken out on each side of the vessel. 
The sky, clouds, water, sun, ship and rainbow, would have made a 
subject for a handsome picture. We often see parts of rainbows in 
this southern latitude. This is a cold and disagreeable day, and the 
wind from the south-west. We are all quite well now, including Mr. 
D., who has been so long partially ill of sea-sickness. 

Friday, July 14/A. — I have lanced and dressed an abscess on the 
cook's hand. For the last few weeks many of the men have been afflicted 
with boils, or eruptions of that nature, caused by their manner of 
living. Their food consists too much of fat meat, pork, fat beef, &c, 
and too little vegetable food. Their sores inflame and discharge, and 
are very slow in healing, unless medicine is taken, and applications are 
made to the parts affected. A slight cut or bruise often becomes a 
bad-looking sore, and in some cases erysipelas sets in. A wound on the 
foot renders them lame for days, and they are often laid up with it. 

Saturday, July Ibth. — This forenoon the sea began again to show 
some agitation : the wind whistles ominously. The moon fulls at this 
time, and the barometer indicates a change of weather. The clouds 
turn dark, and appear threatening. On deck all is life and animation. 
The captain and all hands are there. The studding-sails, one after 
another, are taken in ; the sky-sail is lowered on deck ; the spanker is 
clewed in, and the men are up on the main-yard, scattered along like a 
roost of pigeons, reefing the sails, encouraging and animating each 
other by crying out, all together, " Heigh-oh-o ! heigh-oh, now ! rouse 
him in ! " &c. Every man has something to do, and they take hold 
as if intending to have it done. The dead-lights in the cabin are put 
in, and all the preparations made for a coming storm. I watch the 
gales and stormy parts of the voyage with much interest ; not that 
I do not feel my own weakness, but because the sight is a beautiful 
one. We are now ten thousand miles from Boston, and more than 
half of our voyage is over. 

It is now evening. All the afternoon it has blown very hard. For 
two hours I stood in the companion-way, and looked out upon the 
rolling sea. The wind increased till evening, and during the blow it 
rained with much violence. The seas did not run very high, but were 
very large. The captain put the vessel directly before the wind, due 
east. Occasionally the water broke over the deck, drenching those 



GALE. 53 

within its reach. Now and then the old vessel would appear to stop, 
with its head against a hill of water, like a stubborn horse with a 
heavy load ; and then, as if considering the task to be performed, it 
would reel to and fro for a moment, gathering its strength, and push 
forward as if to penetrate through the sea. Rearing its head with a 
graceful curve, it would mount to the top, and then make a plunge 
down the other side of the billow. It was very interesting to watch 
the vessel as she manoeuvred with the conflicting elements. 

Sunday, July 16th. — All last night it blew a gale, with a pouring 
rain, and we were ploughing through darkness almost as thick as the 
water itself. What a peculiar sensation it was to stand on the deck 
and hear the turmoil all around us, and not be able even to see the 
water ! • I remained an hour alone, and could see the water only when 
a splash of the sea came into my face. It was with very uncertain 
feelings that I retired to my berth, and there listened to the sea roar- 
ing about my head, and thought of our liability to come in contact 
with other vessels. To-day the weather is much as yesterday ; the sea 
is very boisterous, with violent rain-squalls, and the vessel is leaping 
madly along under almost bare poles. 

We passed Saint Paul's last night, about two hundred and fifty 
miles to the northward. So we must give up all hope of visiting that 
interesting island, — so interesting to me since my dream, before 
described, of a residence there. 

We have to dispense with soup at dinner, and have hard work to 
keep our seats. Our dishes start, and away they go, and we have to 
catch at them on all sides. Our knives, forks and portions of our 
food, slide off the table, and fall sometimes into our laps, sometimes 
upon the floor. The steward brings a tumbler of water, and carries 
the tumbler back again ; then we have to catch upon the table and 
hold on, to prevent being thrown over it, until we are. turned back 
again by the righting of the vessel. If the table was not fastened 
down, and our seats also, we should be sliding and jerked from one side 
of the cabin to the other. These things, however, cause some amuse- 
ment, and we laugh and joke upon the accidents that happen to each 
other. A large bucket of peas came tumbling out of the locker, and 
were scattered upon the cabin floor. The steward gathered them up, 
put them back, and secured them ; but soon they came out again. 
Again he placed them back, tightened the lid, and tied the bucket 
with a cord. In half an hour the vessel gave a tremendous bound, 
out again came the bucket, breaking the cord, and scattering the 
.5* 



54 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

peas all about. When the steward came in and saw the state of 
things, he was in no good temper ; and, as he collected them, it was 
most ludicrous, from my room, to listen to him. He commenced : 

"You damn, miserable, abominable peas ! how many times you 
s'pose I must go after you? You s'pose I got nothing else to do? You 
believe this black stewart damn fool ? Bime-by you find mistaken ! " 
&c. &c. 

He took them into the locker again, scolding at them as if they 
understood every word said, and set them down with considerable 
force, at the same time saying, 

" Stay there, sinner ! " 

It is cold and dismal, and seems like any day but Sunday. It is the 
first of such Sundays that we have had since we embarked. 

Monday, July 17th. — It is almost a calm to-day ; the sun is clear, and 
it is quite warm. Many sea-birds are around again, and with hook 
and line I have tried without success to catch an albatross. They 
would fly down and peck at the bait, but I caught none. I fired my 
pistol at them three times, and the captain twice ; but their feathers 
are so thick and close that the bullets did not penetrate, even if we hit 
them. "We could only ruffle their feathers a little, although they flew 
within five or six yards of us. In about twelve days we expect to be 
at Java. 

Tuesday, July ISih. — We are now steering northward towards the 
Straits of Sunda. I am becoming quite impatient, though I believe 
we all try not to be, knowing that it will accomplish nothing ; yet I 
seem to be exerting myself continually to push the vessel along, as if 
my desire had changed into an active force within me, that I could not 
restrain. I do long to place my feet once more on a solid foundation, 
— where, I do not care, if it is only land. As I look over the stern, 
and see the water rushing from us, I am sometimes impelled by an 
almost irresistible feeling to jump overboard, as if my limbs would 
leap with me in spite of myself, though I feel little fear about it. It 
appears to arise from the same kind of fatigue and restlessness that is 
experienced by reclining in one position for a long time, or by sitting 
in a constrained attitude, as in a coach or crowded assembly, for a 
number of hours. 

The wind blows briskly this evening. We were just startled by a 
loud report, followed by several lesser ones. Thinking that the ship 
had struck, or that something direful had happened, we rushed on 
deck, and found that the flying-jib-boom had been carried away, and 



PRESERVED PROVISIONS AT SEA. 55 

that the sail was flapping in the wind, making noise enough for so 
many volleys of musketry. The ship was brought into the wind, and 
the sail secured and taken in. 

Saturday, July 22d. — Being out of potatoes, we have boiled rice as 
a substitute. There is plenty of poultry, fresh pork, and salt beef; 
but the beef, for the lack of soaking or boiling in fresh water, is 
extremely salt ; yet we have enough of other food without it. "We 
feel most the need of vegetables. 

We passed the Danish rock last night without seeing it ; and very 
few persons, we are told, have ever seen it, except those lost upon it. 

Sunday, July 2,3d. — Mr. R. brought out from his stores for break- 
fast a little can of preserved sausages. These preserved meats are very 
nice for an occasional taste. The sealed-up tin box is put into hot 
water for a few minutes, and is then ready to be opened and placed 
upon the table. Passengers who take with thern a small variety of 
these meats find them very convenient and acceptable. Mr. D. has 
furnished us, for two or three weeks, with milk preserved in cans ; 
and in our coffee and chocolate we find it to answer a very good pur- 
pose, though it is not equal to fresh milk. Vegetables, so necessary for 
health as to be almost indispensable, might be preserved in cans in the 
same manner, and added to the ship's stores at a small expense. Used 
once or twice a week, they would be very serviceable to the health of 
the crew. 

I am now, five o'clock p. m., in my room, and have been there nearly 
all day. It is so quiet that I am hardly conscious of the presence of 
any other living person on board. I have been lying in my berth and 
reading the Testament, with the maps for reference ; and also some 
articles in the Christian Register. "We have had some showers to-day, 
though the early morn indicated a pleasant Sabbath. There is now 
hardly any perceptible motion to the vessel, which is very rare when 
it is considered that she is sailing about eight miles an hour. The 
captain has taken no observation to-day, but knows pretty nearly our 
latitude and longitude. All are talking now of Angier, at Java head ; 
of what we shall do when we get on shore ; how happy we shall be ; 
and what delight it will give us to see land, to touch it, or to place 
our feet upon it. In one week we hope that our dream will be real- 
ized. "We have been so long shut out from society, we can hardly 
realize that, besides the few birds that flit about us, we are not the only 
living beings in the world. The captain sometimes cools our ardor 
by an occasional remark, that " Perhaps we shall pass Angier in a 



56 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

storm and cannot anchor ; " or, " We may pass it in the night, " &c. 
But we are quite sure that he will stop for his own sake, as he often 
speaks of the fresh provisions and fruits which we shall take in there. 

Monday, July 2Uh. — Yesterday we crossed to the northward of the 
Tropic of Capricorn. Old Ocean has been tempestuous during the day 
and evening. We were tossed and rocked about, without regard to our 
sensibilities, or respect to our persons. But the time has passed for 
sea-sickness, and we look upon the raging billows without fear. 

Tuesday, July 25th. — Time speeds along rapidly. It seems hardly 
possible that we have been more than two months on the water ; but 
the future looks long. Since we lost sight of ■ Cape Cod, sailing 
so many thousand miles, we have not had a glimpse of land. The 
chart says we are off the coast of New Holland, and according to the 
compass we are sailing direct for Christmas Island ; but, like the good 
place, we seem to feel doubtful of ever reaching there. 

Each Saturday night I close up the week by drawing on my map 
our exact course for the previous seven days ; and the pleasure this 
affords well repays the labor of it. The weather has now very per- 
ceptibly changed, and we have again left the cold region for a warmer 
one. We are now within twenty degrees, or twelve hundred miles, of 
the equator. The thermometer is upwards of 70°. How mild and 
soft is the air of this region ! 

Wednesday, July 26^A. — Last eve, at ten, I sat alone on the deck 
looking over the side of the vessel, and watching the fiery appearance 
of the water. The darker the night, the more vivid is its light. 
There was no moon, and it was cloudy, and therefore the waters were 
very bright and luminous. The ship was rushing through at about 
ten knots an hour, and the wake of the vessel was beautifully illumi- 
nated, as was also the water about the sides and bows of the vessel, or 
wherever it was disturbed. The little eddies formed by the ship's rud- 
der were very interesting. They appeared as if a circle of fire, like the 
sun, was suddenly formed in them, and then made to revolve rapidly, 
gradually becoming dimmer, as they sunk into the depths beneath and 
disappeared. Four or five of these might often at the same time be 
seen, stretching back into the wake, and giving a very ornamental 
appearance to the scene. There were also interspersed multitudes" of 
globules, as if of glowing fire, of all sizes, from an apple to a mere 
point. It was a beautiful sight to look at, as we flew along through 
the darkness, leaving this fiery phosphorescent train rolling up behind 
us in the broad path of the ship. 



ANGIERo 57 



CHAPTER VI. 

DESCRIPTION OF FLYING-FISH. LOOK OUT FOR LAND. THE BOOBY. 

LAND BIRDS. LAND IN SIGHT. WATER-SPOUT. STRAITS OF SUNDA. 

— JAVA. 

The weather is warm, and the breezes remind me of those which 
" blow soft o'er Ceylon's isle." The air floats against our faces with 
gentle undulations of bewitching delicateness, as if we were being 
affectionately and tenderly caressed by some unseen power. I wish 
that our friends at home could enjoy it. 

Everything on board is harmonious. The " transom " is a place of 
refuge at all hours of the night and day. I do not know what we 
should do without it, as its accommodations are sufficient for the cap- 
tain and three passengers to take almost any position they choose. 
It seems to be the only convenient and comfortable place on which to 
sit or lie while reading or sleeping. Hardly an hour of the day passes 
but we are on it, either separately or all together. It is a wide, sofa- 
like place in the cabin, stretching across the stern from side to side, 
nearly as high as a table, and covered with cushions ; and inside is a 
locker for packages and bundles. 

Thursday, July 21th, latitude 11° 59' south, longitude 105° 4' 
east. — Last eve I sat up with the captain, talking about the natives 
at Angier. The island of Java belongs to the Dutch, and Angier is 
the general watering-place for vessels bound to China, Manilla, &c. 
The captain informs me that the natives are treacherous, but that no 
particular danger is to be feared from them. 

We expect, if the weather holds good, to see Christmas Island 
towards night. Mr. R. and I think of going ashore, should it be 
calm when we reach there. It is an island of some three or four miles 
across, and covered with trees, bushes, and rocks. Only two or three 
persons have ever landed there. The captain offers to send some men 
with us in the boat, but will not go himself. He declares there is 
nothing there but venomous snakes, porcupines, poisonous insects, and 
a host of wild animals ; and he says, " I will not step my foot among 
the bushes." However, with pistols, sword-canes, dirks, &c, I think 
that we may venture to see what they keep there. 

For the last few days, the birds have mostly deserted us. This 



58 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

forenoon three or four gannets came around, so that -we must be near 
the land ; for these birds never go out to sea, nor off soundings. As 
we make our way to the north, we keep nearly parallel with the coast 
of Java ; we are now probably about fifty miles from it. The gannets 
look much like albatrosses, having white bodies, and a part only of 
their wings are white. 

None of us have as yet been able to go more than a very little aloft, 
on account of predisposition to dizziness. This we were determined to 
conquer ; and, on the score of exercise, we have been practising a 
little every day in climbing the rattlings. To-day, for the first lime, 
we succeeded in placing our feet upon the mizzen-top, and without 
crawling through the lubber's hole. The motion, which on deck is 
perhaps not more than an inch or two, is some feet up there ; and 
to get around and underneath the platform upon the outside we found 
too troublesome at this time, and so let ourselves down by sliding 
on the shrouds. 

A tropical land-bird showed itself to-day, the first sign we have had 
of the land. It was a queer-looking bird, of a light yellow color, in 
size between a duck and a goose. Its tail appeared to be a single 
feather floating behind, about twice its own length. Its movements, as 
it flew in large circles over the vessel, were like a boy's kite, darting up 
and down and in various ways. Its flight is higher than that of any 
other bird I have ever seen. We watched its evolutions with much 
interest. Once, poising itself high in the air for a moment, it closed 
its wings and descended like a shot. A splash in the water followed, 
a shoal of hundreds of flying-fish arose, the bird appeared with one of 
them in its claws, and then directed its course towards the land. The 
shoal of flying-fish seemed in a bad fix ; for the moment they returned 
to their natural element, they were attacked by a shoal of larger ones 
lying in wait for them. 

The pictures I have seen of flying-fish represent them as very large ; 
but we have seen none that would weigh more than a pound. They 
fly very stiffly, as if their bodies were lumps of lead weighing them 
down : in fact, they have to fall to the water as soon as their wings 
become dry. Their flight is broken by slight risings and fallings, 
something after the manner of our little chip-birds at home. They 
cannot, apparently, rise from the sea without they start from a wave, 
which they generally do by darting from its side. I have never seen 
one leave the water when the sea was calm. Their wings or tins are 



ANXIETY TOR LAND. 59 

thin, and somewhat similar to those of a "bat, answering the double 
purpose of swimming and flying. 

The weather is pretty warm, and thermometer at 80°. We have had 
another very beautiful sunset, variegated clouds, in colors rich, deep 
and gorgeous, with the glistening hues of tinsel, reminding one of the 
fairy scenes represented at the theatre. This evening I saw four star- 
like bodies fall through the air, as if they had dropped from their 
places in the sparkling canopy above. They looked prettily, descend- 
ing so softly, in gentle curves, one soon after the other. They reminded 
me of the larger globules falling from an exploded rocket. 

My heart is so full of yearnings for a sight of land, that, although 
past midnight, I feel that I could not sleep should I go to bed ; 
and we expect to see Christmas Island in the morning. The watch 
only are at their places on deck, and I wander alone from one place to 
another in disquietude, endeavoring to analyze my feelings. 

Friday, July 28th. — We were up this morning between four and 
five, and, with the captain, anxiously looking for land. We pierced 
the horizon, with our eyes, from each bow, and ahead, but could 
detect nothing. Several of the men were on the forecastle, forward, 
also endeavoring to discover it. Daylight appeared, but not the 
object of our search. Now and then we saw something that we 
thought might be land, but, much to our disappointment, it would 
soon turn to a dark cloud. The sun arose, and yet no land. The 
captain ascended to the fore-top-mast yards to look, and I, from 
sympathy, clambered up to the mizzen-top, — that was high enough 
for me, — but nothing could be discovered. Mr. R. preferred remain- 
ing on deck to going aloft ; and he discovered, on our larboard bow, 
a vessel, which afforded a little consolation. We went down to break- 
fast, and returned on deck, not doubting that we should then see land ; 
but we were not yet to be gratified. 

The weather is very warm, eighty-two degrees in the cabin. 

The captain is at his figures ; he has just been taking an observa- 
tion, but cannot get an accurate one till twelve o'clock. He makes 
out, by dead reckoning, that we are in latitude 10° 3' south, longitude 
- 105° east ; and has arrived at the conclusion that we have passed 
Christmas Island. We are, however, still looking for it. 

It is now one o'clock. Our doubts and desires are all settled ; we 
now have the true reckoning, and find that we have drifted twenty-five 
miles to the westward, by the treacherous westerly current. Had it 
not been for that, we should not have been doomed to a disappoint- 



60 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

merit. We must give up Christmas Island ; and now, then, for Java 
next, though a sight of that seems dubious ; for, of all the land we 
have passed, we have not yet seen any. Java is now only one hundred 
and seventy-six miles distant. We will try to keep quiet till to-mor- 
row. Still we are all disappointed for to-day, in spite of all our 
philosophy. 

Several hundred large gannets are around, flying over and about the 
vessel, this afternoon ; and also one new-comer, — a bird of a reddish- 
brown color. The vessel on our left has shown herself to be an English 
ship. 

This afternoon, a booby seated himself on the end of a yard, and 
there remained, while I fired three pistol-shots at him, and the captain 
one. I hit the yard, but neither of us hit the booby. I presume, if 
he could speak, he would call us boobies for not hitting him. Its 
mate flew about the vessel, and I could nearly strike him with the 
pistol. He alighted on the top of one of the boats, when I ran up and 
caught him, — taking good care to seize him by the neck, for they 
bite severely. They are about as large as an owl, but their heads are 
less broad. They have a long, sharp, hooked bill ; are long-legged, 
and web-footed. I examined him as long as I wished, frightened the 
pigs with him a little, and then placed him on the railing of the ship, 
where he contrived to sit very independently till he was pushed off. 

It breezed up considerably in the evening, and we sailed at the rate 
of ten knots an hour. The captain says, " I will insure the sight of 
Java head early in the morning." I laid myself down upon the ship's 
railing, and watched the heavens from ten till eleven o'clock. The 
second mate told me he thought my position rather unsafe ; but there 
were so many ropes about me that I did not regard it so, and had a 
very comfortable time astronomizing all to myself. At dark, our 
neighbor vessel was far ahead of us, — the only one that has outsailed 
us yet. Well, we shall, no doubt, be on terra-firma next Sunday. 
How I anticipate that pleasure ! Eighty days, and not yet a -sight of 
land. As for Christmas Island, we must say, like the fox in the fable, 
" Sour grapes." The old rocky shore ! — we do not want to see it. 

Saturday, July 29th. — This morning I arose at half-past five, so aa 
to mark the land, as it came in sight. We had a heavy shower, or I 
should have arisen earlier. The captain called us, but I could not 
induce Mr. R. or D. to turn out : they seemed satisfied with the land 
of yesterday morning. I was quickly on deck, and there, sure enough, 
lay the land, far off in the distance, nearly enveloped in clouds, and 



OFF THE COAST OF JAVA. 61 

looking like a blue mountain at a distance of thirty or forty miles. 
We know that it is land ; for it does not change or alter its figure, 
like clouds. Still, I cannot feel quite sure that we shall come to it, 
but may lose it in some way. 

During a thunder-shower to-day we saw a water-spout, though it 
was not complete. It commenced in a large black cloud, and, after a 
little narrowing beneath, extending towards the ocean, hung down in 
the form of a large black cable, but did not reach far enough to com- 
municate with the water of the straits. 

The motion of the water indicates that we are in some current like 
that in the Gulf Stream. It appears as if bewitched. The waves rush 
and boil in every direction, and splash this way and that. 

The captain made calculation for the current last night, steering 
one or two points more to the eastward than he otherwise would have 
done, and thereby made the right place this morning. He had been 
carried a long distance to the westward, and yet hit right at Java 
head. It has been very agreeable to us, the last few days, to see the 
men scraping and brightening the oars, laying out the anchor-chains, 
scouring the boarding-pikes, and getting everything ready to come to 
anchor, and to go ashore. 

It is now noon, and we have passed through Prince's Straits, with 
Prince's Island on our left, and Java on our right. We are in the 
"Straits of Sunda," of which Prince's Straits are merely a branch. 
The bold shores of Java lie about three quarters of a mile distant. 
We are continually on our feet, moving back and forth with animated 
steps. The spy-glasses are so changing from one to another, that the 
captain has hardly a sight with them. There are many things to be 
examined, — that point of land, a cliff, the curve of beach, the thick 
wild foliage along the water, the mountain, the forests, &c. Our 
enthusiasm is such that every little thing must be scrutinized : every 
dense thicket and dark hole, looking for a tiger or rhinoceros ; every 
large tree or group ot trees, peering among their branches for the 
boa-constrictor lying in wait for some animal to pass underneath ; 
the air and foliage for beautiful birds, — but we saw none of them. Yet 
the delicious breezes, filled with spicy odors from the shore, we did 
realize in their fulness. The air was laden with the fresh fragrance 
of the orange and lemon, of the cinnamon, cloves and nutmegs, of the 
musky cocoa-nut and other palms. And they were more strongly per- 
ceptible on account of the long time we had been accustomed only to 
the salt air. It recalled forcibly my days of from eight to twelve 
6 



62 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

years old, when, at the Sabbath-school and singing " What though 
the spicy breezes," I was wishing that I could experience them. It 
seemed now that my mind, like an Eolian harp, was made to vibrate 
this tune, with the slight alteration of the word Java for Ceylon, and 
that " "What though the spicy breezes blow soft o'er Java's isle " was 
constantly being repeated. 



CHAPTER VII. 

INHABITANTS OF JAVA. DRESS. NATIVES BARTERING COMMODITIES. 

CUSHMAN. APPEARANCE OF ANGIER. LANDING. RECEPTION BY THE 

GOVERNOR. CUSHMAN 's HOUSE AND FAMILY. MOHAMMEDAN MOSQUE. 

LEAVE ANGIER. 

On the shore all things appear wild and uncultivated, with no 
dwellings in sight, as if wild animals and cannibal men were alone 
the inhabitants. Where the land makes out into points, we can see 
very distinctly the jagged rocks, the gnarled limbs, and broken trunks 
of trees, and the white foam dashing upon the craggy shore. In the 
bay formed by the first point, — for there are four of these points of 
land within sight, — in running along the shore with the glass, I dis- 
covered two vessels. Calling to the captain, he came and ran up the 
colors, or, more properly, the ensign. In a few moments the two 
vessels showed the stars and stripes, which were to us all a very cheer- 
ing sight. I never before experienced such pleasure in seeing the 
American flag. 

At noon we had heavy thunder, and the numerous squalls appeared 
very threatening. At four p. m. the wind died away, leaving us 
nearly becalmed ; and, the strong current setting us back, we were 
obliged to come to anchor in the straits. This was about eight o'clock 
in the evening, and we were twelve miles from Angier, the place we 
wished to reach to-day. 

During the day we passed our Englishman, and saw several of the 
native prows gliding along near the shore. Their sails, in the dis- 
tance, looked like wings of butterflies. We did not want for excite- 
ment this day, though disappointed that we could not reach Angier. 



MALAYS. 63 

We have had a very hot sun, but a cool and delightful aromatic breeze 
from the land. 

Straits of Sunda, Sunday, July 30th. — I arose this morning at half- 
past three, being awakened by the noise made in getting up the anchor, 
and having hardly slept at all. It was very hot, and we were under 
way about five. 

Before breakfast, being seated in my room arranging letters for home 
to leave with the governor at Angier, to be sent by the nest vessel, 
I heard a wild cackling beneath my window. I did not think it could 
be human sounds, but thought it must be from a flock of large birds. 
Hastening on deck and looking over the side, I saw a prow with 
several Malays in it. At first, because of their wild appearance and 
piercing eyes, I drew back, and tried to look at them from some place 
unobserved ; but their eyes, searching around, quickly found me, and 
met my own. Wherever I could go their eyes were sure to follow. 
They were nearly naked, and their hair, black, coarse and long, 
was secured on the back of the head with a large handkerchief, 
bound around like a turban. The color of their skin was like that of a 
book bound in calf. Their countenances had such penetrating, fear- 
less, and distorted expressions, that for some time I could only glance 
at them. 

During the forenoon we passed two ships just out of Angier. They 
both hove to, though we kept on, and a boat from one of them came 
off towards us. When near us, the man in its stern cried out, 

" What vessel is this ? " 

Captain G. answered, " The Thomas W. Sears." 

" Where bound?" 

" Canton." 

" Where from?" 

"Boston." 

' ' Have you got any papers ? ' ' 

" Yes ; come aboard, and I will give you some." 

Its crew, about fifteen hardy sailors, fell upon their oars, and with 
such strength and determination that I thought they would run their 
boat into the vessel. Just before it struck, a turn of the steering-oar 
brought its head around, and the boat came alongside so gently as not 
even to touch. A rope was thrown, which the man caught, and in 
a moment he sprang up the side and stepped on the deck. I had 
marked him at first as an American , from his off-hand manners ; and 
my impression was confirmed, as he introduced himself as Captain 



64 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Little, from New Bedford. He remained about ten minutes, and said 
he had only stopped in the straits for wood, water, and fresh provi- 
sions ; that he had been out nearly two years whaling, and had taken 
twenty-two hundred barrels of oil. The other vessel was also a 
whaler (Captain Weeks), had been out ten months, and had nine 
hundred barrels of oil ; each averaging nearly a hundred barrels a 
month. Captain L. took our letters, promising to forward them on 
arriving at New Bedford. 

About three this afternoon, having been the whole day beating up 
a distance of twelve miles, the wind having died away, and finding the 
current setting us back, we came to anchor in the straits. During 
the forenoon the natives were continually coming and going, with 
their Malay prows laden with various commodities for sale ; some with 
one thing, some with another, and now and then one with a general 
assortment ; among which I noticed fruits, vegetables, tamarinds, cocoa- 
nuts, fowls-, squirrels, birds, and monkeys. 

Some of the natives had on the cast-off garments of Europeans. All 
wear a piece of cloth around their middle, while some have in addition 
an old coat, a vest only, a ragged shirt, or a beaver hat with the 
crown out. The captain says he once saw one with a long-tailed coat 
on, with the back in front. They appear proud of these garments, and 
have little idea how they should be worn, how they fit, or why they 
are worn at all. They put in their arms or their feet, as they can 
manage best. If the garment does not go well in one way, they try 
it in another. If, on laying down an old vest and stepping into the 
arm-holes, they cannot pull it on, they pull it off and put their arms 
through. One is trying to put on a pair of pants the wrong side 
before. One of them, having worn a pair of black thick pants for 
about ten minutes, panting with heat and perspiration, dragged them 
off, and, holding them in his hands, rested for a few minutes, and then 
put them on again. They cut very ludicrous figures in their single 
garments, especially when endeavoring to keep them on for a length 
of time. The equatorial sun, pouring down, forces them- first to draw 
one arm out of a thick coat or jacket, and then they put it on and 
change, with the other arm out. 

Two large prows, filled with natives, considerably more dressed, 
made their appearance after dinner. The two Malay proprietors sat 
in the stern of their boats, with all the graciousness of lords, while 
the rowers pulled away like slaves. The crews of both were allowed 
to come on board, and, each one having something to sell, there was 



BARTERING WITH MALAYS. 65 

much jabbering. Any others attempting to come up were threatened 
with a rope, and they remained in their boats. 

The two proprietors were dressed in our style, and spoke words in 
English. One was from the governor, and came for the mail-bag, to 
get any letters or papers there might be for Java, and to contract for 
provisions. The other wished to engage with the captain to supply 
the vessel with provisions ; and remained on board, desiring us to look 
at his book of recommendations from other vessels which had employed 
him. 

All the natives are anxious to barter their commodities for old 
clothing, knives, tobacco, &c. It was some time before I could com- 
municate with them at all. They had no curiosities, but a few com- 
mon sea-shells, for sale, and I bought them for the pleasure of trading 
with them. 

Standing in their little canoes and looking up, they hold to view 
the article they have for disposal, and, fixing their eyes on you, they 
set their tongues into rapid action, and seem to warble like birds. 
Their voices are wild, musical and vibratory, like those of children 
with colds. One of them held up a cocoa-nut toward me, and then 
repeated, rapidly, 

" Cokker-nete? Cokker-nete ? Cokker-nete? " 

I asked, " How much for cokker-nete? " 

" Fiftee cokker-nete owan dollarr, tenty pine arpell fiftee cent." 

I replied, " No want." 

He then asked me if I had a " night," making the motions to cut, 
meaning knife. 

I held up a pocket-knife and asked, " How much can give? May 
have (for) ten cokker-netes." 

" Naurr " (no), " naurr, naurr, me loss ; can give fife," showing 
five of his fingers. 

I replied to him " no," and held up eight of my fingers. 

He refused again ; but soon passed up the eight cocoa-nuts, and I 
tossed into his hands the knife, which he examined with much satis- 
faction. 

One of them made signs for garments, and I held up a black coat, 
asking him how much he would give for it. He made motions for me 
to hold it in several different views, and would make no offer until he 
had taken it into his own hands. He began looking it over very sus- 
piciously, until he found a great rent under one arm ; then, turning 
6* 



66 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

upon me a grave countenance, and directing my attention to the place, 
he said, 

" 0, Anglemun, that lie ! " 

He bought it, at last, for four or five pine-apples, which are worth 
here one or two cents apiece. 

The two proprietors remained on board some hours, during which I 
had considerable conversation with them. One of them, Cushman, 
conversed in broken English, mixed with Malay, Dutch and Spanish, 
and with his motions I could understand him pretty well ; and, in 
turn, could make him understand without much difficulty . 

I was curious to see how the Malay women looked, having learned 
that they were never allowed to be seen publicly ; and Cushman prom- 
ised to take me to his house, when we went ashore, and show me hia 
wife and little daughter. 

With the shore in sight, the time seemed long. After dinner, be- 
tween three and four p. m., the decks being cleared of the natives, the 
cheering sounds of " Lower away the boat " came to my ears. With 
our coats and umbrellas we went over the side of the vessel without 
delay, and seated ourselves in the boat, which leaped up and down on 
the waves. Four sailors, who had sustained the best character for 
attending to their duties on board, were allowed the privilege of row- 
ing the boat ; and, as we left the vessel, many were the envious glances 
thrown them from their comrades on deck. I could understand their 
feelings very well from my own, and should have felt no less the pang 
had I been left behind. 

The captain had refused to let Cushman and the other proprietor go 
in our boat, as they had their own prows with them, though they 
both urged strongly to be permitted to go with us. When we had 
pulled away a short distance, we were amused to discover Cushman 
perched on the forward part of the boat, looking the picture of happi- 
ness, and so pleased that he could hardly sit still. The captain's first 
impulse was to go back and leave him on board ; but, as he was not in 
the way, and had showed so much earnestness, he allowed him to 
remain. Cushman evidently thought that, to secure his job, it was 
best to keep near the captain, or his competitor might get it before 
him. 

Our boat glided smoothly over the water, but not without its ups 
and downs on the agitated waves, and an occasional dash of spray 
into our faces. The rowers, delighted with their prospect ashore, 



APPROACH TO ANGIER. 67 

pulled strongly, but had we flown I presume we still should have been 
impatient to reach the shore. 

We were somewhat wet, but would willingly have been dipped in 
the briny element, had it been necessary to our success, though we 
should have liked an insurance against the jaws of sharks. On our 
way we- met a boat with a European crew. We stopped and had a 
few minutes' conversation. The captain was from a whaling vessel that 
lay near the shore, and he was going on board of our ship ; but we 
could not think of returning. He went on to make his call, while we 
continued on our course. 

As we approached the landing, it seemed more like a corner in Para- 
dise than a collection of mere mud-huts, as I had expected. Two 
long beaches met at an angle, where, in the midst of cocoa-nut groves, 
lay Angier. Two long lines of green rollers followed each other, 
curling into sheets of white foam, and spending their force on the 
beach. Corresponding to these were rows of young cocoa-nut trees, 
six or seven deep, which stretched away in soldier-like order for miles 
on either side. These, with their slim bodies and graceful heads, were 
beautifully attractive. A large banian-tree of dense foliage, above the 
top of which, upon a staff, waved the Dutch flag, and the fortifications, 
with walls and surfaces covered with green turf, occupied a portion.. of 
the angle. On the left, a wide street, shaded with the beautiful trees, 
extended parallel with the beach. Grouped together without order, 
and forming the town, were one or two hundred native bamboo houses 
under the shades of the groves. 

The distance of four or five miles was passed in about an hour of 
animated rowing, and we landed at a flight of stone steps, leading up 
the bank at the entrance of the canal. 

Ascending the steps, we experienced a sensation at the knees as if 
the body had acquired double its usual weight, so long had it been 
that we had not stepped on anything firm and unyielding. When 
we walked, I did not perceive that any of us staggered, or that the 
ground was rising before our steps, so often noticed in sailors, the 
cause of which is attributed to their having been so long at sea ; 
though I attribute it to the short time they had been on land, the 
cause of the difficulty being in the head instead of the feet. The hap- 
•piness of seeing land, and really again feeling it under our feet, 
produced such exuberance of spirits that I could hardly confine myself 
to a walk, and was somewhat afraid my feet would run off with me in 
epite of my exertions. As we went towards the hotel, followed by a 



68 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

number of Malays!, I could hardly realize that I was in such a beautiful- 
place, and that this was Java, fifteen thousand miles from home ; 
and I thought I should not be very much surprised to wake up and 
find it a dream. Everything partook of such an entirely different 
character from what I had seen before, or formed in my mind, that I 
did not know how to regard it. The tropical scenery, so wild, yet so 
beautiful. The air itself bore a peculiar musky odor, which reminded 
me of savages and wild animals ; and the sun poured down with such 
intensity as to leave no doubt that I was in a foreign clime. Passing 
a little way beneath the shade of cocoa-nut trees, and then crossing 
the clean and grassy street, we entered the front-yard of the hotel, and 
took seats around a table in the veranda. This hotel, and the gov- 
ernor's house, a few rods distant, were the only European buildings, 
and these belonged to the Dutch government. The others were all 
native houses, standing a little way apart, on one side. These Euro- 
pean ones were low and covered with brick tiles, with verandas in 
front, that appeared to be the receiving-rooms. The ceiling, instead 
of plaster, was of cane, worked like cane-seat chairs. The native 
houses were covered with thatched straw, enclosed by lattice-work of 
split bamboo. 

While sitting here the Dutch governor passed on foot, followed by 
a Malay soldier, a dozen paces behind. The governor stepped along 
easily and leisurely, smoking a cigar. His dress was simple, and he 
wore a thin frock-coat, and a gold band around his cap. The Malay, 
stiff and erect, in military dress, with a' brass breast-plate and sword, 
paced forward like a walking-machine, looking neither to the right nor 
left. 

"Waiting a short time, we went, according to the custom, to pay our 
respects to the governor. He received us very courteously, and, in 
English, bade us be seated, the Malay servants placing chairs. He 
conversed with us in very good English, and set before us English 
beer, which, in this climate, is very refreshing. He was rather low- 
spirited, having lost his wife a few months since, a,nd soon after their 
arrival. Having but little time to spare, we registered our names in a 
book which was kept for the purpose, and took leave, thanking him 
for his politeness. 

As we came outside we fell in with Cushman, who was waiting for us. 
He was determined not to lose sight of the captain, and we all went 
together to his house, which was situated in the group of Malay 



cushman's nousE. A MALAY mother. 69 

houses. It was very hot, and we seated ourselves on the grass, whilo 
the captain and Cushman arranged for the provisions. 

A crowd of Malay boys and girls gathered around, staring at us. I 
distributed to them a bundle of cake, which I had brought from the 
vessel. They at first received it very shyly, but, getting a taste, made 
no further delay in disposing of it. Mr. D. and I walked among the 
houses to see what might come up. We sometimes went up and peeped 
through the interstices of the bamboo partitions, to see what was 
inside ; but we almost invariably started back, finding that a pair of 
Malay eyes were watching us, reminding us of the man who looked 
through a key-hole, and found an eye already applied to the other 
side. 

The surrounding forest was beautiful, but we did not dare to pene- 
trate it, so near to-night. We could but regard the large clusters of 
cocoa-nuts near the tops of the tall trees with- some suspicion, as we 
thought of the possibility of their falling while we were underneath ; 
but the smaller fruit of the betel nut, plantain, banian and bamboo, 
did not thus intimidate us. 

Returning to the hotel, we found our friends engaged in a game of 
billiards, and we repaired to Cushman's to remind him of his promise. 
He readily assented to fulfil it, and showed us into his house. This 
was of better construction than the majority of the natives' houses, 
and yet it had no windows. The inside seemed to be one single room, 
divided at the sides into little alcoves, about as large as small state- 
rooms — the bed being a platform two or three feet high, and occupy- 
ing the whole of the space. Cushman carried a light, and led us to 
one of these recesses, enclosed by a musquito-net. I was on the point 
of asking where his wife was, when he pulled away the curtains, at 
the same time saying, " This is my wife." We recoiled a step or two, 
not expecting to see her in such a place ; but, as she did not appear 
frightened, we reassured ourselves and looked in. Cushman- said 
something to her, which allayed her fears, I suppose, about us. She 
was sitting up in her bed, and holding a naked, bronze-colored child, 
of about fifteen months old. The little daughter turned its black eyes 
on us, and laughed, displaying on its wrists two glittering bracelets, 
I caressed it, and its mother kissed it affectionately , and then, smiling, 
offered it to me to take and kiss also. I should have taken it into my 
arms, had I not at the moment observed, glistening on its plump skin, 
the cocoa-nut oil with which it was besmeared. I shook my head and 
backed out. The Malay mother appeared to be about fifteen years of 



70 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

age, of a dark-red complexion, with black hair, long and flowing, black 
eyes, large and full, long eyelashes, and features feminine and noble. 
Had she been dressed (for she had on nothing but a plain red silk 
mantle, or scarf, thrown loosely over her shoulder, and crossing her 
chest) j I should have considered her handsome. As it was, her form 
was beautiful, true to nature's design ; and the shape of her head, 
nose and mouth, and her amiable expression, reminded me of the 
picture of Pocahontas, the Indian girl, saving the life of Capt. Smith. 

The roof of the house inside was wholly exposed, and the finishing 
was of a curious style, with points and carvings in wood ; but there 
was not time to examine them. We had seen the Malay woman, had 
partaken of the hospitalities of a Malay family, eaten several kinds 
of fruits ; and, pleased with our visit, though a hurried one, we left 
again for the hotel. 

On the way we came to a large building, quite different from the 
others ; and, as it was lighted, we concluded, after hesitating a few 
moments, to look inside, not knowing who or what we might have to 
deal with. With pistols in our pockets and umbrellas in our hands, 
we felt equal to a trial, and descended a flight of seven or eight 
stone steps below the ground. Here was a platform of stone, and 
opposite another flight of steps leading up to the door. On each side of 
the platform, walled in, was a square pool of water! Ascending the 
steps, we opened the door and entered the building. There was a single 
light, and two men were prostrate, on the paved tile floor, before an 
altar or table ; and we perceived that it must answer to the Moham- 
medan mosque. The two men, on seeing us, arose and stared, as if 
wondering who the intruders could be. We made some signs, asking 
if we could look around, &c. They consulted a moment, and 
answered, 

" Urn dollar," making the motions to the effect that we could' see 
all for one dollar. 

There was, however, little more than an empty room, and we had 
seen all already. Turning around, we walked slowly out. The ceil- 
ing was the naked roof, without plastering. This was open wood- 
work, and oddly carved, somewhat like Rev. Mr. Clarke's church, in 
Boston. The pools of water outside were probably used in some of 
the religious rites. As they are placed directly in the way of the 
entrance, they may be for the feet before entering the mosque. We 
saw one woman wade in, agitate the water with her feet, and pass 
out asain. 



A MALAY DINNER. 71 

Finding our friends at the hotel still engaged, and dinner not ready, 
we sallied out again, taking, in the dark, a direction from whence we 
heard issuing musical sounds, — a peculiar tinkling and resonant note, 
as if of brass, with drummings, of a dull, dead sound, as if on decayed 
wood. 

This led us to the great banian-tree, where we found a group of 
natives, in the midst of whom were several of their musicians, sitting 
on the ground and playing. One had a sort of drum, another a one- 
stringed fiddle, a third was beating on a kind of metallic tureen, turned 
bottom side up, and a fourth on something which I could not make 
out. The fiddle was like that I have heard at the Chinese Museum, 
and the other instruments of a similar nature. It was as grotesque 
an admixture of sounds as I ever heard, yet not unmusical. Some 
of our sailors had gathered around, and were dancing and capering 
to the music ; for their feet were not to be kept still on land, after the 
constraint of a long sea voyage. 

On returning again to the hotel, and finding dinner waiting, we 
gave this our especial attention. Our company was now increased 
by an English captain, who was bound to New Holland, and a Mr. 
Henshawl, a naturalist, from England. 

We were soon seated at the table. I did not wish to eat, but went 
through the ceremony with the rest. The meats and vegetables were 
so different, and so cooked, that I did not like them at all. Curry and 
rice tasted like a mixture of gravy mixed with lime. Curry is a favor- 
ite dish in this country, but one taste was enough for me. It is made 
of some kind of meat, generally of chicken fried. A gravy, thickened 
with spices, tumeric, and the strongest pepper, &c, is poured over 
the meat, and eaten as a sauce with boiled rice. The two captains 
entered into an argument upon English and American sailors and 
seamanship, and followed it up with considerable warmth. We passed 
an hour very pleasantly. Mr. H. took us to his room, and showed us 
his works, &c. He is employed by an English horticultural society, 
botanizing in the East India Islands and South America ; — said he 

knew Mr. G 1, of Boston, and left him well, two days since, at 

Batavia. 

At a little past ten p, m. we were safely on board our vessel again 
— a lantern being hung; at the mast's head, which served to direct us 
in the right coursa 



72 CHINA AND MANILLA. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LEAVE JAVA. DANGEROUS POSITION. SUMATRA SHORES. THE TWO 

BROTHERS. GASPER STRAITS. ST. LUCAS ISLAND. TURTLE MEAT. 

CALM WEATHER. INTENSE HEAT. FROLICKING PISH. LETTER 

TO A BROTHER. UNWELCOME SEA-BATHS. 

Straits of Sunda, July 31st. 

Dear Brother S. : At daylight the ship's supplies were taken 
in, consisting of yams, plantains, green cocoa-nuts, sweet potatoes, 
green corn, squashes, geese, ducks, chickens and turtles, &c, and at 
seven we weighed anchor. There was so little wind that we were all the 
forenoon making eight or ten miles ; and then we were obliged to come 
to anchor again. A rocky island, with a few bushes growing on it, 
is distant about a quarter or half a mile. The current sets around 
this with much power. There being no wind to take us ofl', we were 
in danger of being drawn on the rocks ; and the captain cried out, 

" Let go the anchor ! " 

It is almost fearful to see the chain run out. The anchor is cut 
loose, and drags after it a large iron cable, twenty times as large and 
long as an ox-chain, that runs out with a tremendous velocity, raising 
a cloud of iron-rust dust and smoke, and rattling as if a whole machine- 
shop had broken loose, and was tearing all within it to atoms. 

While lying here I amused myself in trying to catch some fish, in 
viewing the island and rocks with the spy-glass, N and in watching the 
foaming surf as it broke over them. The captain this forenoon sent 
the second officer, with a boat and men, to sound the depth around the 
island. 

Not long after dinner the captain thought he heard the jarring of 
the anchor, as if dragging ; and he quickly called out to the mate for- 
ward, who examined and confirmed his suspicions. The captain 
evinced some surprise, and much anxiety. I noticed that the island 
was nearer by half its former distance, and every moment it seemed to 
approach, though I could discern no motion to the vessel. The cap- 
tain gave his orders hurriedly, here and there, in loud and decisive 
tones. He struck the knuckles of one hand into the palm of the other, 
and said to himself, 

" We shall go if that squall strikes her before we can get away ! " 

The sailors saw his emotion, and sprang from one part of the vessel 
to another, pulling a rope here, altering a sail there, and jumping 
impulsively the moment an order was given. A part of the men were 
heaving up the anchor, the captain cheering them on with — 

" Heave away, boys ! now, all together ! steady now ! pull away 
and up she comes ! " &c. 

I partook of the inspiration, and laid hold of the ropes wherever 
there was a chance of giving the least assistance. The rocks were 



"TWO BROTHERS." SUN-FISH. 73 

now but a little more than the vessel's length from us. The captain 
said, 

" Give us the vessel's length and the wind ; that is all I ask." 

A few moments of suspense followed, and I heard a loud breath. I 
saw that it was from the captain. He breathed again freely, and the 
perspiration rolled down his face. The sails filled, the anchor was 
free. The vessel sustained herself, stood still for a few moments, and 
then, with a movement hardly perceptible at first, glided off from the 
island, and in fifteen minutes she was past all danger. We kept directly 
on in the regular course for China, in view of the Sumatran shore. 

There were several natives of Sumatra off in their prows to-day, 
pulling after us, to sell us their fruits. They are much the same as 
the natives of Java. I gave a trifle for a basket of chilies (small 
green peppers) , thinking they might wake us up in this enervating 
climate. I took one about as large as a good-sized oat-seed, chewing 
it a little ; and it did wake me up, — so much so that I did not require 
another. It burned me like a coal of fire, which neither water or 
anything else would quench, until it ran its time ; and, instead of 
chewing them any longer, I eschewed the whole of them. 

Tuesday, August 1st. — The Sumatra shores are now at such a dis- 
tance that we can only see their blue hills. We have been tacking 
ship all day, with our neighbor, a Scotchman, from Glasgow, whom 
the captain has just spoken, and are in sight of two islands, called the 
" Two Brothers." Sometimes it is so calm that the vessel lies still on 
the water, only gently rocking ; and our neighbor Scotchman is in the 
same situation. The two captains have just conversed about the pros- 
pect of to-night. Everything is so quiet that we can hear very dis- 
tinctly what is said by the crews on both vessels. With the passen- 
gers it is some satisfaction to meet with and enjoy the companionship 
of another fellow-traveller upon the ocean ; but the captain does not 
evince so much pleasure, he being more independent of such influ- 
ences. We have made but thirty-two miles to-day. 

Wednesday, August 2d. — We go along slowly. Had heavy 
showers this morn. Our neighbor, the Scotchman, has fallen much 
astern. We have lost sight of the coast of Sumatra, and of the " Two 
Brothers," so that the sea appears again like the broad ocean. 

A large shoal of sun-fish were about the vessel to-day, and I tried 
to catch some, but they would not touch the bait. We have made 
about seventy miles, more than double the distance of yesterday. 

Thursday, August 3d. — This evening, at eight o'clock, we have 
just passed the narrowest part of Gasper Straits. We left, close ou 
our right, Pulo Leat, an island, on which, some two years ago, were 
lost two English frigates. These vessels were thrown on the rocks in 
the evening, the island having been mistaken for another. 

The crews defended themselves for three or four days from the native 
cannibals, while they sent a boat to Batavia for a ship and assistance. 
The relief came just in season to prevent their being sacrificed. In the 
mean time the vessels on the rocks were plundered of everything, and 
were a total loss. This island, and many others about here, we are 
told, are inhabited by cannibals. I was on deck most of this evening, 

7 



74 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

in the cool and refreshing breeze, and watching Gasper Island as it 
gradually came into sight. It was past midnight when we passed 
within three quarters of a mile of its shore. 

Between Borneo and Sumatra, Friday, August 4th. — It is quite 
warm this morning. This kind of weather is very depressing, the 
air seems so heated and rarefied. We all resort instinctively to the 
transom, where we lie reading or sleeping until something rouses us. 

We are again out at sea, with no land in sight. All the islands 
have disappeared, and we are skimming along at four or five knots an 
hour — not at ten or twelve, as in the Southern Ocean. We have 
passed this evening a vessel bound to Angier. All the civilities that 
could be exchanged in the dark were to hang lighted lanterns over 
the sides of each ship, and both kept on their respective courses. 

At about eight in the evening a vessel shot across our bows ; the 
captain hailed her with the trumpet, but she was probably another 
Dutchman, for he got no answer. As we lay nearly becalmed, we all 
took our seats on deck, and enjoyed the cool breeze till ten. The 
clouds appeared very beautiful after sunset. 

Saturday, August 5th. — We are again at the equator, and up at 
half-past seven. This afternoon we passed St. Lucas Island, at a dis- 
tance of about three quarters of a mile. It seemed an immense rock, 
covered in part with bushes and some cocoa-nut trees. The part next 
to us presented a bold front of rock, rising perpendicularly out of the 
water. Towards the other end was a sand-beach, on which we could 
discover only trunks of trees, drift-wood, &c. The whole island, I 
should judge, does not contain more than a dozen acres. I should like 
to be one of a party to visit and examine these islands. They show no 
signs of inhabitants, and appear to be formed on coral reefs. 

We crossed the equator this forenoon, for the second time. The air 
being very hot, we spent the evening on deck. Singapore lies one 
hundred and eighty miles to the westward of us, and on the other side 
of us is the island of Borneo. 

China Sea, Sunday, August 6th, 1848. — I arose this morning at 
seven, and breakfasted at eight. We had a new dish at this meal, 
which I did not relish well, namely, a turtle steak. The meat has a 
peculiar odor, which I dislike. It is very tender and white, and 
tastes much like young veal, though it is not as juicy as other meats. 
Many people contrive to make out four different kinds of meat in the 
turtle ; or that which tastes like beef, veal, pork, and chicken. I 
fancied I could discover these differences also. It is considered a great 
delicacy by many persons, but I doubt whether I should ever prefer it 
to other meats. 

This day has seemed much more like Sunday than the last, when 
we were at anchor in the Straits of Sunda, surrounded by the noisy, 
gabbling Malays, or on shore, at Angier, in the midst of another 
crowd. Never befiure did a Sunday pass when I paid so little respect 
to the Sabbath as I did to that. Nothing ought to prevent my recol- 
lection of and regard for that day ; but I well know why I did not 
then remember it. The continued excitement, the presence of land 
after so long and absence, — the sight of human beings from the other 



HEAT. BILL OF FARE. 75 

ships, convincing us again of the existence of others in the world 
beside ourselves, — the thoughts of going ashore, the jabbering con- 
fusion of the natives, and many other things, each and all conspired 
to the same end. 

To-day was observed more as it is at home. I read a few chapters 
in the gospel of Mark, and letters of John Q. Adams to his son on 
the Bible, published in the Christian Register; which were very 
instructive and interesting. I also read some from Swedenborg, but 
do not expect to make up for the loss of the forgotten Sunday. 

It has been exceedingly hot all day, and we have sought a cool 
place, removing from the cabin to the deck, and about ; but it could 
nowhere be found. "We are too near the equator to have the weather 
more temperate. Also we are near the land, which absorbs the heat 
much more than the water. It is as still on board to-day as in a 
church. "We are sailing very calmly and slowly, at about two knots 
an hour. Mr. R. and I promenaded the deck this evening. 

A shark's fin was seen yesterday by Mr. D. projecting out of the 
water, which was some evidence that a shark's body could not be 
far off, and that there were some of these savage creatures lurking 
about. They swim, when near the surface, with the back fin out of 
water. This morn the captain caught sight of one, and baited a 
hook, trailing it after the vessel ; but he saw no more of him. 

Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 

China Sea, August 7th. 

Dear Mr. M : The thermometer in the cabin is near ninety. On 

deck it would stand at one hundred degrees. I wear neither coat, 
vest, nor handkerchief; and am sometimes inclined to follow the 
Malay fashion, of wearing nothing. This afternoon I tried lying in the 
boat which hangs over the vessel's side. I lay comfortably there, 
until reminded, by the hardness of the bed, that I was still flesh and 
bones, and I returned to the cabin. I eat but little meat or fat food 
of any kind, abstinence from it being one of the best antidotes for 
heat. And I have found, heretofore, in adopting this mode of living, 
that less inconvenience from heat was experienced, and I have required 
much less drink than the others about me. It now requires some self- 
denial ; for we have the choicest meats, and other articles of food, that 
we have had since leaving Boston. The quantity of what we eat ought 
also to be taken into consideration ; for, if we overload the stomach 
with even a vegetable diet, the results may be also injurious. For 
breakfast, at present, we have chocolate, cold water, roast chickens 
or turtle-steak, hot biscuit, and fried sweet potatoes ; yams, and fried 
plantains. The plantains in flavor are somewhat similar to apples 
sliced and fried. For dinner we have roast goose, roast chickens, and 
roast pork, soup, boiled sweet potatoes and yams (the last much like 
the potato), squash, sweet-potato pudding, and water, not cold or 
good, but dashed with some of our lemon syrup, which renders it more 
palatable. For tea we have bread and butter, cold meat, sweet- 
potato or squash pie, and tea. 



76 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Tuesday, August 8th. — We are going on quite slowly. Sunday 
we sailed bat nineteen miles, and yesterday sixty. We are expecting 
every day to get into the regular north-west monsoon, and soon to 
reach Hong-Kong. Had we the winds that prevailed in the Southern 
Ocean, we should have gone up from Angier in about a week. I 
have been watching for snakes and sharks, as the captain informs me 
that the China Sea is full of them. Mr. D. has seen several snakes 
floating on the water. I have a perfect hatred for snakes on land, 
and sharks in the water. 

Wednesday, August 9th. — It is very slow sailing, this calm weather, 
we having made to-day only sixteen miles — less than a mile an hour. 
Some days we have made two hundred miles more than to-day. Day 
after day, for a week past, we have lain floating on the water, almost 
motionless. The heat is intense. On deck the pitch melts and runs 
out of the seams. At noon the mercury stood at one hundred and 
twenty- four degrees. But I do not know that I experienced a great 
deal more discomfort from the heat than I have some days in Boston. 
One inconvenience is the drenching perspiration, which makes us 
thirsty, and keeps some one of us pretty constantly stirring the lemon 
syrup ; though I hardly know whether to prefer the warm water with 
or without the syrup. It would be a great luxury to drop into the 
tumbler a piece of ice, to say nothing of the taste of the water, which 
has been shaken in barrels now more than three months. However, 
we sometimes resort to something better. We took in at Angier over 
a hundred green cocoa-nuts ; the steward cuts off the end of one with 
a hatchet, and we drink the water. Some of them contain nearly a 
quart of this sweet milky water. 

The last eve I spent the time in various ways : in playing on my 
flute, a game of whist, sitting on deck and having a chat with 
Mr. R. while we cooled off in the open air, and at last in taking a 
salt-water bath. We have not quite so good conveniences for that as 
are found under the Tremont House, in Boston, but we are willing to 
avail ourselves of such as we have. A half-dozen buckets of salt water 
are first thrown over you, as you stand crouched over with your head 
on your chest, and then you take possession of a half-hogshead of 
salt water, and splash about in it as long as you choose. Mr. R. 
administered the cooling lotion to me, and I experienced the full 
benefit of it, and afterwards felt much refreshed. As to drinking 
lemonade made of lemon syrup as freely as water, I believe it decid- 
edly bad. Pure water may be carried off naturally in perspiration, 
but lemonade requires digestive action, which operates injuriously 
where drink alone is required. 

Thursday, August 10th. — We are now beginning to move with 
more speed. I have commenced arrangements in anticipation of the 
debarkation at Hong-Kong, which we hope to realize next week. It 
is something of a task to arrange my things, though contained in the 
narrow dimensions of my state-room. My clothing and towels 
hang on the walls ; my books, papers, &c, are under the mattress of 
my berth ; and my boots, brushes, hats, and numerous small articles, 
are stowed wherever I could find a place for them. One of the 



A SEA-BATH. 77 

men has a bad abscess on his eye, which I have opened and syringed. 
I have performed other minor operations for different ones of the 
crew. 

Friday, August 11th. — This morning opened with two heavy 
showers of rain ; since which the wind has blown steadily, taking us 
along at the rate of seven or eight miles an hour ; and we conclude 
that we have entered the regular monsoon, which, at this season, blows 
from the south-west. The sea has exchanged its smooth and tranquil 
face for one more rough and boisterous. For the last week, when at 
times the water has been smooth as a mirror, its surface has been 
agitated by shoals of fish frolicking around us. Every day, a few yards 
from the vessel, they would appear, making the water boil with their 
gambols, while performing many fanciful evolutions. They resemble 
mackerel, but are larger. I am eagerly watching for a shark. The 
captain says that he never yet made a voyage without catching one, 
but it is now so late as to be quite doubtful whether he will have his 
usual success. 

As the wind rises the sea shows its rebellious spirit ; the vessel begins 
to reel about as in the Southern Ocean. 

Saturday, August 12th, latitude 8° 30' north. — We have squalls of 
wind and heavy showers. The sea is rough, and we are dancing up 
and down on it, according to the pleasure of the two elements. 

At Sea, Sunday, August 1'Sth. — Again we have had a fine Sunday, 
and a very comfortable day, with a warm sun and cool breeze. We 
are rapidly nearing the end of our voyage. To-day we have made two 
hundred and twenty miles, and each countenance brightens up at this 
cheering recital from the captain. We arose at half-past seven, 
bathed, breakfasted, and, after exercising on deck for a time, with 
books in hand we stretched ourselves upon the transom below. 

Monday, August 14th. — We have made over two hundred miles 
to-day. To-morrow,, we expect to see Chinese fishing-vessels, of which 
the captain has spoken, and then I shall be convinced that China is 
not far distant. 

For the last two days the heat has been pretty intense, and we all 
appear, and, I think, feel, much as a wilted leaf looks. It is too hot 
for eating or sleeping, and the transom is the general place of rendez- 
vous. I was on deck in the night till near two this morning, not being 
able to sleep before that hour. After getting to sleep I was disturbed, 
about three o'clock, by another nocturnal sea-bath, it having been too 
hot to have my window closed. I was suddenly awakened by it, and 
found the water pouring over me. At first the thought arose that I 
was overboard, but I soon discovered that the water came from the 
open window. The wind was blowing, and had so raised the sea that 
the water rushed upon me like a little river. Closing the window, I 
arranged myself as comfortably as I could, though well drenched, and 
went to sleep again. At about #ve o'clock another heavy sea came 
pouncing against the ship, and kindly presented me with a second 
edition of the bath. I arose, and ascertained that the window had 
been burst in. This being secured, I lay down in my drenched 
clothes, determined that I would remain till the usual time for rising. 



78 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

I was soon awakened, for the third time, by a loud crash, — a large 
sea having struck the ship astern. I looked into the cabin, and saw 
the captain spring from the transom, soaked through for the second 
time ; and we had considerable merriment at each other's expense. 
He, however, had received the largest libation of the briny element, 
the cabin windows being several times larger than those in the state- 
rooms. I enjoy salt-water baths, but like to choose my time for taking 
them. Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 



CHAPTER IX. 

FLYING-FISH FOR FOOD. CHINESE FISHING-BOATS. ISLANDS. ACCI- 
DENT. — CHINESE PILOT-BOAT. ARRIVAL AT HONG-KONG. APPEAR- 
ANCE OF THE PLACE. AMERICANS. LETTER TO A SISTER, AND 

INCIDENTS. HONG-KONG. CHINESE SERVANTS. THEIR NECESSITY 

TO FOREIGNERS. CHINESE SMALL FEET, ETC. 

China Sea, Tuesday, August 15th: — We are now not many days 
distant from Hong-Kong. While Boston friends have been enjoying 
the summer, or a part of it, in the country, it has not been so with 
me. The summer of this year to me is lost, having seen nothing that 
reminded me of it. It is difficult to realize that it is not yet May, that 
summer is to come, or that it passed while we were sleeping. I can- 
not realize that I have had anything to do with it, but my dates 
convince me that this season is nearly past. 

We have had for breakfast a flying-fish, that flew on board yester- 
day and fell on the deck. It was very nice, being tender and of fine 
flavor ; still I should prefer fresh cod at home. I noticed that the 
flying-fish has four wings, two large and two small. To-day I vacci- 
nated the captain, Mr. R. and myself, as a precautionary measure, 
previous to landing in China. 

Wednesday, August 16th, latitude 19° 14'. — Only two degrees from 
Hong-Kong. The vessel now moves at the rate of nine knots an hour, 
but I almost fear to look out, lest it should become calm. The weather 
is hot, though less so than yesterday. At dinner to-day our last goose 
was served up, and this afternoon our last pig suffered death at the 
hands of the cook. 

Thursday, August 17th. — I arose this morning full of hope, expect- 
ing to see Hong-Kong, and was not disappointed. We all beheld it 



CHINESE PILOT-BOAT. 79 

with much interest, it being the first Chinese land we had seen. As 
we approached, several Chinese fishing-boats, lying outside, presented 
a worse appearance than the Malay boats we had left behind. During 
the forenoon, having sailed in among the islands, and nearly shut out 
from the main sea, we saw one of their boats making directly for us, 
'and it soon was alongside. A Chinaman, holding on to the mast, 
was crying out, 

" Capem, hab pilort? Capem, hab pilort? " almost as fast as he 
could speak. 

Poor fellow ! < one minute he was happy, smiling and gesticulating 
excitedly, with the expectation of getting his pilotage, and the next he 
was angrily shaking the rudder, and jabbering away to his men. His 
hopes were suddenly blasted, for his boat caught on the boat-cranes of 
our ship, which broke his mast, and the sails fell on his deck. A 
striking change came over his countenance ; he looked first on his 
crew and shattered sails, and then at us, as we left him behind, and 
he burst into a furious storm against his wife, who had had charge of 
the helm. The last we saw of him, his boat was pitching up and 
down in the same place, while we were keeping on our way. 

At twelve m. another pilot-boat appeared, and was more successful. 
Two Chinamen came on board, and the captain inquired their price 
for piloting into Hong-Kong. After some hesitation, one answered, 

" Twenty-five dollars." 

The captain laughed, but made no answer, and the celestial pilot 
diminished the price, five dollars at a time, twenty dollars, and an 
agreement was made for five dollars. The captain offered to send us 
into Hong-Kong by the pilot-boat, which would go much quicker than 
the ship ; but we preferred staying with the vessel to going aboard of 
that Chinese craft, with the whole family on board, and no place 
to sit. It was a dirty, rickety thing, with fish scattered about to dry, 
and smelling bad enough to produce cholera. The woman had com- 
mand of the helm, and had an infant slung to her back. At first I 
thought it was dead, its head moving, like a leaden weight, from side 
to side, with the motions of the mother ; but I soon perceived that it 
was accustomed to this kind of life, and was asleep. The boat staid 
by us for an hour, having three other pilots on board, and then went 
on to find other ships. Before leaving, one of them, having heard me 
addressed as doctor, made my acquaintance, and wished me to go on 
board of the boat and extract a tooth. This he expressed by signs, 
mingled with English and Chinese words. 



80 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Their sails are singular-looking things, made of coarse matting, 
spreading and closing like a fan ; and the hull was coarsely constructed 
of bamboo, with some other kinds of wood. 

The ship has been beating up slowly against the current all day. 
It seems as if we shall never pass all the islands, a distance of only a 
few miles ; but we shall try to be patient until to-morrow. 

Friday, August ISth, Hong-Kong . — Early this morning there was 
considerable noise overhead, awaking me before light. Seated in my 
berth, and looking out of the window, I beheld a scene very different 
from anything I had witnessed for a long time. It appeared more 
like a picture than a reality, and much like a panoramic view. But 
I did not remain there long, the deck affording a better prospect. I 
saw enough, however, to notice a number of Chinese rowing about in 
their curious boats, and many vessels at anchor. There is a large 
man-of-war, and beyond it, at the foot of very high land, in the back- 
ground, and lying along the water's edge, is what I take to be the 
town of Hong-Kong. It appears like a long range of brick-kilns, of a 
disagreeable red color. Rising above, in several places, are a number 
of large and well-appearing white houses ; but the view is not pre- 
possessing. I conclude that I shall not wish to stop here long, and 
that my curiosity will be soon over. The surrounding scenery is 
generally interesting. The harbor seems like a pretty lake, of ten 
miles in breadth, enclosed within a circle of bold, rugged, and barren 
ranges of mountains. There are few trees and but little green foliage 
visible, and Hong-Kong looks sunburnt and brown. It is now seven 
o'clock in the morning, and I am writing in my little room these 
few lines, which is as much as I accomplish at one time. I have 
just overheard the second officer say to the captain, 

" A gentleman wishes to see you." 

And, a moment after, another voice, 

" Good-morning, captain." 

He speaks English ; yes, he is an American. His name is Williams. 
He has come on board for letters, packages, and general news. Enter- 
ing into conversation, he inquires if we did not have a hard typhoon 
several days ago. He informs the captain that there was one, a 
hundred miles back, on our route ; that vessels were dismasted, and 
that some went to pieces, &c. The news that each has to relate is 
quickly communicated, and now he has taken leave. 

Mr. Ingols, also an American, came on board soon after, for the 
same purpose. 



HONG-KONG. 81 

When I first arose I looked out of the companion-way to the deck, 
and saw several Chinese, with their ugly long dresses, braided taila 
of hair, and angular eyes, gabbling away very earnestly with each 
other, and now and then peering down into the cabin. 

Very high land rises directly in front of the vessel. It is so high 
that from the cabin I cannot see its top. It looks like the base of a 
high mountain. 

While we were at breakfast an English officer came on board, and 
took notes concerning our cargo, the list of passengers, &c, observing 
that this was unpleasant business to him, and that he hoped it would 
soon be dispensed with. Afterwards there came a Mr. Duus, who 
invited us to go ashore in his boat, which invitation we gladly 
accepted. His boat was covered, and protected from the sun. 

I find the man-of-war to be the " Cambrian," an English vessel, 
and the brick-kiln-looking shore to be the sides of the mountain, 
washed and worn out by the rain, which shows the soil to be red. 
The position of our vessel was such that when on board we could see 
little else than the dark mass of tiled roofs, and the red earth on the 
sides of the mountain. Now, on shore, we find quite a little city. 

After sitting a while at Messrs. Rawle and Duus', and refreshing 
ourselves by a glass of beer, Mr. R. and I started for the hotel, a 
Chinese boy showing us the way. We passed along a street of Chinese 
stores, — curious-looking places, two stories high, with the fronts of 
the first story entirely open. They reminded me of rows of cabins on 
board our river steamboats, they were so uniform. As we passed 
along we glanced into the shops, and invariably met several China- 
men, with wooden faces, staring out at us, and as quietly as if they 
had been so doing for several hours. We thought them the greatest 
starers we had ever seen. Having reached the hotel, we made the 
acquaintance of Mr. Winneberg, the proprietor, and arranged to stay 
there. Mr. W. is a Pole by birth, but speaks good English. We sat 
down, had some soda-water brought, and then amused ourselves in 
looking at the servants and hearing them talk. They were Chinese 
boys, with bald heads, and long braided tails hanging down their 
backs. They wore white frocks, long stockings, and slouching pan- 
taloons. As they turned from us, we laughed, and commented on 
their figures, the odd tones and inflections of their voices, their queer 
mixture of English and Chinese. I thought to myself that if we 
looked as singularly to them as they do to us, I would endeavor to be 
charitable towards them when subjected to their criticism and curi- 



82 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

osity ; for when we look at our own dress, we find it much more 
unnatural than theirs. Our tall, hollow hats, and long-tailed coats, 
cannot be beaten this side of the moon. Having examined the pictures 
about the room, and observed the foreign air of everything, we walked 
out to see how things appeared. Passing down the street to the west, 
we noticed fine large buildings on both sides, all of European construc- 
tion, — the English barracks, hospital, &c. The streets have comfort- 
able sidewalks, and the roads are excellent, being Macadamized as 
smoothly and evenly as if plastered with mortar. Crowds of Chinamen 
were moving along at a half-run, with burthens upon their backs. 
"We see no horses, except a few for the pleasure of private individuals, 
and used only for riding or with a carriage. The Chinese coolies per- 
form all the labor of horses and cattle. The weather is intensely hot, 
and had I not taken my umbrella we should have suffered much. 

I called on Mr. and Mrs. Baylies, and was very glad to see their 
faces, they being the only persons here with whom I am acquainted. 
Joining Mr. R. at the hotel, we there met Captain Graves, Mr. Dane, 
and Mr. Haskell, and Mr. Bassett, — a pleasant party of Americans, 
and all well acquainted. As the hotel was full, Mr. R. and I were 
obliged to take cane-seated settees in a room together at night for our 
beds. 

Saturday , August 19th. — "We breakfasted together this morn at 
eight o'clock, not much refreshed by the rest of last night. "We lay 
cramped up on the settees, roasting, and half eaten up by mosquitoes. 
I do not think I slept ten minutes, and Mr. R. was talking to them 
apparently the whole night. 

We have had heavy showers and violent gusts of wind through the 
day. All are expecting a typhoon, — a very destructive wind, which 
often takes off the roofs of buildings, and damages the shipping. We 
dined at half-past four, and had coffee at nine p. m., in the room occu- 
pied by Mr. Bassett, where we were convened. 

Sunday, August 20th. — I arose at half-past six a. m. Mr. R., Mr. 
B. and myself, went with Captain Bearse, before breakfast, on board 
of his ship. There are no wharves here, and vessels are obliged 
to lie off in the harbor. Each ship hires a Chinese boat by the 
day, which holds itself in readiness to serve at all times. We also 
visited the " General Harrison," Captain Gardiner, of Boston. 
While out in the boat a squall came up, which threatened to capsize 
us ; but the Chinese manage a boat well. It rained in torrents, but 
the boat's cover and our umbrellas kept us nearly dry. Several times 



SEDANS. MUSIC. A DENTAL OPERATION. 83 

the boat dipped, but the water quickly ran out, our unnecessary fears 
allayed, and we were returned safe to the shore. 

At noon we called at the American consul's, Mr. Bush's, to deliver 
our letters of introduction. He was away, but we were politely enter- 
tained by Mr. Nye, formerly from New Bedford. We are careful to 
keep out of the sun, in the middle of the day. 

This day has not seemed much like Sunday, though I tried to make 
it appear so by reading a few chapters in the Bible. There is an 
Episcopal church here, which is little attended now, — most of its 
members being at Macao during; the hot weather, which continues 
through July, August, and September. Sunday is like any other day 
to the Chinese, who frequent their Josh houses at any time during 
the day or week. 

Monday, August 2\st. — Mr. Bassett, Mr. Haskell, Mr. Rotch and 
myself, breakfasted together at the hotel. Afterwards, I walked to 
the side of the mountain, winding up by the narrow streets, which 
are cut out of the steep sides. "We met some gentlemen and ladies 
riding in their sedans. I think that I could not content myself to be 
carried in that manner, on the backs of human beings ; but I am 
aware of the influence of custom, and I shall not be surprised to find, 
at any time, that I have adopted the same mode of conveyance. The 
walled up water-courses are quite ornamental, and the water glides 
along in them from the high ravines to the harbor. I was so hot and 
fatigued, that a short walk and shorter ascent satisfied me. I passed 
some Chinese convicts at work on the streets, with armed guards 
standing over them. They were all in chains, and looked, most of 
them, like desperate characters. Towards night, Mr. H. and I walked 
up to the English barracks, and saw drilling some companies of Irish 
and Bombay soldiers which are stationed here. 

A stranger, in the hotel, hearing my flute, this evening, came 
in with his accordeon, and we played a few tunes together. 

Tuesday, August 22d. — I called at Mr. B.'s and met Dr. M., the 
colonial surgeon. I found him very affable and agreeable, and made 
an appointment to meet him. I also visited the English frigate, the 
" Cambrian," with Mr. Bassett, and afterwards we went on board 
the " Cleone," an American merchantman. After dinner, I was 
called by Dr. M. to go and perform an operation on a gentleman's 
teeth. Dr. Y. administered chloroform, and I removed several of the 
offending organs, without any sensibility to the patient. Towards 



84 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

night we walked to the barracks, and listened to the playing of the 
military band on the parade-ground. 

Wednesday, August 23c/. — Mr. R. wished me to go with him in the 
" T. W. Scars " to Cantyn, but I could not accompany him. To-day 
I have remained at home, at the hotel. In the evening we had music 
in Mr. Bassett's room. The weather is extremely hot in Hong-Kong. 
I begin to wonder if it is not warmer than usual. Even when we keep 
perfectly still and quiet, we perspire profusely 7 . 

Thursday, August 24:th. — I have walked up the valley between the 
mountains, and seen the English race-ground, — Mr. Lewis, of 
Penang, accompanying me. By the hospitable politeness extended by 
Messrs. Drinker & Co., I took up my abode at their house to-day. I 
have called on Dr. Morrison, and had an hour of pleasant conversa- 
tion on various topics relating to China. 

It is very sickly among the English troops. Nine of them died 
to-day. Their disease is called the " Hong-Kong intermittent fever," 
and often terminates life very suddenly. On the day that we landed, 
a man, who was stopping here at the hotel, breakfasted, as usual, was 
afterwards taken ill, and went to the hospital, and at six in the 
afternoon he was dead and buried. He was, however, intemperate in 
both eating and drinking. On the next day eleven persons, and nine 
on the succeeding one, fell victims to the disease, and were buried on 
the days of their deaths. They bury here almost immediately after 
death. 

LETTER TO A SISTER-IN-LAW. 

Hong-Kong, August 25th. 

My dear Sister E. C. B. : Last night I had no sleep, on account 
of a few insignificant insects, called mosquitoes. They continued their 
ravages most of the night ; and, this morning, my lace, forehead and 
hands, are covered with the effects of .their bites. This is the first of 
my occupation here at Mr. Drinker's, and probably I did not arrange 
the net properly. To-night, I shall, no doubt, profit by my experi- 
ence. Mr. D. is an American merchant, and has been here several 
years. There are several others from America connected with the 
house, which will make it pleasant for me. Mr. and Mrs. Baylies are 
also staying here for the present, besides three or four other Americans. 
Altogether, we make up quite a representation of Americans ; and, I 
should think, considerable of a family to Mr. D., the servants all 
included. 

This afternoon I dined with Mr. Bush, the American consul. I 
there met another agreeable company of Americans, several of whom 
belonged to the house. We were seated at half-past four, and made 



SERVANTS. 85 

a large table-full, that was set out in handsome style, and loaded to 
profusion with various eatables, &c, and attended by an array of 
Chinese servants, fourteen or sixteen, to see that the plates were 
replenished ; so that we could but eat, whether we would or not. 
Judging from two days' experience with two American families, I 
should think they were daily keeping a general thanksgiving. There 
was only one lady at the table, Mrs. N. She reminded me, in her 
manners and general deportment, so much of sister C. that I was 
really inclined to sadness ; and I think that I must have appeared 
strangely, by my absent-mindedness. An hour and a half passed, and 
then all adjourned to the veranda, up stairs. Here, in bamboo re- 
clining-chair, and overlooking the harbor, we enjoyed coffee and cigars, 
engaging in social and lively conversation. On taking leave, Mr. 
B. informed me of his hours for breakfast, dinner and tea, and said he 
should be happy to have me come in, whenever disposed, and take a 
seat at his table, where there would always be a plate, knife, fork, &c, 
for me. I thanked him for this proof of his kindness, but am unwill- 
ing to make such a free use of his hospitality. 

Saturday, August 26th. — The Chinese servants are called boys. It 
makes no difference if they are fifty years old ; they are still called 
boys. To-day, when Mr. Ingols called out for his boy, there came a 
bald-headed, grave and dignified Chinaman, with, apparently, years 
enough over his head to be Mr. Ingols' father. The boy answered to 
his demands, and disappeared. If these are the boys, I suppose you 
may ask, " Where are the men? " 

My boy made his appearance to-day. I determined, at first, that I 
would not have any servant. I noticed yesterday, at breakfast, that 
there was one behind every chair but mine, some fourteen in all, and 
concluded that there were altogether too many of them, and that I 
would not be the means of adding to the number. I thought it need- 
less for each one to have a servant to wait on him at the table, and 
preferred to wait on myself, rather than to ask anything of such 
repulsive-looking characters. However, I soon found that it was not 
easy to do without them. It is the custom here, and others at the 
table would not help me ; in fact, they kept things out of my reach. 
They knew that I had no servant, and intended to force me to get one, 
which they did. I found that my boots went without blacking, that 
my mosquito-net was full of mosquitoes, that every one but myself 
• had a cup of coffee in the morning, that no water was taken to my 
chamber, that there was no one to bring me a cup of tea in the even- 
ing, that I needed a boy to get me a tailor, a washerman, a boatman, 
&c. ; and that a great variety of things made it necessary for me to 
fall in with the custom. Even my clothes were not safe from theft by 
the other boys, unless I had my own boy to be responsible for their 
safety. I disliked the idea of being so helpless and dependent for 
things I had been in the habit of, and preferred, doing myself; but I 
must now have some one to do them for me. TV hen I first saw my 
boy, although good-looking enough for one of his nation, I did not 
fancy him, and did not wish to speak to him, or call on him for any- 
thing. At dinner, he took his place behind my chair, and very atten- 

8 



86 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

tively waited on me, but I felt as much annoyance as satisfaction from 
his presence. 

Sunday, August 27th. — The business places of foreigners are closed 
to-day ; but the shops and working places of the Chinese are open, as 
on any other day. The Chinese proceed with their affairs as if Sun- 
day never came. 

The heat is so oppressive that I remained within doors most of the 
day. Towards night, I took a walk with Mr. H., and returned to the 
veranda at Mr. D.'s, where we extended ourselves on the big chairs, to 
enjoy the cooling breeze from the water. These chairs are made of 
bamboo, and set on little wheels, and are so constructed that one may 
sit or lie on them, in almost any position. 

The veranda here opens in front, from the second story, and affords 
a full view of the harbor, vessels, and the surrounding country. Below 
the veranda, the garden reaches to the water, where it is protected by 
a sea-wall of stone blocks. Flowers, in rows of crockery vases, sur- 
round the garden, and border the hard and smooth walks that inter- 
sect each other. Different kinds of palm-trees, pumaloes, orange, lemon, 
&c, shrubs and plants, otherwise ornament the grounds. The inmates 
of the house can sit here at the close of the day, sip their tea or coffee, 
smoke their cigars, enjoy the scenery, and view the ever-varying 
movements of the busy Chinese, who are crossing and re-crossing with 
their boats, in every possible direction. The lower part of the house 
contains the offices, and is the place of business and storage of the 
goods. 

While here, for the first time, I summoned up sufficient resolution 
to call upon my boy. According to the custom, I cried out, in a 
pretty strong tone, 

"Boy! " 

Immediately perceiving that my voice was much too faint, I fol- 
lowed it with a louder, 

"Boy! " 

Waiting a few moments, without any answer, I essayed again, with 
a good sizable voice, 

"Boy-e ! " 

But no answer. Recollecting that the house was large, and that 
it was necessary for the sounds to penetrate to the furthest part, I 
prepared for another, though a little frightened with the noise I had 
already made ; for at home there would have been a dozen people after 
me, inquiring what the trouble was ; and, being naturally quiet in my 
disposition, it seemed inconsistent to be making such an ado about a 
cup of tea. However, I had commenced on the disagreeable under- 
taking, and the boy must come, or I should go after him, and I might 
not know him, they all look so much alike. Taking a full inspiration, 
I screamed out, in a voice which reminded me of our captain when he 
was speaking a ship, 

"Boy ! " 

I was about repeating it, with the same strength, when I heard the 
bleating and drawling sound of " Sarr," wafted back in a distant 
voice, as if from the boat-landing. His big, clumsy feet soon an- 



" ABSENT FRIENDS." 87 

nouneed his presence ; and, as intelligibly as my knowledge of the 
Anglo-Chinese language would admit, I gave him his directions : 

" Boy, go catchee two piecey tea." 

He departed, and quickly returned with the two cups of tea, and 
following him was another boy with the milk and sugar. We drank 
our tea and had our cups replenished ; and I gave the boy directions 
to call me at six in the morning. A servant is here considered as 
indispensable as a hat or coat, though, to me, any one but Chinese 
would seem more acceptable. Their looks — bony, clumsy figures, 
shaved heads, big feet, queue hanging down their backs, and reaching 
nearly to the ground, wooden countenances, long frocks, baggy 
trousers, wrinkled leggins, &c. — are all against them. If one could 
get along without them, judging from myself, he would sooner give 
them their wages to keep away. 

But they must have their six or seven dollars a month, and are to 
be at your beck and call at all hours of the day. They call you when 
the meals are ready, wait on you during the meal, change your plate, 
bring your coffee, pass you the various dishes, and stand behind your 
chair to see that you do not want for anything till you have finished. 
Every person at the table, children and grown people, must be waited 
on by their own particular servant. If you go to dine with a friend, 
your boy goes to wait on you, and there he takes his place behind your 
chair, at the table. 

I attended the Episcopal church. There were about eight ladies 
and thirty gentlemen present. They almost all came in their sedan- 
chairs, carried by Chinese coolies. It was a queer sight to see these 
chairs all about the door, with the coolies standing beside them. 

Monday, August 28th. — My boy called me as directed, and brought 
a cup of coffee to my bedside. He polished my boots, and laid out my 
clothes for me, to put on when I should get up. There are no female 
servants, chambermaids, &c. ; therefore it devolves on the boy to see 
to the bed, washing apparatus, and everything pertaining to the room. 
He does not wash and sweep the floor, and do things of that kind, 
which belong to the coolies, a lower grade of servants. I asked my 
boy to do something which happened to be the work of a cooly, and 
he answered, 

"No can; that no my pigeon" (business). "My talkee that 
cooly man ; he belong that pigeon." 

" But," said I, " you can do it much quicker than to call for the 
cooly." 

" No can, no can. I no sarvy that cooly man pigeon. I talkee 
he, — he come chop-chop." 

And away he went, and brought the cooly. 

A beautiful custom is here observed by foreigners, that of offering, 
each day, at the dinner- table, sentiments of remembrance to '* absent 
friends," the last thing before rising from the table. All fill their 
glasses, and the head of the house proclaims, 

" Absent friends ! " 

And all then respond aloud, " Absent friends," and touch the 
glasses to their lips. As the friends may be in America, or England, 



88 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

or scattered over the different oceans, it seems like offering a slight 
tribute to the memory of departed ones, and I find that my thoughts 
pass as readily to friends departed as to those who are only absent. 
It is probable that in this feeling others sympathize. With these 
memories of absent friends, perhaps there are at this time some the 
loss of whom the next arrival shall bring to our knowledge. At 
the time " Absent friends " is given, all things else — the laugh, the 
merry jokes — give place, and, for the moment, a shade of solemnity 
falls over the scene, as each one seems giving utterance to his emotions, 
a Yes, — absent friends ! God protect and return them to us." 

Wednesday, August 30*A. — I arose at six a. m., and wrote a letter 
to send by the overland mail, which leaves this forenoon. I would 
gladly have avoided it, I felt such lassitude from the weather ; but the 
mail goes only once a month, and write I must. Towards evening, 
with Mr. Meigs and Mr. and Mrs. Baylies, and with a Chinese crew, 
I had an excursion in the harbor in Mr. Drinker's boat, returning 
about dark. It was very pleasant to pass among the vessels, and 
refreshing to feel and breathe the cool air from the water. 

In the evening I read from Sir John Simpson's interesting overland 
journey around the world. He went from London to Nova Scotia, 
throuo-h the British dominions to the Pacific, then to the Sandwich 
Islands, then to Siberia, and across Europe home. 

I have now seen one specimen of the small feet of the Chinese. 
Every day an old woman, seated on the sidewalk, employs her time 
in sewing. Her feet are not larger than those of a child of four years, 
and have little pointed shoes on them. In passing, I fancy they 
belong to some little child concealed about her dress. This custom, 
they say, originated with the family of an emperor in olden time. 
Having a daughter born with club-feet, he commanded that the feet of 
all females born from that time should be compressed ; and since then 
the custom has been rigidly observed. Another account is that a 
daughter of the emperor being born with club-feet, it became fashion- 
able for the females to try to imitate them by compressing the feet 
with bandages, and eventually, small feet being preferred, the fashion 
to make them as small as possible became established. 

The lower classes, however, do not adopt it their feet being of the 
usual size, which they find necessary to keep so as long as they are 
obliged to work for a living. The small feet belong to ladies who are 
not necessitated often to use them. When they go out, they are car- 
ried in sedan-chairs. The woman spoken of above, I presume, was 
formerly one of this class. She has the appearance of having seen 
better days. She daily occupies the same place on the sidewalk, sit- 
ing upon a low stool, and doing job mending for the Chinese. She 
is alwavs busy with her sewing, and rarely raises her head to see what 
is going on around. But if I send you these few dates I must close, 
hoping; that you are sufficiently recovered to go to N. 

1 & Yours, &c, B. L. B. 



DESCRIPTION OF HONG-KONG. 89 



CHAPTER X. 

DESCRIPTION OF HONG-KONG. WALK THROUGH THE CITY. PEOPLE. 

DIFFERENT NATIONS. LETTER TO SISTER H. TYPHOON : ITS VIO- 

LENCE AND EFFECTS. DISTINCTIONS AMONG SERVANTS. SEDAN CHAIRS. 

TRICKS OF CHINESE BOATMEN. 

Hong-Kong is an island, and not, as is the general impression, a 
Chinese city. It is a British colony within a few miles of the Chinese 
coast. It was Chinese until the treaty after the war ceded it to Eng- 
land. At that time it was inhabited only by a few fishermen and 
pirates. It is an elevation of barren mountains, with scarcely any 
vegetation, and is about twenty-live miles in circumference and eight 
in diameter. Its shores are generally bold, and the water deep near 
the coast. There are, however, several spots with declivities sufficiently 
gradual for the locations of cities. The English government has taken 
possession of these, and erected fortifications and barracks, where they 
keep small garrisons of troops. Victoria is the principal, and the 
destination of all vessels that are bound for Hong-Kong. It is a depot 
or central station for vessels from all countries when in this quarter of 
the world. In fact, Hong-Kong is Victoria, and Victoria Hong-Kong, 
though strictly speaking Hong-Kong is the country, and Victoria its 
capital. 

Victoria is on the north side of the island, built on the base and on 
the inclination of a conspicuous mountain which overlooks the har- 
bor. It extends about two miles along the edge of the water, and 
back on the side of the mountain a quarter of a mile. It has only 
one large and principal street, which is near the water and encircles 
the island. This is the only street at the foot of the mountain. There 
are several others parallel with it, and from twenty to forty feet one 
above the other. The small cross-streets uniting them are steep, and 
at some places have flights of steps by which to ascend and descend. 
Taking the zig-zag streets in their proper order, I believe the highest 
houses may be reached with a carriage. The houses are generally of 
two or three stories, though many at the outer part of the city, called 
bungaloes, are of one story, and look like cottages. Open to the 
country on the west of the city you will see the steep side of the moun- 
tain, with only here and there a poverty-stricken Chinaman's cabin. 
The ground is covered with rocks, a little grass, and, higher up, with 
8* 



90 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

brush. The white buildings conspicuous here and there are the police 
stations. Following the road to the east, you enter the Chinese part 
of the city, a mass of low buildings, shabby and unpainted, with 
the exception of a few blocks of European-built houses. A little fur- 
ther along, and you are in the central part of the Chinese quarter. 
Here are a number of small sailor taverns, every evening lively with 
the fiddle, drum, tambourine, and dancing. Looking in at the door 
of the front room, if the screen is removed, can be discovered a party 
of sailors, of all nations, — black and white, — with a sprinkling of 
English and Ceylon soldiers from the garrison, enjoying themselves 
after their own fashion. Early in the evening they are in a state of 
high glee ; later, their spirits begin to flag, and they have to replenish 
them from a well-stored bar at the back part of the room ; still later, 
some of them become so Zoiy-spirited that the interposition of their 
comrades is needed to induce them away, and occasionally the police 
have to render their assistance. In the long line of square windows, 
without glass, over the Chinese shops, sit a certain class of Chinese 
women, ogling and looking out on the passers-by. 

Following the road as it winds around and ascends upon higher 
ground, we come to the European part, the central portion of 
Victoria. On the left is a row of Chinamen's shops, beyond which, 
along the edge of the harbor, are occasionally the large houses of 
Europeans, or foreigners. On the right are blocks of European build- 
ings, rising one above another, and among them may be recognized 
Mr. Bush's, the U. S. A. Consulate, over which the American flag is 
waving, Mr. Eawle's, Dr. Morrison, the American missionary's, and 
others of English residents. Behind these, a little distance up the 
inclined plane, the mountain rises abruptly, and to the eye nearly per- 
pendicular, and terminating in a peak near three thousand feet high. 
A scanty vegetation of grass and brambles there appears, but there is 
little else than rocks, some of which seem to hang by nothing, and 
may, eventually, becoming loosened, roll down, and cut their way 
through the settlements to the water. 

Passing along, we come to the principal business part of the city. 
On the right is the hotel, with blocks of houses occupied mostly by 
English and foreigners, auctioneers, apothecaries, the club-house of 
the merchants, &c, and back short streets of Chinese mechanics. On 
the left are Messrs. Rawle, Drinker & Co., Messrs. Dent & Co., and 
others, the Bank, and some retail stores. Continuing along the water 
towards the east, after a short interval we see the military quarters, 



THE TYPHOON. 91 

which enclose within a quarter of a mile the showy stone barracks, 
parade-ground, officers' residences, in elevated positions, the church, 
and other buildings. Half a mile further is a fine block of buildings 
occupied by Messrs. McKean & Co., Gov. Bonham, and others. Then 
come the hospital, ship-yard, and Messrs. Jardine & Co.'s large mer- 
chant establishment. And thus the settlement of Victoria is strung 
out for two or three miles along the shore. 

The population, I should think, might be twenty thousand, including 
Chinese. I should say that only a small proportion was European. 
Almost every nation is represented here, though there are only a few 
of each. I can enumerate with the English, American and Chinese, 
the Spanish, French, Portuguese, Persians, Bengalese, Javanese, and 
Manilla Indians, the German, Italian, Russian, Danish, Swiss, Dutch, 
Belgian, Pole, and the Arab, Turk, Armenian, Tartar, Siamese, Afri- 
can, and South American. 

Hong-Kong , August 31st. — It has been raining hard all day. At 
one of the Chinese shops, where I was making some inquiries, I saw a 
Chinaman who spoke good English, and appeared so polite that I 
6topped a while, and entered into conversation with him. He told me 
his name was Ayoii ; that he had lived two years in Boston ; that 
formerly he was comprador to Mr. Cushing at Canton, and after- 
wards lived with him in America. Preferring his own country, he 
returned, and now has a large alum establishment, in which, he says, 
he is doing a good business ; he added, that a Chinaman who speaks 
both English and Chinese can make " plenty money " in China. 

This evening I was present at a dinner-party given by Mr. W. at 
the hotel. He called it a christening party for his little child. There 
were twenty or thirty present, of whom a few were ladies. Dinner 
was served at six, and supper at eleven p. m. Toasts were freely given 
and drank, and our company so composed of different nations that 
there was much mirth and humor. I was the only American, and, the 
stars and stripes being toasted by an Englishman, I of course responded 
to the everlasting friendship of the two countries. Songs were sung, 
and at twelve the party broke up. But a storm was raging without, 
and had increased to a typhoon. We hardly stepped out the door 
before we retreated within again. It was raining and blowing in 
great gusts, and the air was of Egyptian darkness. Glass was break- 
ing, blinds slamming, boards rattling, tiles falling from the roofs, and 
bricks from the chimneys, and broken shutters were falling into the 
street. It sounded as if everything was unloosed and in motion. The 



92 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

blinds and windows seemed ready to break in with a crash ; missiles 
were clattering over the house in different directions, and within was 
occasionally heard the falling of glass or earthenware. Several times 
we essayed to go home, but our eyes could not penetrate the blackness, 
and it was considered unsafe to make any further attempt. Mr. W. 
very kindly provided us all with sleeping apartments, and made us 
welcome for the night. 

Friday, Septe?nber 1st. — ***** The night has 
been fearful, and one that I shall not soon forget. I could not sleep 
in the noise of so much clatter and crash till past three o'clock. The 
house itself shook so that several times I was on the point of spring- 
ing up, thinking that the roof was actually being wrenched off. Every- 
thing was made as secure as possible, and yet there was a constant din 
of cracking and falling glass. The wind gathered and groaned as if 
with herculean efforts to level all with the ground. Again and 
again it came with increased power. Sometimes it seemed as if an 
immense serpent had encircled the building in its folds, and that the 
timbers, one after another, were giving way, and the sides of the house 
being crushed in its fearful embrace. Amid the raging of the storm 
I at length fell asleep, and dreamed that I was in a terrible tempest at 
sea. I thought the vessel was driven with such force that it skimmed 
over the surface of the water, and then, leaving the sea, flew through 
the air over the land, coming in contact with the hills, and bounding 
along like a balloon across the valleys. 

I arose this morning at eight, and, in returning home, was wet by a 
driving rain. It was so dark at Mr. Drinker's that we had lights on 
the table at breakfast, although at nine o'clock in the forenoon. All 
here had been terrified, and many fears entertained for the safety of 
the house. The doors and windows were barricaded, and required at 
times the united strength of all. The garden was in ruins. Plantain- 
trees were broken down, other trees nearly destroyed, and flower-pots 
were strewed abotft and broken up. The water in the harbor had 
torn and washed up into the garden large stones from the sea-wall ; 
the walks had caved away, &c. I walked out with a friend to see 
what havoc had been made elsewhere. We found the shore lined with 
wrecks of Chinese junks. Vessels were dismasted, and some were on 
shore. The bodies of drowned Chinamen were being carried away on 
boards. Sides of buildings were blown out, and the water near the 
shore was full of spars and drift-wood of various kinds. The slight 
bamboo houses were in ruins, while those more strongly built exhibited, 



HONG-KONG. EFFECTS OF THE TYPHOON. 93 

more or less, evidences of the storm. Capts. Watson and McLacklan 
walked down the shore, looking for their vessels, but could not any- 
where identify them. Last night at the hotel they were quite anxioua 
to get off to them, but no boat could be hired to hazard the attempt, 
and the Chinese boats were all on the opposite shore. Captain Clark- 
son, of the " Chicora," is here this eve. He saved eighteen China- 
men from a boat containing eighty, which drifted upon him in the 
night. To save one of them he descended by a rope into the water, 
and, by a rope fastened to the body of the drowning man, drew him 
up. They had specie and opium on board, all of which was lost. Mr. 
Morse, supercargo for the " Chicora," called this evening. He was 
formerly at Rev. Mr. A.'s school, at N., Mass., and I had not met 
him, I think, for fifteen years. 

Monday, September Ath. — Mr. Drinker returned from Macao, and 
had much to say about the great damage, loss of life and property, 
by the typhoon, at other ports. Dr. Morrison was saying, last evening, 
that he had sent out twenty -six policemen, who were on the sick list, 
to take an airing in a boat around the island. They were overtaken 
by the typhoon, and all drowned except four. 

Mr. Winslow, formerly of Maiden, Mass., reports to-night the loss 
of a vessel on the other side of the island, with fifty thousand dollars 
in specie on board. It went to pieces during the typhoon. Mr. W. 
is engaged in saving what he can from the wreck, for the owner. 
When he arrived the pirates were there pillaging, as is usual on such 
occasions ; but they ran off over the hills when he appeared. Some 
of the money had been scattered and washed ashore among the rocks. 
Mr. W. laid chase to seven or eight piratical junks, loaded with cotton 
goods which they had taken from vessels, but he could not capture 
them. Their decks were covered with the goods, which were there 
drying. Mr. W. lost his own vessel in the harbor on Thursday night, 
by the typhoon. 

The " Sam Russell," from New York, came in to-day ; and I had 
the pleasure of reading an American paper dated May 31st. This 
vessel experienced nothing of the typhoon, but the winds were con- 
stantly changing, probably in consequence of it. 

Tuesday, August 5th. — We have more news of the effects of the 
typhoon. Mr. W. says that to-day he passed, in his boat, numbers 
of dead bodies floating in the water. Most of them were Chinese, but 
there were some Malays, blacks, and Europeans. The IT. S. ship 
" Plymouth " saved a vessel and cargo that had gone ashore at a 



94 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Chinese port. Several hundred natives were assembling off to capture 
her in the night, when the " Plymouth " put men aboard of and 
saved her. She had on board six hundred chests of opium, with many 
thousand dollars in silver, of which the ' ' Plymouth ' ' has two thirds 
as salvage. 

Wednesday, August 6th. — In making a professional visit to-day, 
my boy expressed much reluctance at taking a case of instruments. 
He wished to get a cooly to carry them ; but I objected, as one ser- 
vant was enough, and I gave him in addition my umbrella and gloves 
to carry. Servants do not like to do anything that strictly belongs to 
those of a lower order. My boy does not like to take a bundle or 
package, because it is the business of a cooly to bear burthens. I 
gave him a letter to take to a gentleman, and observed that he handed 
it to a cooly, who carried it. 

A lady seems very dependent when she is obliged to send a servant 
to call two others for the purpose of moving a rocking-chair, or to put 
another in its place. I should not have felt myself disgraced had she 
asked me ; and I could have done it while she was giving directions to 
the servant, although I might have lost caste with her by so menial a 
service. 

Some think it strange that I do not take a sedan-chair in prefer- 
ence to walking ; and they advise me not to expose myself in the sun 
in the middle of the day. It is customary for Europeans to ride in a 
chair when they go any distance. Two coolies are generally sufficient, 
but a heavy person requires four. Doctors, in visiting their patients, 
ride in chairs ; though Dr. M. usually appears in a low carriage, 
drawn by a pair of handsome Chusan ponies. His boy rides with 
him, holding an umbrella over his head, and takes care of the horses 
in his absence, being obliged continually, with a cloth, to drive off the 
flies which torment them. 

"We encountered to-day one of the many tricks of the Chinese boat- 
men, which shows their readiness to impose on foreigners. The 
" Cleone " sailing to-day for Shanghae, with Mr. and Mrs. Taylor, Mr. 
and Mrs. Jenkins, missionaries, and Mr. Bassett, when Mr. B. went 
on board, Mr. R. and I accompanied him. I had several times, when 
accompanying different ones on board ship, or on little excursions, paid 
the boatmen, who came to me for it, supposing it was rulable for each 
one to pay for himself, or that it had been forgotten by the person who 
hired the boat. 

Having since learned that when one hires a boat he pays for it, 



HONG-KONG. CHINESE BOATMEN 'S DISHONESTY. 95 

whether one or many go with him, I thought I would observe if the 
boatmen were paid, and whether they came to me afterwards. Twenty- 
five cents is the regular fare, though a Chinaman pays them in their 
coin about two cents. 

Having remained on board about ten minutes, as Ave were about to 
come off, I noticed, unbeknown to the boatmen, Mr. B. pay them a 
rupee, which is three or four cents less than half a dollar. On land- 
ing the boatmen came running after us, and crying out for their pay. 
I shook my head at them, but they continued running by the side of 
us, and crossing in front, with outstretched hands and gesticulations, 
crying the harder, 

" Pay my money ! pay my money ! " 

A stranger would have supposed that we were cheating them out of 
their dues. I stopped and told them to go back ; but that did no 
good. Finally, I asked them how much they wanted, and they held 
up one finger and said, 

" One dollar ! " 

I then told them I had seen Mr. B. pay them on board, and asked 
them how many times they wanted to be paid. They seemed much 
chagrined at their detection, and slunk out of sight. 

In trading with the Chinese they generally ask double what they 
intend to take for their goods, as all learn after a little experience with 
them. 

Towards evening I accompanied Mr. and Mrs. B. on board the 
" Sam Russell." This is the most beautiful vessel that I have yet 
seen. Capt. Palmer showed us about very politely, and gave us a 
treat of cake, &c, in the cabin. The state-rooms were very hand- 
somely gilded, and richly furnished. 

To-day the barometers have suddenly fallen ; and the harbor-mas- 
ter, according to custom, has sent to all the vessels notice of the indi- 
cations of an approaching typhoon, thus giving them the necessary 
warning to be prepared for it. 

Sunday, August lQth. — I went this morning to the hotel, and 
breakfasted with Mr. R. At dinner, at Mr. D.'s, there were nine 
masters of vessels, making in all about twenty persons. They were 
Americans, and seemed to enjoy a meeting with so many of their 
countrymen. Capt. Nickels, of the " John Q. Adams," from Bos- 
ton, came in this morning. His arrival with letters and papers from 
America made the day an eventful one. I was much disappointed in 



96 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

receiving nothing myself, but accepted, with much pleasure, an invi- 
tation to take part in looking over Mr. and Mrs. B.'s large package. 

Wednesday , August 16lh. — In looking over my clothing to-day, I 
found my coats, pants, colored and white gloves, &c, covered with 
mould and mildew. I set my boy to cleaning them, and he went about 
it as though he thought he had engaged in an endless job. The air is 
so damp here that trunks, hats, &c, will mould, or articles exposed 
merely in the room. My instruments begin to look as if the small- 
pox would soon exhibit itself upon them. Dr. M. informs me that they 
will rust and spot in spite of every precaution, and that it is impossi- 
ble here to keep any kind of instruments in order. 



CHAPTER XI. 

LEAVING FOR CANTON. FISHING CRAFTS. ISLANDS, RIVERS, FORTS, 

AND PAGODAS, ETC. WHAMPOA. THE CHOP. BOSTON JACK. 

ARRIVAL IN CANTON. APPEARANCE OF THE CITY. MOSQUITO AN- 
NOYANCES. 

Friday, August 15th. — I stopped with Mr. R., at the hotel, for 
the few last nights, and this morning assisted him off in the " Sam 
Russell." He persisted very strongly in my going with him to Can- 
ton, and I partly promised to go by the " John Q. Adams," and there 
meet him. 

In the afternoon I concluded to go, and here I am this evening, at 
twelve o'clock, on board the " John Q. Adams," sailing up among 
numerous islands, to "Whampoa, the anchoring-ground for vessels, 
where we take small boats for Canton, a few miles distant. 

We came on board about ten o'clock this evening, loading a Chinese 
boat up to the brim with ourselves, boys, and luggage, and had quite 
a merry time of it. We had Capt. Nickels, Mr. Ingols, Mr. Gilman, 
three Chinese boys, and trunks for the whole party. Mr. D. and Mr. 
M. accompanied us to the landing, and saw us off. When leaving the 
pier the water was rough, and tossed the boat up and down several 
feet. All were on board except Capt. N., who was awaiting a favor- 
able opportunity. He was a heavy man, and when the dancing boat 
came into the right position he gave a jump ; and the moment his 



THE BOGUE FORTS. 97 

feet struck, they went through its frail deck. There was a great 
crash, but no one was hurt, and no water came into the boat. All 
laughed heartily — we at the captain, and he at the weakness of 
the " miserable Chinese deck," which was constructed of thin boards. 

Saturday, l&th. — When I arose, at half-past seven, we were out of 
sight of Hong-Kong. We sailed along with a fair breeze, and most 
of the way within sight of land, all of which was very high, and 
appeared to be volcanic. The water was quite yellow from its mud. 

In the first thirty miles we passed whole fleets, or one might almost 
say myriads, of fishing-crafts, many of them having piratical-looking 
crews, into whose hands I should not like to fall. They live almost 
constantly on the water, their boats constituting their dwellings, and 
usually containing each a whole family. Those which I saw in motion 
had two or three men rowing, and a woman, with a child tied to her 
back, sculling the boat behind — the child contented with its lot, and 
its head flopping from side to side, according to the motions of its 
mother. Other boats at anchor had large crews on board. 

The forts at the Bogue (entrance of the river) looked quite pretty, 
appearing, in the distance, like rows of swallow-nests. As we drew 
nearer they resembled private residences, the fortified walls being 
the boundaries of the grounds. Before the vessel could pass up the 
river, the captain was obliged to send to one of the forts and obtain 
a permit from the custom-house authorities. This done, we went on 
our way again. There were twelve or fifteen of these forts, all built 
on the slopes of the mountains, facing the river, and in form resem- 
bling a badly-shaped letter D ; the straight line of the D making one 
border of the river, while the circular part extended back upon the 
heights. The mountains and islands are all of peculiar shapes, and 
receive their names from what they most resemble, as they rise out of 
the water. One is Tiger Island, another Camel Island, &c. &c. When 
the pagodas appeared in sight, fifteen or twenty miles distant, I began 
to realize that we are in China. The first view of them, as they tow- 
ered up behind the hills in the distance, was very imposing. We 
watched them with much interest, they being the principal evidences 
that the ground they stood on was Chinese. 

The masts of the vessels at Whampoa next appeared in sight. The 
scenery — large flats of green rice-fields, the plantain-trees on the banks, 
and the hills and mountains beyond — as we approached Wham- 
poa, was beautiful. The vessels were displaying their different flags ; 
Chinese boats were crossing and re-crossing in every direction, and the 
9 



98 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Betting sun was shedding its gilded light on everything around, giving 
to the low, flat island, covered with rich, green-like velvet, the pago- 
das and the foliage of the trees, a touch of enchantment. As we 
entered among the vessels, Chinese boats flocked thickly around. Some 
had various kinds of goods and wares to sell ; some had women who 
wished to engage washing, or to supply vegetables, eggs, meat, &c. 
During the evening we went ashore and visited the bowling and bil- 
liard saloon, the only European building here ; but the heat was so 
oppressive that we were glad to get aboard of our vessel again. 

It is now twelve o'clock at night, and I am at Whampoa, within 
twelve miles of Canton, in a heathen land, among strangers, not know- 
ing what I shall do, or where I shall be the next hour. I can scarcely 
realize that I am so far from home and friends, and surrounded by 
people whose sole object is money, and who can have very little friend- 
ship for me, further than adds to their own advantage. The best and 
only home that I have is this vessel, in which I have had but one 
day's living, and a short acquaintance. I am something like an out- 
cast, but am still myself, wherever I am. The world's machinery is 
still in motion ; and I, as one little wheel connected with it, must per- 
form my part, however small that part may be. I can lay no plans 
for the morrow, but must be governed by circumstances as they tran- 
spire. 

Sunday, August YJth. — I arose this morning unrefreshed by sleep, 
which a few mosquitoes prevented by their impetuous attacks. 

Whampoa derives its importance from its being the anchorage for 
vessels bound to Canton. The river, in places, is shallow, and ships 
generally come to anchor here, and send their cargoes up to Canton 
by small vessels. All foreigners residing here live on board of vessels 
moored in the stream. There are no hotels, or other than Chinese 
houses, on shore, as they could be guaranteed no safety. 

By invitation from Mr. Hunt, we went off to his " chop " at three 
p. m., to dine, — Mr. Ingols, Dr. S., and myself. The chop is a kind of 
floating store ; or, in other words, a vessel fitted up with a roof, 
windows, &c, something like a house, and is anchored in the stream, 
to supply vessels with provisions. It was filled with all sorts of ship- 
stores, and several large guns were on deck, for use, in case of 
emergency. A flight of steps extended over its side, reaching near the 
water's edge ; and boats lay fastened all around, reminding me of a 
country store, with the carriages of purchasers in front. These boats 
are Chinese, and are used on the water, as cabs are on land — three 



CANTON. BOSTON JACK. 99 

or four Chinamen, or the whole family, living on board, and holding 
themselves at your service. The physicians here have offices in the 
game way. From this chop we were rowed to another, his dwelling- 
house. This was fitted up in a similar manner, only the inside had 
rooms like those of a house. Here at dinner we met Captain Graves, 

Dr. S., several other ship-masters, and Rev. Mr. L , a missionary, 

from New York. I was much pleased with Mr. L ; he seemed so 

different from my views of the generality of missionaries, who, I sup- 
posed, must necessarily be characterized by long, gloomy faces, and 
sanctimonious expressions. After dinner I amused myself in teasing 
(though at a distance) Mr. Hunt's large bull-dog, which is kept 
chained on the roof to guard against the Chinese. We next visited 
Mr. Humphries' chop, and returned to our own vessel. I then took 
a boat, went to the " T. W. Sears," calling for Captain G. ; and, not 
finding him, I went to the " Sam Russell," and saw Captain Palmer. 
Met there Messrs. R. and Kellog, and concluded to go with them 
to Canton to-morrow morning. 

Canton, September 18th. 

My dear Parents : At nine this morning, with Messrs. R. and K., 
I started in a sampan for Canton. The distance is about ten miles, 
and occupied our four boatmen three hours, for which we paid them 
two dollars. It was a very pleasant mode of travelling, especially in 
this warm Weather. An inclined back to our seat permitted us to 
rest, while we could look out ahead and on both sides, and observe the 
country. About a mile above Whampoa we called at ' ' Boston Jack's. ' ' 
This is a Chinaman, an acquaintance that my companions had 
made in passing before. "Boston Jack" is familiarly known to the 
European population as a kind of interpreter and furnisher of provi- 
sions for vessels, and a commissioner to provide servants, coolies, and 
to make purchases of various Chinese articles. He was formerly a 
pilot, and is still connected with that business, furnishing pilots, &c. ; 
and is ready to do any kind of business between the foreigners and 
Chinese. He is said to be worth a hundred thousand dollars ; treated 
us to beer, and gave us some to take on the way.- He had much to 
say of his son who lives in New York, and was very polite, inviting us 
to call again, &c. 

We passed, on the banks of the river, eight or ten forts, and several 
pagodas. On both sides, where the tide-water had receded, women 
were wading in the mud, gathering shell-fish. They wore large, 
shield-like hats of braided bamboo, and pants stripped up. Most of 
them had a child slung to their backs, and a basket on one arm. As 
they went slowly along, they thrust the other hand into the mud, 
catching the small shrimps wherever they could feel them. 

The scenery on each side of the river is very pretty, but not much 



100 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

unlike that of other rivers. Tombs were frequently to be seen on the 
slopes of the hills. The country looked green and fresh with vegeta- 
tion, and groves of olive and plantain trees, here and there, diversitied 
the monotony of the open expanse of rice-fields. The banks, generally 
low, and spreading out into lower flats, required the interposition of 
dikes, to prevent too frequent inundation from freshets. Row-boats 
and junks were passing in different directions. Our boat contrived to 
get up a race with another, which was bound in the same direction. 
The men, encouraged by us, laid themselves to their oars, for half an 
hour, with their whole force. The weather was hot, the perspira- 
tion rolled down their necks, and neither gained any particular 
advantage of the other, and neither seemed disposed to give it up. 
Finally, as if by mutual agreement, they began to widen the distance 
between them, and gradually relaxed into their usual speed, neither 
party being beat or beaten. 

The boats were increased in number as we came within two or 
three miles of Canton, till at length we were hitting them on both 
sides. As we neared the Factories the flags of the American and 
English Consulates appeared waving high above the buildings ; and, 
soon after, several blocks of handsome European buildings came into 
the view. These, shut out before by the dingy red mass of Chinese 
buildings, now sparkled, in contrast, like diamonds in a heap of old 
rubbish. We landed at the American gardens ; and, the boys leading 
the way and the coolies carrying the baggage, we marched for 
Acowo's Hotel. It was a crooked way ; — passing though the gar- 
dens, along a street, leading out of an arched gateway, down another 
street to the left, shortly to the right, and then mingling with so many 
Chinese that I could no longer keep the bearings ; I only know that it 
seemed a succession of narrow and intricate alleys. A small number 
of Chinese fell into our train, but a greater number stood and stared 
at us by the way, probably knowing that we were strangers lately 
arrived. We met quite a number of tall, liver-complexioned Chinese, 
in long white frocks, with fans in their hands. Making low bows, they 
saluted us with, 

" Goo' morning, sair ! " " Kom in my shop? " " Have got plenty 
pooty things ! " " Can sell um chipp." " Kom make see, spose likee 
can do, spose no likee marsakee," &c. 

When we reached the hotel, Acowo, with all sorts of gestures, 
showed us in very politely, though I did not know when I had entered 
the hotel. I could not perceive the difference between the streets and 
buildings : one seemed a continuation of the other. I saw a confusion 
of narrow passages, a mass of rickety-looking houses, dark entries, 
open doors, twisting stairs, and intricate turnings, and only knew 
that I had arrived at my room when they pointed out the bed. 
Although in the forenoon, within the room it was so dark that I could 
hardly see, but I was sure it was above ground ; for I remembered we 
had crossed a frail bridge uniting two chamber stories, where I saw 
pavements of a street underneath, and that we had since descended 
only a short flight of three or four steps. In view of all the circum- 
stances, it was to me a suspicious place. I was alone, — my two friends 



ACOWO'S HOTEL. 101 

having left me on the way, to go to their quarters at the house of their 
friend, — and I thought I would see if I could find my way out into 
daylight. The hridge was easy to find, but the way was more difficult 
afterwards. However, by experimenting up and down, this way and 
that, through dark entries and a billiard-room, I at last came to the 
outside of the buildings, and found them situated on a dark, narrow 
street. I passed up this street to one a little larger and much lighter, 
but full of Chinese ; and then thought I would try my way back 
again before I had proceeded too far. I went back, made one or two 
turns, and, stepping along further, entered a door. Several Chinamen 
stared at me, as much as to say, 

" What do you wish here ? " 

" ! Ah! Yes! " said I, "I believe I have taken the wrong 
place ; " and quickly made my exit. 

I looked about back and forth, and went into several different doors, 
but at each I judged, by the staring of the Chinese within, that I was 
wrong, and left as soon as I had entered. I was obliged to give up, 
at last, and could not make out where the hotel was. After consider- 
able gesticulating, I made a Chinaman understand that I wished to 
find Acowo's, though for some time I could not recollect his name. 
He pointed to a door, a short distance in the rear, and I entered. It 
was the same that I had entered twice before ; fori could perceive the 
same idol, and incense-sticks burning at the right of the passage-way. 
The staring of the Chinese did not drive me out again. I was now in 
the- billiard-room, endeavoring to make out the door at which I 
before entered. I tried them all, but none led to my room, and 
I had to call for assistance. The first boy I asked did not offer to 
show me, but went out and sent in another. While I was consider- 
ing his stupidity, this one showed me the way to my quarters, and I 
perceived him to be my own boy. I took a seat, glanced around on 
the mixed furniture, the crackly windows, made of oyster-shells, instead 
of glass, and the patched mosquito-net, and for a time gave myself 
up to reflections, the sum of which was that " one half of the world 
little knoweth how the other half liveth." At the end of half an hour 
I could go down from my room and out to the street and back, but not 
always by the same way. 

My next object was to find my way back and forth to the American 
gardens, which I accomplished with little difficulty, except from the im- 
portunities of Chinese, who were besetting me to go and buy some- 
thing of them. I went into several of their shops, all of which were 
small. Their goods were to me curiosities, and arranged on each side 
of the room on shelves that were protected from the dust and unceremo- 
nious hands by glass slides, extending from the ceiling to the floor. They 
were not at all discomposed by my not purchasing. I could not deter- 
mine what to buy, unless I took the whole shop ; and came away without 
anything. They did, however, insist on my taking some of their little 
shop-bills, about as large as a silver dollar, and stamped in red letters 
with " Tshun-chong, dealer in ivory and tortoise-shell ; " or, " Lan- 
ehing, dealer in all kinds of preserves; " or, " Win-chung, in crape 
shawls," &c. Acowo's appearance did not indicate that he was worth 
9* 



102 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

five hundred dollars, but I am told he is worth seventy-eight thousand 
dollars, which is considered immense wealth by the Chinese. 

At four, I sat down to the table to dine. It was in a large hall 
opposite my room, in the third story, and in the very select company 
ot" myself, in whose aristocratic society I do not like often to indulge 
alone. I prefer something more democratic. I had three servants to 
wait on me, they making me out to be as helpless as a child with 
wooden arms ! Casting aside the trammels of custom, who would not 
more enjoy the old fashion of sitting down with one's friends, with 
everything at once on the table, and without servants behind to peep 
over your shoulder, or others in front to stare you in the face ? After 
dinner, I walked about in the neighborhood, looking in at the shops 
within sight of the hotel. 

In the evening I called on Dr. Parker with a letter of introduction. 
He received me very politely and cordially. At his house I saw some 
large calcareous concretions that he had removed in his surgical opera- 
tions for Chinese patients, one of them weighing almost seven ounces 
Having spent a very agreeable hour in conversation with the doctor and 
Mrs. Parker, I returned to the hotel. Another hour was spent in 
writing up my journal, and I then retired within my mosquito-net, 
my mind being full of the strange things of this strange country. 

Tuesday, September 19th. — I arose at eight, not having closed my 
eyes to sleep till past four this morning. After retiring last night, I 
remained awake listening to the singing of the mosquitoes within the 
house, and the queer noises of the people outside. The mosquitoes in 
myriads flocked around the bed, and their noise was much like that 
from a distant frog-pond. To hear them outside threw one into a 
perspiration ; but, when several of them found their way inside the net, 
and tormented me for hours, it was as much as my nature wished to 
endure. I arose several times, and, as I thought, drove them all out ; 
but they would fly in again directly afterwards. However, at daylight 
they drew themselves off, and left me to my repose. When I looked to 
see what had become of them, I perceived they were collected inside 
on the top of the netting, with their long bills pointing down very 
innocently. 

Messrs. Kellog and Rotch called on me, and we walked out among 
the shops, being careful not to go far from our quarters. When we 
stopped to look at any curiosity, we were sure to have a crowd of 
Chinese around us. We walked to a high wall, which had large doors 
opening through it, and there we came to a stand, believing it to be 
the city wall ; but it proved to be merely the end of old China-street. 

Last night we took a boat, manned by three Chinese girls, and rowed 
for an hour up the river. We saw nothing of note but a multitude 
of boats. We passed Captain Graves, who was on his way to Wham- 
poa, to sail to-night for New York. I almost wished that I was going 
with him. 

Wednesday, September 20th. — I rejoiced when morning came, for I 
slept none during the night. The noise of my insect enemies was like 
the distant din of boys just released from school. About half a dozen 
found their way through the netting ; but I think I killed every one 



CANTON. DR. PARKER AT THE HOSPITAL. 103 

of them, though I boxed myself severely in doing it. I could hear 
those outside flying against the net, as if they were determined, at all 
hazards, to force their way through. Every hour I heard the strike 
of the clock, and also what I took to be the nightly patrols of the 
watchmen, who seemed to be beating with a stick on some old pail or 
box. They slowly gave three loud thumps, which were followed by 
two others, struck more rapidly. After a pause of a few moments, 
they repeated the same again ; and so on for hours. At times, China- 
men were jabbering, as if in hard dispute ; and sometimes I was 
greeted with what I supposed to be the music of cats ; but, after list- 
ening a while, I found it was Chinese singing. During the night, I 
fancied I had a visit from a Chinaman. I was lying quietly, and 
thought I saw, at the opposite side of the room, his white figure. I 
knew that I had not closed my door, and I watched the appearance 
for an hour. I thought at one" time it approached the bed, stooped 
down, and then receded, then stood still, and then turned aside. At 
length I determined not to be frightened by my imagination, and tried 
to compose myself. Still, as I placed my eyes upon it, it seemed to 
change its position. Soon, however, I heard the gnawing of a mouse, 
and I knew that if a man was there the mouse would not be, and I 
quieted myself to sleep. Yours, &c, B. L. B. 

I was yesterday convinced that cats here are indeed an article of 
food ; for I saw several fat ones exposed in cages for sale, and ready 
to be made into chow-chow. They are considered a great luxury by 
the Chinese. I have seen here and at Hong-Kong most filthy-looking 
pieces of meat carried round among the Chinese for sale. 

Mr. R. called with me on Dr. Parker, who had invited us to be 
present to-day at his operations at the hospital. "We walked down 
with him to the building, which is in the rear of the American gar- 
dens. The first room was nearly filled with patients, who seemed to 
be afflicted with various evils and deformities. We went up stairs, 
and there saw another room full. They were seated on benches in 
rows. The doctor first explained to us the paintings hanging around 
the room, illustrations of his own cases. Of the patients present, one 
woman was afflicted with a schirrous tumor, which is soon to be 
operated on. It was on her neck, and nearly twice the size of her 
head. Dr. P. commenced operations : first, for cataract, and then 
for entropia of the eyelid, &c, and went through with twelve cases 
in little more than half an hour. He operates very expeditiously and 
steadily. The patients did not wince at all under the knife, but sat 
calmly, almost as if nothing was taking place. 



104 CHINA AND MANILLA. 



CHAPTER XII. 

COMMISSIONER DAVIS AND GOVERNOR SU. VIEW FROM DR. PARKER'S 

HOUSE. RIVER. BOAT POPULATION. FLOWER-GARDEN. VISIT TO 

WHAMPOA. RELIGIOUS WORSHIP AT CANTON. CHINESE SHOPKEEPERS. 

VISIT TO DR. B. MY BOY'S CHASE. BOAT PULLING. DIPLOMACY 

OF THE AMERICAN MINISTER AND CHINESE OFFICIAL. 

Thursday, September 21st. — Last night I slept well. My boy hav- 
ing found the opening in the net where the mosquitoes entered, and 
mended it, I was actually free of these tormentors. 

I called at Dr. Parker's and dined with the family, taking " pot- 
luck " with them. I there saw Mr. Williams, the author of the 
volumes on " the Middle Kingdom," and Mrs. W. In conversation 
Mr. W. said that he had been in Northboro, Mass., and had lectured 
there. 

To-day Mr. Davis, the U. S. Commissioner, was to have met the 
governor of Canton at a place some two miles up the river ; but Mr. 
Davis did not arrive, and the meeting did not take place. In the 
afternoon I was at the house of Dr. P., and saw Governor Su and 
his suite as they returned from the place appointed. They had been 
waiting, and dined by themselves. Their boat was towed by another 
with rowers ahead ; and, although as large as a small steamboat here, 
it was apparently not large enough, in Governor Su's estimation, to 
contain all the attendants, servants, flags and dresses, of the party. 
They displayed considerable show and pomp. The peculiar mandarin 
hat was worn by all, from the highest to the lowest of them. These 
hats have broad, circular brims, and the crown comes to a point like a 
paper tunnel or a tin dish-cover, surmounted with a red tassel. 

One of the finest views of the river is obtained from Dr. Parker's 
house. It is the first of a large block, with only a small garden 
between it and the river, which it overlooks, and one side commands a 
view of the American gardens and of the front of the factories. For an 
hour I sat in the second story, and looked out upon the immense boat 
population. It was a curious sight, such a multitude and mixture of 
people and boats. 

From the shore extended out rows of boats, fastened together as if 
stationary platoons of a boat army, with their bows towards the cur- 
rent. Around the different landing-places, piers, &c, they were 



VISIT TO WHAMPOA. 105 

crowded in so thickly that those in boats at the rear were obliged to 
pass through them, several deep, to get on shore. 

Near the middle of the river the scene was quite animating. There 
was a continual jostling of boats, of all sizes and kinds, passing in 
every conceivable direction. Glancing over them as a, .whole, they 
seemed to be moving about among each other like bees upon a hive, 
without any definite object ; but let the eye follow them singly, and 
they will be seen to enter the throng, thread their way through, pass 
out, and go their different ways, while others fill their places. These 
boats are of different sizes and styles, — from the single-oared sculling 
boat to those with an oar twenty, or thirty, or forty feet long, which 
are worked by a corresponding number of men ; and then there is 
occasionally the large flower-boat among them. The scene may be 
called a city of boats. It is said there are three hundred thousand 
people living in boats at this one city. 

Yesterday, with Mr. R., I took a boat, and, ascending the river a short 
distance, visited the Fa-te flower-gardens on the opposite side. The 
grounds are extensive, and regularly laid out. Long rows of plants 
and flowers stretch across, with rows of crockery vases of variously- 
trained plants, and shrubs border the paths. In the season of bloom 
it must be a pretty sight ; but now it presents little of interest. The 
Chinese in attendance were very civil and polite to us. 

At evening we left for Whampoa, intending myself to return to Hong- 
Kong. My boy was not at home, supposing that we were not going 
till to-morrow, and we left without him. I do not know what he will 
say when he finds me gone with bag and baggage. The tide was 
against us, and it was dark and past ten in the evening before we 
arrived at Whampoa. We passed all the vessels without recognizing 
the " Sam Russell." Retracing our course, we hailed each vessel, 
and when we came to the right one we found that we had been more 
than a mile out of our way. 

Whampoa, Friday, 22d. — Last night I had a glorious sleep, having 
my bed on a cane settee on the deck of the " Sam Russell." There 
were beautiful state-rooms below, with beautiful berths beautifully 
curtained. But there also were beautiful mosquitoes, with beautiful 
voices and beautiful bites. The captain told me to take any place I 
chose, and I selected the one on deck. At four o'clock I was much 
disturbed by the men washing down the decks, and was glad to con- 
clude my sleep in one of the state-rooms below. The captain and 
others in the state-rooms complained bitterly of disquietude occa- 



106 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

sioned by their insect tormentors, while I was on deck entirely free 
of them. 

Saturday, September 22>d. — Last night I again slept on deck ; but 
the mosquitoes found me out, hundreds of them, and left me no peace 
of mind or body. I had a hard bed, and a hard night's rest. I was 
up at half-past five, and at seven breakfasted with Captain Lovett on 
board the " Eagle." This is the vessel that was so torn to pieces in 
the typhoon. I went back to Canton with Captain L. in his sampan, 
concluding, the vessel in which I thought of returning to Hong-Kong 
having left, that I would stop there a few days longer. 

Canton, Sunday, 2ith. — I have been sick all day, and also much 
prostrated by the intense heat. Mr. K. said he could " not endure 
this," and went off to Whampoa, where it is generally a little cooler. 
I attended religious services at Dr. Parker's. Here was an audience 
of about thirty persons, all Americans, of which two were ladies. 
Dr. P. delivered a discourse, and the singing was united in by all 
present. 

It seems very little like Sunday here. There is among the Chinese 
the same attention paid to business, and the same confusion arising 
from it, as on other days. I cannot learn that the Chinese have any 
holy day in their calendar of idolatrous services. 

Monday, September 25th. — I had no mosquitoes last night, and had 
a renovating sleep, so that I feel quite myself again. Dr. P. called 
on me, and I accompanied him to his hospital to assist in a surgical 
operation, — the removal of a large schirrous tumor, — which was 
done much to the satisfaction of the patient, an elderly Chinese 
woman. 

The Rev. Mr. R. called and introduced himself to me, and we had 
a long conversation on Chinese affairs. He has been a missionary here 
longer than any other one now in China. 

Tuesday, September 26th. — I have visited some of the Chinese stores. 
A little fortune might be spent here in purchasing curiosities. The 
shopkeepers are really tedious in their importunities. They stand in 
their shop-doors on either side of the street, with fans in their hands, 
bowing, smiling, and calling out in what English they may happen to 
know. Others will follow and importune strangers in the street. 
One of them is very persevering towards me, and manages to meet me 
every time I pass back and forth to the hotel. He has become very 
annoying, and comes up with a low bow and nourish of the fan. 



CANTON. VISIT TO DR. B. 107 

"Goo' morning, sair ! how do, sar? Kum min' my shop now? 
Muchy curous thing ; Ivery, motherer purl. Kum make see litty !" 

Sometimes I pretend not to hear, and he follows, calling out, a num- 
ber of times, 

" Goo' morning." 

And then he continues, 

" Igh, Igh, Igh ! I say, Igh ! Igh ! — Misser Pau " (meaning Mr. 
Ball), " goo' morning; stop litty. Igh, Igh, I say, kum my shop ; 
can sell-um too-muchy chipp." 

I often get rid of them with short answers, and in the easiest way I 
can ; but they do not trouble those residing here. 

I made the acquaintance of Dr. B., who called and made himself 
known, and I enjoyed an agreeable conversation with him. 

Mr. R. suddenly appeared at the hotel this afternoon, and dined 
with me. He had just returned from Macao, forty miles from here, 
where he has been alone, all the way there and back, in a Chinese fast 
boat. I expostulated with him for taking such a risk, although I 
thought that I might be as likely to do similarly. 

It rained to-day, the first that I have seen in Canton, and rendered 
the heat more endurable. 

Wednesday, September 27th. — Dr. B. came in at one p. m., and I 
accompanied him in his boat to his house, two miles down the river, 
to dine with him. His family consisted of his wife, child and daugh- 
ter, and a school of Chinese children. His Chinese house is long and 
narrow, and extends back to another street, a hundred or two feet, and 
is joined to several others, like a batch of brick-loaves. It fronts on 
the river, and makes one side to an open square before a temple. We 
looked through the different rooms, ten or twelve deep, between the 
two streets. Besides those required for the family, there were the 
school-rooms, the scholars' eating and sleeping rooms, and others for 
the publishing department. Many tracts and school-books are here 
printed in the Chinese language. In the further room, which opens 
on the back street, we stopped to look out a few minutes, when the 
Chinese began to gather around and gaze at us as if we were wild 
beasts, and some female heads very cautiously peeped out from behind 
the doors and corners on the opposite side of the street. From the 
top of the house we could see a portion of the city, a little of the 
wall, and swarms of boats, stationary or in motion, up and down the 
river. In the school-room the scholars were all studying aloud, pro- 
ducing to my ears a great confusion of sounds. After tea, on the way 



108 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

home, we called at Dr. H.'s. He is also a missionary, living on the 
bank of the river a mile below the factories. Stopping here half an 
hour, Mr. Warden, an American who had called in, and myself, con- 
cluded to walk, instead of taking the boat, to the factories. Dr. H. 
sent his cooly with a lantern to guide us. The streets are exceedingly 
narrow, crooked and dark, and we passed several houses of gamblers ; 
but we were in no way interfered with, and safely reached our destina- 
tion. I had some conversation with Dr. B. on genealogy, and believe 
that we trace our ancestry to the same origin. 

My boy made his appearance to-day, looking quite ashamed of him- 
self, he having been on a wild chase after me to Hong-Kong and back. 
As soon as he heard that I had gone, he set off after me. I had 
stopped at Whampoa, but left no message for him, intending it as a pun- 
ishment for his being away, that he might find me as best he could. 
He told me he had taken a fast boat, and had gone to Hong-Kong, in- 
quired at all the houses and on board the vessels, and then thought I 
must be lost. Afterwards he came back to Whampoa, and learned that 
I was at Canton ; and he came directly up. He said, 

u I no likey too muchy boberry my ; I too muchy fear bad man have 
catchee you ; hai yah I too muchy glad you no makee spile 'em." 

Thursday, September 28th. — Mr. R. dined with me to-day. At his 
very urgent request, I accompanied him in a boat to Whampoa. We 
found fine sleeping quarters on board the " Sam Russell," in splendid 
rooms, within comfortable mosquito-curtains. 

Saturday, September 30th. — We returned from Whampoa yesterday, 
stopping on the way at Boston Jack's, who persisted in our remaining 
to breakfast. After dinner we took a walk in the American gardens 
with Mr. Moses, a young merchant from Australia. We found a 
great portion of the foreign residents there promenading. Near the 
landing-place we visited the boat-house belonging to the foreigners. 
It is a long, shed-like building, situated on the edge of the water, and 
is designed as a storehouse for the boats of those who take exercise in 
pulling. One or two hundred boats were ranged in rows, and raised 
several feet from the floor. They were of all sizes and styles, but were 
long, narrow, and delicately formed. Some of them were beautiful, 
fairy-like skiffs, made of handsome wood, finely polished, and so light 
that one could easily carry them. They looked more as if intended 
for a museum than for actual use. When the business of the day is 
concluded the younger members of the foreign community repair 
hither to take their exercise and airing on the water. The Chinese 



CANTON. GOVERNOR SU AND THE AM. COMMISSIONER. 109 

coolies launch the boats, and in a moment their proprietors are gliding, 
with almost the rapidity of a skater, over the water. They usually 
pull singly, but sometimes several are attached to the same boat ; and 
the trial of speed with some rival boat not unfrequently shows itself 
afterwards in their blistered hands. In some a servant sits in the stern 
and steers, while in others the rower pulls with a slender oar in each 
hand, and as the boat, like an Indian canoe, shoots onward, the only 
wonder is that they do not capsize, or fill with water. 

To-morrow morning, in company with Dr. B., lam to make a visit 
to one of the pagodas ; and, the day after, we walk around the city 
walls. I anticipate no trouble from the people, though I am told that 
their feelings towards foreigners are very sensitive, on account of the 
differences at present existing. Dr. B. and others, by gentle deport- 
ment, have avoided all difficulty when among them. 

The Chinese Governor Su has concluded to appoint another meeting 
with Mr. Davis. A day had been set for a meeting of the two func- 
tionaries before, but Mr. D., coming from Macao in the " Plymouth," 
which was delayed by light winds, failed to arrive till the day after. 
Then he directed a note to the governor, stating the facts of his ina- 
bility to arrive in season. The governor sent him an insulting answer, 
which was, in effect, that his reasons were weak, that he did not intend 
to meet him, that his meaning was to impose on him, &c. Mr. D. 
sent back the note without comment, and then transmitted a despatch 
for the " Preble " to come to Whampoa. In a few days a party of 
naval officers from the two ships landed at the garden and called on 
Mr. D. ; and in less than three hours, without anything further being 
done, a note was received from " Su," withdrawing his own note, 
making an apology, and designating a time to meet him. Informa- 
tion of the landing of American officers in uniform at the garden 
had probably been quickly conveyed by the Chinese to the governor, 
who, fearing that something else might follow, immediately sent his 
note to the commissioner. Su is not as well disposed towards foreign- 
ers as was Keying, the former governor. 
10 



110 CHINA AND MANILLA. 



CHAPTEK XIII. 

VISIT TO A PAGODA. — TOUR AROUND THE CITY WALLS. VISIT TO 

TEMPLE, ETC. 

LETTER TO BROTHER A. 

Canton, China, Oct. 

Dear Brother : I hare made a visit to one of the pagodas with the 
Rev. Dr. B., which, at his invitation, had been previously arranged. 
As he had been here so long, speaks the language of the Chinese, and 
understands so well how to manage with them, I very readily accepted 
of his politeness. Early in the morning Rev. Mr. Bridgeman (a former 
college-mate) called, and Ave walked a distance of two miles to Dr. 
B.'s house. When I found he was going to walk, instead of taking a 
boat, I hesitated ; but, recollecting that he had been in China two or 
three years, I went with him without fear. 

The streets were very narrow, much of the way being only wide 
enough for three to walk abreast ; and straight, though, at short 
intervals, we turned abrupt angles, so that our course was irregular. 
They were so filled with Chinese that we w 7 ere obliged to walk in 
single file, and be very careful not to encounter the poles which they 
carry on their shoulders in bearing their burdens. 

I several times stepped from behind Mr.B. to w r alk more socially by 
his side, but w r as quickly obliged to fall back again to save my head 
from being bruised. We arrived at the house safely, and without any 
insult that I comprehended, though it was amusing to Mr. B., who 
understood the language, to hear their remarks concerning us. I 
understood perfectly well the Fan-qui-loo, " Foreign White Devil," 
which I very often heard. Sometimes they said to each other, in their 
language, 

" Hulloa, foreign Devils ! " " Two of them ! " " Out pretty early 
this morning ! " " Ah, two of the foreign Devils ! " " Hulloa, look 
here, there they go ! " " Strange-looking Devils they are! " And 
remarks of that nature. 

Often they would stop and look at us till we were out of their sight. 
They were more civil than they would have been further in the city, 
as our course lay near the river, w r here they see and have more or less 
intercourse w r ith foreigners. 

At nine o'clock we breakfasted with Dr. B., and then set out for 
the pagoda, which was in sight a few r miles dow r n the river. Our boat 
was manned by a Chinese woman, her son twelve years old, and a 
daughter of eighteen. The mother carried a child on her back, sculled 
with a long oar, and at the same time steered the boat, while the 
son and daughter pulled at the oars. When w T ithin about a mile 
of our destination we entered a little creek which leads to the pagoda. 
The tide was going out, and directly we found ourselves aground, with 



CANTON. VISIT TO A PAGODA. Ill 

some feet deep of mud around us, about fifty rods from the pagoda. 
Our boat's crew, rolling up their pantaloons, jumped out, and, wading 
in the mud, pulled and pushed the boat ahead several rods. At length 
we stuck fast in the mud, and remained for an hour, during which 
time numbers of Chinese, men, boys and girls, waded off and collected 
around us. They soon began to be rather boisterous, and to exhibit 
indications of ill-behavior towards us ; but Dr. B. kept them in check 
by distributing among them religious tracts written in the Chinese 
language. Dr. B. then hired some of the men to go and bring a 
lighter boat, in which they drew us through the mud to the shore. 
The crowd followed behind, making confused noises. 

Being safely landed, we ascended a little hill, and stood at the foot 
of a large and beautiful pagoda. Its great height, nine stories, with 
the cupola and spire, reminded me of Bunker Hill Monument. The 
pagoda is octagonal, and, I should judge, about forty-five feet in 
diameter at the base, gradually diminishing in size as it ascends some 
two hundred feet. The whole structure is Supported on the shoulders 
of eight human figures, carved in stone, and placed at each angle. 
The remaining portion of the foundation is of plain stone. The walls 
are about fifteen feet in thickness, mostly of brick, and plastered on 
the outside. In each story there are four windows, and four imitation 
ones, alternating with each other, and corresponding with the eight 
sides. 

A wide cornice encircles the base of each story, on which flowers 
and shrubs are growing. These look pretty, appearing like nine 
"green wreaths ornamenting the pagoda from top to bottom. In the 
upper story, at the base of the cupola, hang eight bells, one from 
each angle, though I could discover no tongues to them. There are 
two entrances, one opposite the other, leading directly through from 
side to side, and raised a few feet from the ground. The inside is 
hollow, like a tube, all the way to the top, and contained a great 
many little birds, which were chirping and fluttering about. In the 
niches of the walls of the lower story were several idols seated. In 
one place the Josh paper is burned, and there the Chinese come to 
worship when they feel inclined. 

The ascent of the pagoda is by the open windows, and must be a 
perilous undertaking. I should not like to be obliged to make it. There 
are no steps leading up, and a person must push a plank across from 
window to window, like a bridge, walk over on it, draw it after him, 
and, walking part way round on the cornice outside, throw it across 
between two other windows, which are a few feet higher than those 
left. The person walks across again, carries the plank around to the 
set of windows still higher, then across, and so on, until he reaches 
the top. He must cross the plank four times to ascend each story, 
and thirty-six times in all. 

It is difficult to say what could have been the original object of 
pagodas. There are quite a number to be seen as one passes back and 
forth on the river between Whampoa and Canton, a distance of ten 
miles. It is affirmed by some that they were each erected and dedicated 
to particular deities. For instance, should an epidemic break out at 



112 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

any place and result in the destruction of life, they might build a 
pagoda there, and dedicate it to the god of health. Another might be 
erected to the god of war. 

Others consider them intended for telegraphic purposes. It is very 
certain that when the English took the Chinese forts at the mouth of 
the river, it was known fifteen minutes afterwards at Canton, a dis- 
tance of thirty miles. I presume that signals could be made from one 
pagoda to another, from Hong-Kong to Canton, a distance of eighty 
miles. 

We remained about the pagoda for several hours, during which 
there was a crowd of vagabond Chinese around us. They did not 
trouble us a great deal, although we had to put up with some things 
which could not be called civilities. A little behind the pagoda was a 
village, which we visited. There were very few men about. The 
young women appeared very shy, for they ran from point to point, 
hiding themselves like rabbits ; but the old ones would come out quite 
boldly. Some of them made one or two circuits, and then, stopping 
near us, scanned us from head to foot. We returned to Dr. B.'s 
house to dinner at three, having had a pleasant trip, and very little 
difficulty with the heathen. 

There are many pirates down the river, between here and Hong- 
Kong. Dr. B. has several patients who have been attacked by them, 
and he has extracted bullets from their wounds. Every vessel goes 
armed ; even the little steamboat which plies between Whampoa and 
Canton. I have several times been down in the evening in a little 
row-boat to Whampoa, but the boatmen and myself always had weap- 
ons for defence. 1 have not yet fallen in with any of the pirates. 



LETTER TO PARENTS. 

Canton, Oct. Bd. 

My dear Parents : Last evening I was down at Dr. B.'s, and, 
remaining to tea, we made arrangements for an excursion around the 
walls of Canton. The distance is about seven or eight miles, and can 
be accomplished in less than half a day. I returned to the hotel and 
extended the invitation to Mr. R. and Mr. M. ; but they both declined, 
saying they would not thus risk themselves among the heathen " for 
the whole of China." A friend who has lived here near ten years 
advised me not to go, and recounted the dangers attending such an 
expedition. He gave me the history of several who had attempted it, 
some having succeeded, and some not. The Rev. Mr. S. and party had 
tried it, and were mobbed by the rabble, robbed of their watches and 
valuables, almost entirely stripped of their clothes, and barely escaped 
with their lives. He said, 

" Perhaps you may go safely, but there are many chances against it. 
During the time I have been in China I have never been induced to 
trust myself at all in that quarter ; and the merchants who have been 
here twenty years have never done it. I sincerely advise you to remain 
at home, where you are well off." 



CANTON. EXCURSION ROUND THE WALLS. 113 

I had, however, confidence in Dr. B., and was willing to take my 
share of the risk, though I would not have thought of going alone. I 
had set my mind on it, and could not endure the reflection of having 
backed out. 

Mr. Bridgernan called for me this morning, and, being a little late, we 
took a small boat and hastened down the river. When we arrived at 
the house, a few minutes past five, we found that the party, consisting 
of Dr. B., Miss B. and Rev. Mr. G., having concluded that we should 
not come, had gone without us. I was much disappointed, and pro- 
posed that we should follow on after them, if Mr. B. knew the course. 
To this he objected that they had been gone too long — a full half-hour. 
I, however, insisted that we should make the attempt ; and, it having 
been left to me to decide, we concluded to do so. With no weapons 
but our umbrellas, fortifying our nerves with a cup of coffee, we started 
in pursuit. 

Proceeding at a rapid pace, we were quickly mixed in with the 
Chinese throng, making our way through a densely-populated part of 
the city. The streets were very narrow, wet, dirty, and full of people. 
The wall was our guide, though it could be detected only at intervals, 
on account of the buildings which were constructed against it. This 
sometimes caused us a little doubt ; but, knowing that the wall must 
always be on the left, and that we could not get through it in that 
direction, we were not long in error. 

As we advanced we seemed to have entered some thoroughfare ; for 
the Chinese were pouring through like the people coming out of a 
theatre, and it was next to impossible to stem the tide. Among them 
were coolies carrying their various burthens, with the poles on their 
shoulders, and projecting in front. These had to be avoided, or a 
severe blow on the head would follow. The greater number of them 
were bereft of clothing to their waists, their skins filled with greasy- 
perspiration and dust. Their constantly rubbing against us was not 
particularly pleasing. I fancied they looked at us with a hostile feel- 
ing, but so long as they did nothing else we did not mind them. The 
wooden countenances of the poorest cooly showed that even they 
despised us. 

One long, vile-looking street, that we passed through, I shall not soon 
forget. Dark, low and filthy houses were closely packed on both 
sides, looking within like dungeons, with hardly light enough to see 
the people, hogs and dogs, who there live together in harmony. Their 
hyena dogs, however, were not in such harmony with us. They 
sprang out, barking, showing their white teeth, and snapping at 
us, as if they would actually lay hold of us ; and several times I 
whirled around to avoid them. At all these movements the Chinese 
seemed highly delighted, and encouraged their dogs to continue. I 
should have taught them a lesson of respect with my umbrella, had I 
not feared such a course would bring down on me the ire of their inso- 
lent and shameless masters ; and I thought it to be policy to allow 
the dogs to pass unpunished. 

I confess that while in the midst of these lower orders of the Chinese, 
some of whoni in groups were staring at us, some laughing and scoff- 

10* 



114 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

ing, some yelling out Fan-qui-loo and making insulting remarks, and 
others setting their dogs on us, that I began to think it was indeed a 
hazardous undertaking ; not particularly from what we did encounter, 
but from what we might. 

We hurried along this street, and soon found ourselves free, and 
breathing the air of the open country. We now met very few people, 
and the wall was fully exposed, extending a long way ahead, and ris- 
ing and falling with the natural undulations of the ground. On our 
right, nearly parallel with the wall, but leaving a wide passage-way 
between, was a deep ravine, in the lower parts of which might occa- 
sionally be seen a gardener's cabin, the land around it being highly 
cultivated, laid out into little squares, and bearing rows of fresh, 
green vegetables, in its rich black soil. The laborers raising themselves 
up and resting on their hoes, and the women and children filling the 
doorway, all in a startled attitude, would gaze as if such sights were 
rarely witnessed by them. The banks of the ravine were wildly 
shaded with groves of bamboo and other pretty trees, in whieh the 
birds were congregated, warbling their songs. Beyond were cultivated 
fields, and among them white tombs jutting from their surface. 

A mile or two further brought us to an angle of the walls, a little 
way from which was a good-sized hill, with a fort on its top, built of 
stone, in the form of a circle. Here we fell in with our party, who 
bad given up seeing us to-day. Chinese military companies were exer- 
cising about the fort, and it would not be surprising if their jealousy 
was some excited by the sudden increase of the foreign group from 
three to five. 

With Mr. Bridgeman I took a stroll on the hill among the soldiers, 
while the others walked at a little distance from us. A mandarin 
colonel or general was sitting in his sedan, with Chinese pomposity 
(an expressive term for the extreme of pomposity), looking on, while 
the soldiers paraded back and forth before him. When we passed his 
chair he gave a slight token of recognition by a nod of the head ; but 
it was so eclipsed by his manner, drawing himself up to expand 
himself, and then settling his chin into his breast, that I felt like 
laughing. 

There soon began a commotion in the fort, and the turning of 
Chinese eyes to that quarter directed ours there also. They were hur- 
rying about in a half-frantic manner, with excited gesticulations and 
impetuous voices, as if they intended in some way to give us a sur- 
prise. The black mouths of their cannon were pouting out from two 
or three rows of port-holes, and smoking matches were in the soldiers' 
hands ; but I observed that our party were together, and the Chinese 
troops in such relation to us that no harm could come, and we looked 
on with composure. Flash ! gleamed the light across our eyes ; and 
bang ! whang ! broke into our ears, as the reports reechoed from 
the high city wall. Flash ! bang ! whang ! went the two circles 
of guns, one after the other in succession, all around the fort, sound- 
ing like sheet-iron guns of a large calibre ; and the Chinese turned 
their self-conceited leers on us, and then at each other, with expres- 
sions that said, 



CANTON. SOLDIERS. SCENERY. 115 

" How wonderfully must all this noise and smoke impress these out- 
Bide barbarians with the greatness of the military operations of the 
Celestial Empire ! " 

Had they closely watched our countenances, they might have 
perceived that the " outside barbarians " had heard guns before. 

I wished to go inside the fort, but .Dr. B. thought we had better not 
attempt it, as their feelings of jealousy might be aroused ; and by this 
visit they might be better conciliated for another. The troops outside 
the fort were armed with bows and arrows, and went through several 
Chinese evolutions, as I supposed ; for I could not make out what they 
were trying to do. They seemed to be entangling themselves in some 
sort of hieroglyphics, or figures, like the characters in their own lan- 
guage. They stepped rolling along in clumsy black and white 
shoes, that raised them considerably from the ground, and looked 
as if the ligatures of their knee-joints were of India-rubber, — too 
elastic to give the necessary support. Their movements had also an 
air of arrogance. The side-way, see-saw motion of their shoulders 
showed their self-satisfied feelings ; and they looked on us as if to do so 
was an act of condescension. They had apparently none of the rigid 
discipline of European soldiers, but observed a proper respect towards 
their officers. They did not use their bows and arrows, except to flourish 
them by spasmodic actions of the arms, with corresponding grimaces. 
When they attempted to run, it was as if weights were attached to 
their feet. They appeared like a company of green, overgrown boys, 
out on a frolic, in fantastic dresses, cocked hats, bagging pants, black 
leggins, blue frocks, and bows and arrows. No Avonder that fifty 
English soldiers can put to flight a thousand of the Chinese. 

The country, viewed from this elevation, shows a surface of 
uneven land, and of a group of hills. The plain is the parade-ground 
for the troops, and on the north side of it is a temple dedicated to 
the large number of people who perished by the burning of a theatre 
a few years since. The uneven land is generally cultivated, and inter- 
spersed with clumps of bamboo-trees. These clumps are about half a 
mile or a mile apart, and enclose Chinese hamlets and villages. Inter- 
secting each other, they appear in the distance like a bamboo forest. 
The hills are covered with white tombs, and have the appearance of 
freshly-dug ground, studded with blocks of white marble. Some of the 
distant hills are larger, and seem to be overspread with groves of pines 
and other foliage. There being no roads through the country, small 
white foot-paths are the only substitutes. These wind over the surface, 
and, crossing here and there, form various figures, which contrast pret- 
tily with the green and cultivated fields. 

On the other side, to the south, was the river and the city : the 
glistening river, taking a serpentine course to the northward, disap- 
peared among the mountains. We could overlook the walls and the 
buildings of the city, but could observe little else than a rusty, irregu- 
lar, concave plain of tiled roofs, corners of jutting angles and horns, 
red flag-posts in pairs before the mandarins' houses, the tops of a 
few stores, and, towering above all, widely separated, two pagodas. 
Descending the hill, we pursued our path with the walls close on our 



116 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

left. They appear to be about thirty feet high, and in thickness, at 
the base, fifteen or twenty feet, narrowing towards the top. It is built 
of square and oblong blocks of sandstone, from one to two feet in 
length and thickness, though some portions are partially of brick. 
The external face is smooth, and the color, by exposure, nearly black. 
From the seams were growing tufts of grass and flowering plants ; 
and, in some places, the joints were opening with considerable-sized 
shrubs and small trees. Masses of vines ran up from the ground and 
spread over portions of the wall to the height of twenty feet or 
more, and occasionally reaching to the top. Yellowish moss, dried and 
formed into ragged patches, interspersed here and there, gave it an 
ancient aspect. A line of square embrasures, at intervals, cut the 
thin parapets on the top ; and square towers, some several stories high, 
with their curved and angular roofs, rose above the wall, and marked 
its course as it penetrated the city beyond our sight. 

Entering the suburbs of the city on the side opposite to that we left, 
we made our way without any particular interference. Every few 
moments we met Chinese, who passed, giving us scrutinizing glances and 
comments, or stopping to talk with each other and gazing after us. But 
when we came into the more thickly-settled parts, our position was less 
comfortable. In this quarter they seemed stirred up by surprise, curi- 
osity, jealousy or hostility, and flocked around, some running towards 
us and some from, according to their courage, like bees swarming in 
and out of an overturned hive. A crowd of boys and idlers followed, 
crying out various things, and some hooting at us. The inmates of 
the houses and shops ran into the street or filled their doors. Women 
and timid girls peeped out at us, and, after we had passed, came into the 
street and gazed at us till lost to their sight. Lank-sided dogs, aroused 
by the general clatter, leaped out with a spasmodic bound ; and, 
catching sight of us, gave vent to their emotions by nervous starts and 
choking yelps. In the distance ahead the doors of matting, which 
hung as screens, flew open, one after the other, on each side of the 
street, and the inhabitants, with excited steps, appeared outside ; and 
hearing the cry wafted along that " the Fanquies were coming," they 
would stop short, lean forward, whirl their heads in different ways, to 
gather, by the eye or ear, what could be the mystery of the noise ; 
and, catching sight of us, would stand like statues, looking with intense 
eagerness till we came along, and then would join in with the crowd 
that followed. And from the cross streets they came running in to get a 
sight at us, as if they had anticipated our passing. Our safety seemed 
to depend on our speed, and we walked briskly forward to keep ahead 
of the crowd, to prevent their blocking up our way, and so col- 
lecting as to act in concert against us. It was difficult to keep 
together, from the Chinese crowding between us ; those forward could 
go along almost without obstruction, while the others were pushed 
further and further behind. Dr. B., with his daughter, led the way, 
the rest of us following as fast as we could best manage. Several 
times, like my companions, I found myself in the rear ; and, in spite 
of my best efforts, two or three times all of the party were out of sight, 
and nothing to be seen but heads and shoulders of the Chinamen before 



CANTON. A LADY PROTECTOR. 117 

me. The Chinese were not to be run over, nor violently pushed aside, 
by foreigners. I pressed forward, trying to squeeze by thern with a 
gentle force ; but the throng were too closely wedged in for me to make 
much impression upon them. Reflecting that my friends might have 
turned to the right or left into some other streets, that I did not know 
one foot of the way, and that, if lost, I could not speak a word of 
Chinese to inquire the direction, I concluded that I must go through the 
crowd in some way or other — easily if possible, but that I must go 
through. I knew there was no time to be lost, and, lowering my 
shoulders, I forced myself resolutely among them, though it probably 
seemed to them rather roughly. Some turned on me an expression of 
resentment, but I patted lightly on their shoulders, and, making a 
complication of signs, and pointing ahead, they smiled ; and, while 
they were endeavoring to make out what I could mean, I pressed on 
beyond their reach. 

Continuing to crowd, and at the same time to conciliate, two of 
the European hats at length appeared in the distance, bobbing up 
and down among the shaved and shining heads of the Chinese. I now 
could go on faster, the different steps of the process having become 
somewhat mechanical. I would first present the shoulder sideways, 
and below two other shoulders, — with one impulse go through, and 
while presenting the shoulder for a second push, turn the head to 
make a few mystical signs, and go on. Having again nearly over- 
taken the party, Dr. B., observing the course of things, waited a little, 
put himself behind, and, by a few words, now and then, to us and to the 
Chinese, managed to keep us together much better. It sounded queerly, 
amid the confused Chinese jargon, to hear distinctly the English words, 

" Keep right along ! " " Keep right along there ! " " Don't stop ! " 
" Go one side or the other ; don't let them get between you." " Turn 
to the right ! turn to the right there ! Yes, yes, that 's the street," &c. 

And then a few words spoken to the Chinese, in their own language, 
had a wonderful effect on them. 

I think it was a good deal of protection to have a lady as one of the 
party, although it is usually not so considered. The ladies may 
sometimes be a protection to gentlemen, as well as gentlemen always 
to the ladies. Miss B. went along more freely than the rest of us, 
though the Chinese manifested great curiosity to see her. They made 
way for her where they would not for us, seeming to pay a certain 
deference to the party on account of her. As we drew near home we 
advanced with less interruption, and arrived safely at the factories 
before noon. 

Wednesday, October 4th. — Mr. R. left me a note saying that he 
was to sail for America to-morrow by the " Sam Russell," — was 
going now to Whampoa, and asked me to come down and see him off. 
Learning that the vessel would not leave for several days, and having 
a bad cold, I remained at my own room and busied myself in writing 
letters to send home by him. 

There were about a dozen of the younger officers from the 
" Plymouth " and " Preble " to dine here at Acowo's to-day. They 
were very agreeable, and I enjoyed their lively society much. Their 



118 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

vessels lie at Whanipoa, and they came up in a boat. They gave quite 
a lively air to the hotel, and old Acowo had to reinforce his army of 
servants ; and the day turned out a holiday to me, cutting off the most 
of my letter-writing till evening. At twelve last night I made my 
way to my couch through a living atmosphere of mosquitoes. The 
weather was very warm, and I lay with a current of air drawing 
through the door and windows ; but the weather suddenly changed 
and became quite cold, and I, rather than get up and shut the win- 
dows, and so run the risk of letting the mosquitoes into the net, am 
to-day suffering the effects of a severe cold which I took. 

Yours, &c, B. L. B. 

Canton, Oct. 

My dear Sister : To-day I determined to remove from the Chinese 
hotel and go to the American. It was not yet opened, but I had seen 
it, and knew the proprietor. I went, " bag and baggage," and told 
Mr. Hunt that I was coming, even if I had to sleep on the floor. I 
was the first one there, and of course made my selection of the rooms, 
although it was large enough for half a dozen. Mr. Moses, returning 
home from "Whampoa and finding me gone, declared he would not 
stay alone ; and so, settling his bills, he left Acowo, who had another 
long face at the losses he was experiencing. Acowo told us, with a 
forced smile, and very dryly, 

" Bum bye you kum my housy second teem," — that is, you will 
have to come to my house to stay again. But I did not suppose his 
words would prove correct. 

This forenoon, while I was moving and all in confusion, my boy 
came in and said, 

" Two piecy mann have got one teem," meaning that there were 
two gentlemen together to see me. 

I told him to ask them to sit down in the hall ; but before I had 
finished the head servant showed them in, — Commodore Geisenger 
and Capt. Glynn, of the " Plymouth." It was the worst-looking room 
that I had ever seen, and I felt not a little embarrassed on their 
account. It was as cheerless as an old store-room. However, I made 
the best of it, and they, men of the world, could sit down in chairs 
one of which was broken, while I occupied a camphor-chest ; and 
they made themselves as agreeable as if they had been in a large 
drawing-room, furnished with Brussels, damasks, and marbles. Com. 
G.'s son I had known as a boy at school in Northboro, Mass., 
and this was the first time I had heard from him since then, and 
the first time I had seen his father ; and that in a country on the 
opposite side of the globe. One of my greatest pleasures is to meet or 
hear of those with whom I have spent any of the happy years of boy- 
hood. I enjoyed a very pleasant half-hour, notwithstanding my cold, 
and the miserable, dark, unfurnished chamber in which I had to 
receive company. 

In the evening several naval officers from the men-of-war came in at the 
new American hotel to stop for the night. They preferred to remain and 
take such accommodations as they could get, rather than to go to 



CANTON. HONAM TEMPLE. 119 

the Chinese hotel. I shared my room with two of them, and my bed 
with Mr. M. In different ways Mr. Hunt contrived to accommodate 
them all. I made the acquaintance of Mr. Warrington, of Washing- 
ton, Dr. Brooks and Dr. Ober, of Philadelphia. 

Arose at six o'clock this morning, and, partaking of coffee together, 
set off with a party enlisted last evening for a visit to Honam 
Temple. Mr. Meredith, who resides in Canton, went with us, and 
showed us around. Dr. Brooks, Mr. Warrington, Dr. Ober, Mr. 
Hanks, Mr. Goldsboro (all of the "Plymouth"), and myself, com- 
posed the remainder of the company. A sampan threaded its way 
through the boats, and landed us on a few stone steps at the opposite 
side of the river, within sight of the factories. Ascending the steps, 
we walked up a gently-inclined avenue, paved with flat stones. It 
was prettily shaded with two rows of large and ancient banian-trees, 
and arose by several successive terraces, each two or three feet above 
the other. Near the landing-place the fragments of a big cannon lay 
on the ground. It burst, we were told, during the war with the 
English. The Chinese were excited, and probably put in " too much 
powder ; " and the consequence was that it exploded, and killed three 
or four of their own men. They have never allowed the pieces to be 
moved from the original spot in which they fell, and they regard 
them with superstitious veneration. Continuing up the steps of the 
terraces, we came to a large gateway, like a building with a passage 
through, or more like a small railroad station through which the cars 
pass. Within, on each side, are immense human figures in a sitting 
posture. They are, I should judge, twenty-five feet high, and consti- 
tute the guardians of the gateway. They are painted and gilded in a 
fantastic manner, and curiously ornamented. They are represented as 
very fat, with immense chests and abdomens, which seem to run into 
each other. Their countenances indicated all the importance of a 
thin-faced man, who, wishing to appear as great as his neighbor, had 
forced out his cheeks with air. One or two had black faces and 
demon-like expressions, savage and Jupiter-like, as if with their 
drawn weapons they- could annihilate us in a moment of time. It 
would not be strange if we were surprised and startled, or even a little 
frightened, when we beheld for the first moment such awful-looking 
personages, and in such threatening attitudes, peering down on us. 

Passing on, we visited several buildings, full of the ugliest-looking 
images, large and small, and turned a multitude of abrupt angles to 
get to the rooms. In the principal part of the temple, near the centre, 
there were three idols, perhaps twenty -five feet high, and of corre- 
sponding size ; and around the outside a row of smaller ones, a little 
larger than the size of a man, most of which were highly gilded. They 
all had small altars before them, with incense-sticks burning. On the 
little stools in front of the large idols were two worshippers going 
through their devotions, — bowing, kneeling, and bumping their heads 
over on to the paved floor. One poor Chinese woman was chinchining 
(supplicating) the interposition of the idols in behalf of her sick husband. 
A priest was with her, giving her the necessary directions ; and she 



120 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

performed her devotions as if with faith in the power of the idol to 
impart healing aid for his restoration. 

The priests were miserable, small, squalid-looking beings, coarsely 
and poorly dressed, and with about a week's crop of bristling hair 
growing on their shaved heads. They looked as intelligent as faces 
carved out of a pine board, and their faces and hands did not appear 
to have been washed for three months. 1 at first took them for beg- 
gars, and supposed it was a privilege granted them to show strangers 
about for the little that might be given to them. They receive their 
fees from the worshippers, the amount of which depends on their 
wealth and the importance of the prayers. 

On one side, at the end of a long, angular passage, were pens where 
they kept their sacred animals. These consisted of several hogs, so 
large, fat and old, that they could scarcely rise on their feet, — one 
of them could not, and eat lying down, — and a number of geese, 
which have some peculiarity of form, color, or something else. They 
are kept and fattened here (their owners paying for their keeping) 
until they die, when they are buried in the grounds with some cere- 
mony, and are never allowed to be used for food. 

The grounds of the temple, and various buildings attached, and the 
garden adjoining, occupy an area of twelve or fifteen acres. On one 
side of the temple is an open space, where there is a group of hand- 
some tombs. The priest who conducted us around took us across a 
part of the garden ; but, as he could not speak English, nor we Chinese, 
we could only see. As we could not ask questions, we did not 
examine so much as we should have liked. In the midst of the 
tombs was a place for the burning of the bodies of the priests after 
death, which is the manner of disposing of their remains. It was 
built of brick, and large enough to contain a chair, into which the 
body is placed, and supported by brickwork underneath. When all 
is ready, the fagots and other combustible materials are placed under 
the body, and the torch is applied. The fire is kept replenished until 
all is consumed ; or all but some portions of the bones, which may 
happen to remain. These are carefully gathered up and deposited in 
earthen pots, and all the ashes are taken out and turned into an 
opening in the top of a tomb-like receptacle, where they are pre- 
served. 

We returned to the hotel and breakfasted at nine o'clock, and had 
a lively time in commenting on the queer things of the Honam 
Temple. 

After breakfast, with Dr. Brooks, under the direction of our boys, 
I took a stroll through several different streets beyond the fac- 
tories. There were a great many oddities to be seen in the shops, 
especially in " Curiosity-street." The doctor manifested much curi- 
osity, and had many curious comments to make. When^ he came 
upon something particularly different from our American side of the 
globe, his countenance would light up, and, turning the article over 
and over, he would exclaim, in heartfelt promptings, 

" Well, is n't that curious? Don't you think that is beautiful? 
Isn't it capital? " and, holding it a little further off, " It is superb ! 



CANTON. — LOOKING-GLASS-STREET. 121 

Well, I do think the Chinese are the most ingenious people at carving 
in the world. I must take one of these home," &c. 

The Chinese, in the mean time, laughed, and, observing the interest 
he took in their works, were delighted to show him all in the shop. 
It was late when we reached home, quite weary. All the time we 
were out crowds of Chinamen gathered around to look at us. 

The interview of the Chinese and. American government officials — 
Governor Su and the U. S. Commissioner, Mr. Davis — took place 
to-day. Dr. Parker, the American Consul (Mr. Forbes) , and the 
officers of the " Plymouth " and " Preble," were present. I should 
have liked much to have been there ; but no invitations were extended to 
private individuals, it being entirely diplomatic. Some of the officers 
gave amusing accounts of the Chinese, with their chopsticks ; and 
made their observations on the numerous dishes of soups and meats, 
the character of which, according to their taste, was somewhat ques- 
tionable. There were forty courses of soups, meats, fruits and sweet- 
meats, none of which would it do to pass untasted. All expressed 
themselves highly pleased with their visit. 

October 7th. — Mr. B. called after breakfast, and conducted a small 
party of*us to "Looking-glass-street." Although Dr. Brooks and I 
had been there yesterday, we wished to go again to-day ; and sev- 
eral others, hearing the doctor's glowing account, wished to join 
us, and we made a party of ten. I was afraid it was too large 
a number for the sensitiveness of the Chinese, but I believe it excited 
their curiosity only a little more to see so many foreigners together ; 
and the shopkeepers themselves, of course, would not object. Look- 
ing-glass-street is a street of shops filled with mirrors, fancy-boxes, 
pictures of the Chinese painted on glass, various kinds of glass lan- 
terns and lamp-shades, painted with pretty landscapes and Chinese 
characters. These were put together in different iorms, and sizes, 
and styles, very ornamental and attractive. It seemed like a museum, 
and we streamed along like a flock of strange birds, feasting our 
curious eyes. When we began to examine in one shop we felt reluc- 
tant to leave it, and each one wished to bring away a specimen of 
every article it contained. We spent several hours here, and the 
shopkeepers were very agreeable, never tired of showing their goods, 
were never irritated or disappointed because we did not buy, and had 
as pleasant a smile when we left as when we came in. All of us 
made some purchases, and left the articles to be sent up and paid for 
at the hotel. I should judge that a good understanding existed 
between our boys and the shopkeepers ; probably they share the profits 
to some extent with each other. When we bought anything the boys 
manifested the kind of interest that denoted they were to get some- 
thing by it. 

I met Captain Palmer, of the " Sam Russell. " He leaves Whampoa 
for America, but I shall not be able to go down to see my friends off, 
and have sent a note to Mr. R. with an apology, and a fan to his 
little girl, of whom I had heard him speak much during the voyage. 

Mr. B. took us also to a tea manufacturing establishment across 
the river. This comprises an extensive group of buildings, containing 
11 



122 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

various rooms and large halls. These were filled with men and 
women, boys and girls, engaged in their various departments. Some 
of them were planting and stirring with the^hand the crackling leaves 
in the furnaces ; others sitting at long tables, assorting the leaves, 
culling, sifting them, &c. There are, I am told, thousands of persons 
connected with this establishment, who work for a few cents a day. 
The tea-leaves are not rolled singly by hand, but are curled by the 
action of heat. We saw the process of coloring green tea, about 
which they manifested no secrecy, which was done while the leaves 
were being heated for the last time. 

Yours, &c, B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

VISIT TO THE COUNTRY RESIDENCES OF POWTINQUA AND HOWQUA. 

EXECUTION OF CRIMINALS. NOISY CRIES OF CHINESE. TYPHOON, 

AND OVERFLOWING OF THE RIVER. 

This morning Mr. "Warrington, Mr. Moses, another gentleman and 
myself, under the guidance of Mr. Hunt, went to visit Powtinqua's 
residence. Powtinqua was a rich tea-merchant, and had a country- 
seat up the Canton river. We are told he is dead, and his son, also 
called Powtinqua, is in prison for the debts of his. father. It is a 
singular system that holds the children responsible for the debts of 
their father ; but nothing is too strange or singular for the Chinese. 
The glory, then, in the name of Powtinqua, we may suppose, has 
departed, and it is remembered and spoken of for what it once was. 

The names of Powtinqua and Howqua are here what those of Abbot 
Lawrence, Peter C. Brooks, Mr. Cushing, &c, are with us. But the 
procedures of the mandarins are such that the rich man is not secure 
of remaining rich for any length of time. Their custom of " squeez- 
ing," as it is called, often forces them to part with their wealth. There 
is, however, such a thing as being so encased in silver that the squeez- 
ing process will produce no destructive injury. During the war with 
the English, money was needed, and the screws were often applied to 
Howqua and Powtinqua. At last Powtinqua, unable longer to bear 
the pressure, became bankrupt and was ruined, while Howqua con- 
tinued to hold out, and is now in prosperity. The mandarins carry out 
some of their principles as foolishly as the old woman in JEsop's fable 



COUNTRY RESIDENCES OF POWTINQUA AND HOWQUA. 123 

who had the goose which laid every day a golden egg. Thinking to 
find many golden eggs within her, she killed the goose, and, finding 
none, lost all. 

We took a sampan, and, sailing up the river a few miles, and turn- 
ing into a little creek upon the right, soon came to the place. The 
grounds were large, laid out prettily and with good taste. Narrow 
walks, hedged with vases of flowers, extended in various directions. 
Artificial hills were covered with plants, shrubbery and trees, inter- 
mingled with rocks ; and among these were smaller paths winding and 
leading to the highest parts. Underneath were subterranean passages, 
so constructed as to represent grottoes, and wild, rocky places washed 
by the sea. The house was built upon stone posts, and situated in 
the centre of an artificial fish-pond. Railed walks, raised on piles 
above the water, led to it from two sides. Arched bridges, as if 
made for ornament, but probably to allow boats to pass under, con- 
nected some of the walks. The house was unoccupied, and, from 
neglect, was fast becoming dilapidated. We looked into the windows, 
and saw some of the unique furniture still remaining around the 
rooms. Paintings and pictures still hung on the walls, and a few 
carved ornaments were yet observable. The house was one story, 
designed and constructed purely in Chinese style. 

Leaving Powtinqua's, we crossed the river to the residence of How- 
qua, who, I believe, is the wealthiest tea-merchant among the Chinese. 
On the way we partook of our lunch of cold fowl and ham, &c, and 
stopped a little at the Fah-Tee gardens, — extensive grounds of shrubs 
and flowers. The elder Howqua is dead, and his son occupies the 
place, though absent now. As we drew near the house, one of our 
boatmen intimidated us somewhat by telling us, with a long face, that 
it would not answer to enter the dwelling ; that Howqua's wife was 
alone in the house, and that we should be killed if we persisted. Mr. 
Hunt did not believe any such thing, and we continued on. We came 
to the gateway, and found the doors that opened into the grounds 
closed. On knocking several times, and then pounding, a Chinaman 
appeared. He opened the door far enough to see us, and shook his 
head. Mr. H. took from his pocket a piece of silver, and held it up 
before him ; the gate immediately opened wide enough, and we entered. 
The view which broke on us was the most beautiful of anything which 
we had seen or could have imagined in this region. Before the unique 
Chinese buildings spread out an expanse of green shrubbery, broken 
here and there by glistening mirrors of water, long walks and hedges 



124 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

intersecting at right angles, and forming squares and oblongs ; and 
long lines of flowers, in green-glazed vases, lined pretty little avenues, 
through which it was delightful to walk. The artificial arched bridge 
of wood, the small ponds teeming with fish, and the broad-leafed lotus- 
plants floating, all added to the beauty and variety of the scene. 

We entered the house, and passed through the different rooms, 
which were of a small size, and of a style that would not suit our 
taste at all. We came away unfrightened by the sight of Howqua's 
wife, for there was no one in the house but a number of men-servants, 
to whom we paid a small fee, — not because they had done anything 
for us, but because they seemed to expect something. I do not believe 
that Howqua keeps his wives here, but maintains this more to have a 
pretty place to entertain his foreign friends. 

I observed to-day, established in front of the hotel, three Chinese 
doctors, one fortune-teller, one gambler, and a dentist. The doctors 
had among their medicines charms of different kinds, several dried 
snakes, and one live snake. The dentist had a string of teeth, two 
yards in length, suspended from his neck. They held forth in bom- 
bastic language, each explaining to a waiting crowd his wonderful 
skill. The gambler and fortune-teller had their portable tables, dice, 
and cards, &c. The dentists pretend to make some application to the 
teeth which causes them to fall out ; but I believe it is an acid that 
causes the crowns to crumble away, leaving the roots below the gums. 
The doctors had their medicines, salves, ointments, &c, spread 
around them, while they were seated in the midst of it all. 

LETTER TO A BROTHER-IN-LAW. 

Canton, China, October 9th. 

My dear Doctor F : This was a rainy and cold day, although 

in October, and in twenty-three degrees of latitude, — about the same 
as New Orleans or Calcutta. Most persons had to make a change of 
dress, and many with thick coats and pants were shivering. Such 
weather is rather unusual here. I have been busy a part of the day, 
trying to prepare some tooth-powder, as I had promised. I find much 
difficulty m making the Chinese understand me, and they stand and 
laugh like idiots, I am inclined, at times, to make them some demon- 
stration for their impudence. I am almost always sure, when I go 
out to make a purchase, to bring home something that I did not go 
after, and to leave things that I did go for. Not being able to find the 
right articles, I have to take the next best, and I have to pay four 
times the amount that the Chinese pay for the same. But they will 
not deceive me after a while. 



CANTON. WUN-CHUNG'S PICTURE. 125 

Our friend Dr. B., of the " Plymouth," while at the meeting of 
Mr. Davis with Governor Su at Howqua's, on Friday last, was admir- 
ing a large picture which hung in the room where they had dined. 
Howqua, observing him, offered to present it to him, which was 
accepted. It was to be sent the next day (Saturday) . This afternoon 
a Chinaman brought in a large picture, which the doctor, supposing it 
to be the picture from Howqua, was much pleased at receiving ; for he 
had been very anxious, fearing that it would not arrive before his 
departure by the steamboat. He quickly gave the Chinaman a dollar 
for his trouble, which the man received with many bows. Then the 
doctor commenced explaining the figures, and commenting to us upon 
the beauty of the picture. But the man who brought it soon inter- 
rupted, saying, 

" Fifty dollars." 

" Yes," said the doctor ; " I would not take fifty dollars for it ; this 
is a present from Howqua." 

Then, holding it up to the light and examining a little more, he 
turned, addressing the Chinaman, 

• " Why, this does not look like the picture ; where did you get this ? 
Why, let me see ; what is your name ? Is your name Howqua ? " 

" No," said the man ; " my name is Wun-chung." 

" ! " resumed the doctor, " this is not the picture ; you are not 
the man. I do not want this. Here, take it ; give me back the 
money." 

The Chinaman was a painter, and, having a picture much like How- 
qua's, was, perhaps, sent by Howqua or his servants to the doctor, 
under the belief that the difference would not be discovered, and the 
man would sell his picture for fifty dollars. But Wun-chung took his 
picture, paid back the dollar, and went away laughing. Whether 
Howqua intended or forgot to send the picture, we did not know ; cer- 
tainly he neglected to do so. But we all had a merry laugh at the 
joke on the doctor, and the doctor laughed as heartily as any of us 
that he had detected the man before he had paid him the fifty dollars. 
Occasionally, now, as we are sitting at the table or in the veranda of 
the hotel, or are walking through the streets, we have a good-natured 
laugh and mutual pleasantry with the doctor respecting " Howqua 's 
picture. ' ' 

Wednesday, October 11th. — Yesterday was a cold and unpleasant 
day, much like one of our spring days in New England when an 
easterly wind prevails. I had a pleasant call from Commodore G., 
and enjoyed an interesting conversation with him. 

Thursday, October 12th. — I was up at half-past six to keep an 
engagement with Rev. Mr. Roberts to breakfast with him. He called 
for me at half-past seven, and I was ready. He had a boat at the 
American garden, in which we went to his house, near two miles down 
the river. We visited before breakfast the execution ground, which 
was only a short distance. This was nothing more than a vacant lot 
of ground, about twenty feet wide, and fifty to one hundred feet long. 
Some Chinese carpenters occupied it in part at this time ; it was used 
also for drying pottery ware, which had to be cleared out at the time 
11* 



126 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

of an execution. There are three gates to it, through which the crowd 
cannot enter. The criminals kneel in a row, with their heads bent 
over towards the ground. Back of each man stands one holding their 
hands, which are fastened behind. At the. signal, the executioner 
advances with a cutlass, and by one blow on the back of the neck 
severs the head from the body. If he should miss the mark, he does 
not repeat the blow, but the criminal is remanded for a new trial, on 
account of the superstitious belief that some superhuman power had 
interposed. The executioner walks along to each successively, till all 
are despatched. Other officers are present, seated in their chairs, to 
superintend the proceeding. Mr. R. saw twelve on one occasion 
beheaded, one after the other, in the short space of three minutes, by 
two executioners. A number of heads still lay in a heap, exposed as 
a " warning to others." After breakfast, having taken a short survey 
of the premises, I returned by boat to the factories. 

After dinner, Mr. Moses and I walked in the American gardens, 
where we were joined by Mr. Bridgeman, and we had a talk of college 
days at Amherst, Mass. The weather was quite warm. 

Saturday, October 14th. — Mr. M. invited me to go with him in hi» 
vessel, in a few weeks, to Manilla. If convenient, 1 shall do so. We 
walked through Old and New China streets, meeting great numbers 
of beggars, of both sexes, and all ages, and from the gray-haired to 
the child of four years. Each one of them had a little wooden bowl 
to receive the cash that might be thrown in, and all were crying out, 
in mournful strains, for charity. Several of the streets were quite full 
of them. Amid all their noise and confusion, it seemed like being in 
Bedlam. Many of them are loathsome-looking objects, and in passing 
among them one recoils with fear lest he should touch one. I presume 
that more than one hundred passed my window last night during 
the ten minutes that I was observing them. Several times three or 
four blind ones, in single file, led by one who could see, would pass 
together, each holding on by the clothes of the one in front. Some- 
times a beggar will enter a Chinese shop, and commence drumming, 
with a bamboo stick on a piece of board, continuing this till he 
exhausts the patience of the shopkeeper, who, fearing that his cus- 
tomers will be driven away by the noise, throws him out a coin called 
a cash, which is one twelfth of a cent, and the beggar goes off to the 
next shop, where the drumming is resumed. Frequently one of them 
may be seen standing in the middle of a shop, drumming away on an 
old gong as if for life, being in other respects perfectly motionless, and 
appearing as if he had been there for some hours. 

With regards to all our friends, truly, B. L. B. 



Tuesday, October 17th. — During the first of the evening we went 
up and had a view from the upper part of the house. There was a 
large platform and a railing above the roof, from which we could see 
over the tops of the other buildings throughout the city. Lanterns in 
every direction shone from the watch-towers, which are higher than 



CANTON. NOISY CRIES OF CHINESE. 127 

the tops of the houses. These towers are light structures, erected 
on high bamboo poles, for watchmen to rest in at night, and, over- 
looking the roofs, give any alarm of fire which may happen to 
" break out." 

I heard this morning that the " Vancouver " was in, and I expect 
news from home ; but I hardly dare indulge the thought, for fear I may 
again be disappointed. It is over five months since I left America, 
and I am very anxious to hear a word. I would give a considerable 
amount for news from home, if money could buy it. 

Wednesday, October 18^A. — This morn I was aroused from sleep by 
a number of Chinamen crying their various kinds of produce to sell, 
when they make the worst of noises. I should almost like to thrash 
them soundly for giving utterance to such unearthly sounds. One 
passes along, crying out one article ; in five minutes another cries 
something else ; a few minutes more, and another comes of the same 
character ; and all at the top of their voices. This morning there 
were eight or ten different ones thus engaged; and, to increase the 
confusion, one of them came with geese and ducks screeching and 
quacking as if they had worn their throats to the bone. All this, 
with the drumming of the watchmen, was almost enough to drive me 
crazy. I am out of patience with them. 

Thursday, October V^th. — It has been a very warm day ; the per- 
spiration flowed from me in streams. The mosquitoes are very annoy- 
ing at this time. I have had quite a long talk with a Chinese 
merchant relative to the opening of the city gates next spring. Since 
the war of England with China, the Chinese have been much more 
prejudiced against the English than against other nations, so that 
the Americans and others seem to be more in favor with them, 
though, in a commercial point of view, I presume there is little differ- 
ence. After some conversation on the subject, I said, 

" Suppose I go with you inside city, you think they hurt me?" 

He answered, 

" I thinkee no makey bobbery you, s'pose Cheenamann sarvy (know) 
you. You 'Mereky mann ; but no can sarvy true, alia same fashion, 
same facey, same closey, same lookee, no different fashion (from) 
that Ingliss." 

" But," said I, " the Chinese like the English now well enough, do 
they not? " 

" No can ! no can ! no likee ! " said he ; and, pointing to his mouth, 



128 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

" Englishman very good talkee ; " and then to his breast, " all heart 
bad, — no talkee true, — too much a proudy." 

Friday, October 20th. — To-day I saw, at Dr. B.'s house, a patient 
•whose finger had been bitten by a serpent. For nearly the whole 
extent of the arm the part outward to the elbow had sloughed, and 
portions of the finger. 

At this moment the rain is falling in torrents, and the wind is blow- 
ing violently, very like the typhoon at Hong-Kong. Some say that 
it is another typhoon. Loose boards and blinds torn off begin to rattle 
about the streets, and the wind occasionally sweeps round, and 
wrenches the house with much power. 

Saturday, October 21st. — Last night, between eleven and twelve, 
the wind blew in terrific gusts. Hearing a confused sound of voices 
in the direction of the river, I determined on going to witness what it 
might proceed from. I called Mr. M. up, who made ready to go with 
me. It rained pouringly, and blew almost a hurricane. We pro- 
ceeded a short distance, when one of the gusts nearly wrested away 
my umbrella, and took off my cap. While I was after it, Mr. M. 
became frightened, and ran back. In the dark he encountered a post, 
that he thought at first was a man, which increased his fears. He 
soon reached the door, and resolutely refused to try it again, and I 
was obliged to go alone. I went through the rain, for I could not 
carry my umbrella spread, and found the Chinese boat-families and 
their boats in the greatest confusion. They were hurrying this way 
and that, and from one boat to another, without seeming to know 
what they were after, — all crying out to each other, to the extent of 
their voices, in excited tones and with frantic gestures, some for one 
thing, and some for another. But their principal aim seemed to be to 
secure their boats, which, tossed up and down, were dashing against 
each other. I walked to the end of the narrow pier, which was just 
wide enough for three to pass abreast, with the water splashing up 
over on both sides, and took a view of the river. I met Mr. Bourne 
here, making observations for his next day's paper. We could see little 
except their boat-lights, and the burning of incense-sticks and paper, 
which they were abundantly and anxiously offering to appease the 
supposed wrath of their deity. I came home completely drenched, and 
well satisfied with my adventure. 

About five this morning, Mr. Hunt brought up my little Chinese 
dog, saying that the streets were full of water, and that it was pouring 
and had flooded the lower part of the house, drowning the little 



CANTON. STORM. 129 

fellow out of his sleeping quarters. All the forenoon boats and sam- 
pans were paddling about the streets. We went to the top of the 
house, and could see that the streets had been turned into canals, and 
that the whole American garden was a pond of water, which the wind 
and tide were driving further into the city. Some of the verandas 
and roofs were to be seen in ruins. 

A gentleman who had an engagement with me came, at the hour 
appointed, in a boat, floating into the door of the house and up to the 
stairs, where he landed. Another gentleman told me, since the water 
has subsided, that he should have come in a sedan, but the water was 
so deep the coolies could not carry him high enough from the water 
to make it practicable. 

Towards night the streets turned into dry land, and Mr. M. and 
I walked to the river. We saw stretched on the ground a Chinese 
boy that had been drowned, and the mother crying and lamenting as 
if she would die herself ; many covered boats were more or less broken 
up, and strewed about in fragments. Others were stove, and full of 
water. I am told that the Chinese will not save a drowning person ; 
they think that it is the work of Josh, with which they will not inter- 
fere, and that if the man is to be saved he will be saved without their 
interposition, though we noticed that many of the children still had 
on the bamboo floater which had been attached to their backs. 



CHAPTER XV. 

BEGGARS. SING-SONG. VISIT TO LEPER VILLAGE. CHINESE SUPER- 
STITIONS. DOGS AND CATS AS FOOD. WALK WITH A CHINAMAN. 

VOYAGE TO MANILLA. 

Sunday, October 22d. — Messrs. Hunt, Moses and myself, have 
walked through Looking-glass-street. At every shop where we called 
a crowd of staring Chinese, as usual, gathered about the door, and in 
several instances in such numbers that the shopkeepers were obliged 
to drive them off. We again noticed beggars drumming up the 
shopkeepers to give them something. In one store, there were two 
men and one woman all keeping up an incessant clicking and ding- 
ing in the ears of the inmates. The wood, being resonant, sounds 



130 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

very loud ; and the shopkeeper, disturbed in trading with his cus- 
tomers, and having endured it as long as he could, petulantly stepped 
forward, and put a cash — a twelfth of a cent — into each of their 
bowls. 

We could often hear them at a distance, before we came where 
they were. One of the beggar parties showed themselves to be quite 
cunning. They kept company with us into each store that we 
entered. The moment they commenced drumming, the storekeeper, 
perceiving that he was about to have European customers, would 
throw very quickly out the cash, to get rid of them. This satisfied 
them ; for they quickly stopped their noises, and went outside ; and 
when we came out we found them ready to precede us to the next 
shop, knowing very well that the shopkeepers would not like the noise 
when there was any prospect of a profitable trade. Owing to the 
superstitious belief of the people concerning them, they are never 
ordered out ; but they will keep up the drumming for hours, if they do 
not get their cash, no matter how annoying it may be ; for they have 
no regard for the ears of the shopkeepers, further than to stimulate 
them to throw out the money. Some beggars have the happy faculty 
of making themselves so very disagreeable that the shopkeepers pay 
them a regular salary to keep out of their shops. 

At evening, I went into the street, to see and hear the " sing-song," 
a short distance from the hotel. These consist of eight or twelve 
Chinese musicians, seated on a platform, raised about ten feet from 
the ground. The place was decorated with theatrical articles, and 
prettily illuminated with lanterns. Here they burned their Josh- 
sticks, played and sung (or rather squalled) , and acted like insane 
persons. They appeared highly satisfied with their own music, though 
such a heterogeneous mingling of horrid noises forcibly reminded me 
of the cast-iron band of college students in their occasional nocturnal 
parades. One of the musicians was so enraptured that he would 
often throw up his gongs with a whirl, and, catching them, strike 
them together, turn them over, and spin them on his thumbs, with 
various other motions. The object of this sing-song, I was told, was 
for chin-chinning Josh not to burn the houses in that street. I am 
told that the same ceremony is performed in other streets, by these or 
other musicians. 

Monday, October 2'dd. — I went with Dr. B. to visit a village 
inhabited by lepers. It is situated a few miles in the country back of 
Canton, and is supported by the gifts of the emperor. Dr. B., as 



CANTON. 



A TILLAGE OF LEPERS. 131 



usual, took tracts for distribution, — translations of the Ten Com- 
mandments, — which were given to the people along the way. 

The lepers were a " hard-looking set "to be called human. I was 
almost disposed to regard them as an order below the human race. 
Their skins were covered with blotches, spotted, pitted, scarred, or in 
some way marked with disease, which extended to every person living 
there — man, woman and child, from the infant to the most aged. 
Different shades of effects throughout, — the whole catalogue of erup- 
tive diseases, venereal and those of scrofula, elephantiasis in different 
shades and aspects, or all combined, — were to be observed among them. 
There were some singularly forlorn cases. One boy about twelve years 
old, with a diseased body and a wrinkled and dried-up face, appeared to 
be about seventy-five years old. The legs and feet of some, at a short 
distance, resembled those of elephants both in color and size ; others had 
varied swellings, discolorations or distortions of the flesh, the natural 
results of their living and filthy habits. Such a living mass of diseased 
forms with idiotic expressions, gathering around us and gazing into 
our faces, was not agreeable. Many of them seemed perfectly amazed ; 
and some felt of our clothes and flesh, as if doubtful what we were 
made of. 

As we drew near the village we could see them collecting along the 
path, and hear them crying out, " Fan-qui-loo ! Fan-qui-loo ! " with 
each other ; and as we entered they ran along behind and at our 
sides, shouting and laughing as if they were escorting strange beings 
into their precincts. 

Many of them could read, and were much pleased to get the tracts 
with yellow covers. We took seats in the little temple or Josh-house, 
with the idols around us, and rested ourselves while we stopped ; at 
the same time the whole village collected to look at us. I remarked 
to the doctor that I presumed we had a larger congregation than they 
had in their temple generally. 

On account of the color of my hair they at first manifested some 
prejudice towards me, taking me to be an Englishman — one from the 
" red-haired nation," which had been at war with their country. But 
explanation being made that people from many nations had the same 
kind of hair, they were satisfied. 

From this village, passing across the country and through the 
parade-ground of the Canton troops, we came to the cemetery where 
there is a temple to commemorate those who lost their lives in a 
theatre which was burned, several years ago, in Canton. There 



132 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

perished, on that occasion, three thousand persons, whose remain3 
were collected, brought out, and buried here. Hence foreigners 
call it the cemetery. Their names, as many as could be collected, 
were inscribed on little boards or tablets, and conspicuously placed 
inside in rows behind the altar. 

All the sides of the hills about here are covered with grave-stones. 
On one small hill a funeral party was assembled. As we approached 
they manifested some alarm, but Dr. B. very soon quieted them, 
and gave them books. TVe passed through several villages, and 
stopped a few moments in a slaughter-house, where they were engaged 
in killing cattle for the supply of the city. Herds of buffaloes and 
goats were grazing in the pastures. Most of the villages were enclosed 
by bamboo-trees, looking very pretty, — much prettier at a distance, 
with their curved and ornamented roofs, than at a nearer view. 
The streets were very narrow — not wide enough for a carriage. This 
being the time of a Chinese festival, one long street was handsomely 
decorated ; and chandeliers and images of paper, with various colors 
and of every description, were suspended over head. As we returned 
through it, a crowd of boys followed us, but we arrived safely at Dr. 
B.'s house at two p. m. After tea, I walked home, — a boy going 
before with a lantern, and carrying the images, &c, which Dr. B. 
had kindly given me, — and reached there at nine p. m., relieving the 
fears of friends at our long absence. 

Tuesday, October 2±th. — Last night the "sing-song," spoken of 
yesterday, kept up their disagreeable jargon till two o'clock this 
morning. It was quite a relief to me when fatigue induced them to 
stop. The variety afforded gratuitously by the beggars, the criers 
of meats and broths, and the Chinese sounds in general, was more 
than sufficient for my curiosity. 

Wednesday, October 25th. — The "sing-song" has departed, and 
I hope they have chin-chinned Josh to their hearts' content. It is a 
pleasure to be free of their jargon and squalling singing. 

I attended Dr. Parker's church, at his house, at eleven a. m., Rev. 
Mr. French officiating. 

Mr. M., who rooms under me, amused himself in scattering copper 
cash among the Chinese in the street, thrown from the window in 
small handfuls, and seeing them scramble for it. The street soon 
became crowded with the Chinese, and it was a ludicrous scene to see 
them pushing, pulling, and tumbling over each other. But a couple of 
American friends, calling in, stated that it was very dangerous to have 



CANTON. A CHINESE PUBLIC NOTICE. 133 

such a collection of dissolute and disorderly Chinese ; that, if sufi'ered 
to continue, it would be likely to result in a mob ; and, if so, there 
would be lives lost before it could be quelled. They said that several 
times a mob, collected by circumstances as trivial, had attacked the 
factories, which once had nearly been demolished. To-day the collec- 
tion was of a motley gathering of beggars, coolies, and the lowest class 
generally, and it was rapidly increasing. They had to be driven away 
before they would leave. 

In the evening we attended the religious services which were 
conducted by Dr. II. at Dr. P.'s house. 

A curious instance of Chinese superstition is related in the Chinese 
Repository. On the flag-staff erected by Mr. Forbes, United States 
Consul at Canton, was a vane in the shape of an arrow. This the 
Chinese saw turning around and pointing in different directions, as if 
menacing the people ; and so much excitement was produced among 
them that the consul was induced to have it taken down. While a 
small party of sailors were engaged in doing this, some of the baser 
Chinese, who had pushed themselves into the square, got up a riot ; but 
it was fortunately quelled, and order restored. The following account 
was given by the Chinese gentry, and indicates the popular feeling on 
that occasion. It was written in Chinese, and posted up in their form 
of notices in the streets, to be read by the Chinese populace. 

" On reflection, we think that both Chinese and foreigners ought to 
be at peace with each other, and each party behave themselves respect- 
fully. The matter is, that in front of the American factory a new 
flag-staff was lately erected, and an arrow for a vane placed on the top 
of it, which shot towards all quarters, thereby causing serious imped- 
iment to the felicity and good fortunes of the land. But, upon the 
remarks of the natives coming to their knowledge, it appears that the 
said country's merchants took down the arrow themselves, by which 
we see that they are aware of their error. There ought, therefore, to 
be no ill-will between us and them. Moreover, these merchants have 
traded in Canton coeval with our dynasty, for two hundred years, 
and for the most part behaved themselves properly ; so in this affair 
having shown themselves obliging, we ought to excuse them. Hence- 
forth, we sincerely pray that all may be at peace ; that, thus looking 
up, we may participate in our emperor's earnest desire to regard 
people from afar with compassion. This is what we most ardently 
hope for (from our own countrymen). 

" A public notice from the gentry and elders of all the streets and 
school-districts in the four roads. Taowkwang, twenty-fourth year, 
third moon, twentieth day.'" 

12 



134 CHINA AND MANILLA. 



LETTER TO A SISTER-IN-LAW. 

Canton, China, Tuesday, October 2>\st, 1848. 

My dear Sister E. C. B. : This evening I took a cooly with a 
lantern for nry guide, and went down to Foo Ti, calling on Rev. Mr. 
L. He lives in almost wholly Chinese style. He has a Chinese house 
and Chinese furniture, &c, and I took tea with him on the Chinese 
lounge. He said that he walked home through the streets alone last 
night, but did not generally like to. Mr. W. had been attacked sev- 
eral times. This evening, while walking in the American garden, I 
heard the notes of a piano, which reminded me of home, and for a 
considerable time my thoughts wandered in those far-off regions. 

Wednesday, November 1st. — It is a task to do anything with these 
Chinamen. A week ago, I engaged one to make the blade to a small 
instrument, leaving one for a pattern. I go to him, and say, 

" Have got instrument done? " 

"Arh?" 

I repeat it, and put the question in a dozen different forms, and by 
and by he will say, 

" No sarva." 

After a while I find that I am not addressing the right man, who is 
not in at the time. I call once or twice more, and, perhaps, find him 
in, and say, 

" Have got that instrument done ? " 

" Instremy, instremy? No sarva instremy." 

" That litty steel, — so long time, you know, — I bring you three, 
four day before ? ' ' 

" Ar-r-raha steeley, arh steeley-instremy — yet, ivorie handley, I 
sarva ; no have got proper, can have two, three day more — no can 
do so litty time — s'pose you cum two three day, can do." 

I call again at the time, and it is the same thing; over again. I 
have to go, and to keep gomg, and I cannot tell when I shall be done 
with them ; and so with almost every little article that I may wish 
them to do for me. 

My little dog I find that I have saved from being converted into 
chow-chow, for at the time I bought him such was his fate. The 
Chinaman pedler had him, with two or three others, all nicely fattened, 
in two wicker baskets, carrying them about to sell. The man, as I 
stopped to look at them, told me, by signs and motions, what nice 
chow-chow they would make, — pointing to his mouth. There were 
white ones and red ones, and I chose one with long curly hair, of a 
light red color, — somewhat resembling a young lion, — bargaining 
for him at seventy-five cents. 

I had seen cages of dogs hawked about, but never before thought of 
buying one myself, till this little fellow arrested my attention, causing 
my desire to save him from his impending fate. Accordingly, the 
man brought him to the house, and I had him shut up in my room. 
Since then I have been trying to tame him ; for, as soon as I entered 
the room, he would run and yelp, and get as far from me as possible ; 
but he manifests no timidity at the Chinese. I have thought that if he 



CANTON. ORNAMENTS. REGATTA. 135 

did not soon improve in his disposition towards me, my sympathy 
and affection for him would be gone, and I should pass him over to 
Chinese hands again. Cats, mewing their lamentations, are carried 
about in the same way, destined also to be served up on the tables of 
the Chinese. They say you cannot tell the meat from rabbit, but I 
care not about trying it, and had rather take their word for it. When 
I see any meat on the table that looks doubtful, I look for a wing, 
knowing that cats have not got wings. 

I have not seen any rats yet, though I hear them squeaking and 
prancing about my room every night. Judging from their numbers 
here, I should not suppose them to be a very general article of food. 

Rats are only eaten by the poorer class of Chinese, and then they 
are generally " dried rats," prepared by skinning, flattening out, and 
drying. The bodies are then strung on wires, and hung up in the 
rat-shops for sale. 

After tiffin, I called at a Chinese shop, and the shopkeeper offered 
to take me around through several streets, to " see some curious 
things," as he called it. He accompanied me to Looking-glass-street ; 
then to a street where they make and keep nothing but shoes, — Shoe- 
street, I should call it ; then to one where they painted all sorts of 
Chinese figures, on rolls of paper, for window-curtains ; then to shops 
filled with carved figures, which they sell at high prices. These were of 
hard wood, rhinoceros-horn, &c, polished, — vases, cups, bowls, idols, 
images, &c. Then we passed to a street full of tinsel-work ; where were 
all kinds of filigree ornaments, with very bright colors. They were repre- 
sentations of various Chinese scenes, — of men, women, animals, groves, 
flowers, trees, houses, &c. Some were very large, — several feet in height 
and breadth. With these they purchase their wives (as the man told 
me) , giving the father, if the girl is very handsome, one of the most 
costly and beautiful. They are very cheap, ranging from fifty cents to 
twenty-five dollars. I thought, by their richness, the price would 
have exceeded one hundred dollars. They have on them an immense 
deal of work, and I could not imagine how they could be afforded 
at such prices. When we came into a street where there were but 
few people passing, my conductor took the opportunity to tell me I 
must look out for my pockets, or I should find myself robbed ; and 
then remarked that he could not say this to me before, lest some of 
the Chinamen should have overheard him. 

In the evening I called at Dr. P.'s, and had an entertaining conver- 
sation with him and Mrs. P. upon home and home affairs. This 
subject, which always includes our friends, is always interesting to 
parties so far from their native country. 

Monday, November 13lh. — In the afternoon we went to see the 
regatta of the merchants, which was very exciting, some of the 
principals of the mercantile houses taking an active part in pulling the 
oars. Most of the European population of Canton, and many from 
Hong-Kong, were present. Mr. Heard, who awards one of the silver 
cups to the winners, sent me a programme of the affair. 

Concluded to go down to Hong-Kong to-morrow, and to make a trip 
to Manilla with Mr. Moses. 



136 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Tuesday, November l^th. — At three p. m. I had all my baggage on 
board a boat for Whampoa. When I came from the hotel, all the 
Chinese servants were ranged along on each side of the passage to the 
door for cumshaAvs (presents) . There were the cook, the cook's assistant, 
chair-bearers, chamber-sweepers, coolies, and others whom I could not 
recollect of having ever before seen, but presume they had served me 
in some way or other. In coming down the stairs, I wondered why 
all those two lines of Chinese were standing so ceremoniously, and 
looking as if about to do something, I could not tell what. As I 
approached, they similated most respectful countenances (which I had 
never observed before) , and I concluded they were going to escort me 
to the boat, or something of that nature. But the foremost one of 
them soon made me acquainted with the object of their parade. He 
stretched out his hands, with, 

" Doker Pau, s'pose you likey, litty cumshaw my? " 

After I had given him something, another's hands came in the same 
way ; and I perceived that each one was waiting his turn. I noticed 
among them the coolies who had carried my baggage to the boat, and 
whom I had paid liberally, twenty times as much as the Chinese 
would pay them ; the washerman, who had beat out the new linen 
clothes for me, the first time they were washed ; those who I had 
reason to suppose had stolen articles from my wardrobe, and others 
whom I had punctually paid, whenever they had done anything for 
me. And I said, 

"0, no, not to such a crowd as this ! There are no obligations 
resting upon me of this kind towards you ; and you can continue to 
hold out your hands until I get to Whampoa, if you like." 

And I passed through them to the boat, much to their disappoint- 
ment. The boat in the middle was covered above, and my baggage, 
with the boxes of Chinese articles, was stoAved away inside, so that 
there was scarcely room for myself. My boy and dog, however, 
crawled in on top of the boxes, and ofi" we went. 

Two miles down the river, at Puc-ti-mu, I stopped and called at Dr. 
B.'s a few minutes, and then went on. Soon we were out of sight of 
the boat population, only straggling ones being here and there to be 
seen. The tide and wind were against us, and we progressed slowly. 
With all the show of my things in front, I was, towards night, a little 
apprehensive of pirates. Several times suspicious-looking boats crossed 
ahead of our bows, as if to take a view of us. My revolver was freshly 
loaded with eight shots, and carefully kept in my breast-pocket, and. 
on showing it to the boatmen, it received their approbation ; but Ave 
were not molested. 

We arrived among the shipping at Whampoa at about eight in the 
evening. It was very dark, and it was difficult to distinguish one 
vessel from another. We cruised back and forth, looking for Captain 
Lockhart's fast boat, which was to pass about this time, and in which 
the captain had invited me to take passage, he having hired^ it for 
his own use. In case that I missed him, I had arranged to go in Mr. 
Bush's private cutter, which would pass later. I had given up Cap- 
tain L., and Avas looking for Mr. Hunt's vessel, to wait- and watch, 



HONG-KONG. AN ADROIT THEFT. 137 

when I saw a vessel with white sails gliding by on the opposite side. 
By so much turning around, and going back and forth, I had com- 
pletely lost the points of compass, and did not think it could be the 
vessel I was after, until it had passed, and was disappearing beyond 
the dark-colored Chinese sails. I had only time to point her out, and 
tell the men to pull for her and see. The boatmen were cold, and 
impatient to be released, get their money, and go back ; and I was 
anxious to avail myself of this opportunity to go down, or I might be 
obliged to wait several days, and then it would be too late for the 
Manilla vessel. The men pulled, and in fifteen or twenty minutes we 
were within hailing distance, and found her to be Mr. B.'s cutter. 
"We were soon alongside, and all my things safely on board. I paid 
the men their two dollars and a cumshaw, and we went our respective 
ways. I met on board Mr. B., Mr. McK., Mr. D., and the Sardinian 
consul. Later in the evening, there was provided a supper of cold 
Westphalian ham, and other good things to correspond. At eleven I 
retired to my berth, well satisfied with my pleasant and comfortable 
quarters. 

Hong-Kong , Wednesday, November 15th. — We had a fine breeze 
during most of last night, and sailed along seven or eight miles an 
hour. I was very cold, and slept very little. At ten this forenoon 
we were within a few miles of Hong-Kong, and the wind was very 
light. We took the long-boat, and, with a dozen rowers, were soon set 
on the shore. The weather seemed much warmer at Hong-Kong than 
at Canton, though it is south only a degree and a quarter. 

To-day I had my umbrella stolen most adroitly. I went into a 
Chinaman's shop to make a little purchase, and put the umbrella by 
my side against the counter. My hand and eyes were off from it only 
long enough to point out to the shopkeeper a piece of goods on a shelf, 
which was not twenty seconds, when I went to put my hand on it 
again, and it had departed. I looked around the shop, at some coolies 
about the door, and up and down the sidewalk, but no such colored 
umbrella was to be seen. I was ten feet inside the door, and I did not 
believe that any one outside could reach it. Yet one could hardly 
charge the shopkeepers with it, with their cunning, sleek, presump- 
tive-looking faces. Had it been their property, it could not have gone 
without their knowing it ; and I do not believe that mine went out 
of their store. 

Tuesday, November 21st. — A party of us yesterday went on board 
the " Montauk," Captain McMichael, from Australia, bound to New 
York. He had on board a kangaroo, which would seem to take only 
two or three leaps to go the length of the vessel. I expected to leave 
this forenoon for Manilla, but the vessel with Mr. M. did not arrive 
from Canton. Mr. Drinker and I went and breakfasted with Captain 
Coates, on board his vessel. It was very rough in going and coming, 
and the distance being about two miles, we were considerably sprinkled 
with salt water. The weather is quite cold to-day. Read, at eve, 
Everett's Eulogy on J. Q. Adams. 

Wednesday, November 22d. — At one p. m. the " Sabraon " came in. 
Mr. Moses has called, and said that he shall go at daylight to-morrow, 
12* 



138 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

and that I must be ready to-night for an early departure. Mr. J, 
Kierulf, who lives here, kindly gave me an introduction to his family 
at Manilla, and told me much about the Philippine Islands. 

Yours, truly, B. L. B. 

At Sea, Thursday, November 2Zd. — At ten this morning we went 
on board the " Sabraon " once more, ready for a voyage. Mr. Anthon, 
of New York, Mr. Moses and myself, were the only passengers. At 
twelve the anchor was up, and there was just wind enough slowly to 
turn the vessel's head to the right course. Our friends left, and 
returned ashore, and I took a stroll over the deck to see what there 
was on board. I found the vessel well stocked. There were three 
hogs, two of which had large families ; three dogs, all running about 
the deck ; plenty of geese, ducks, fowls, &c. "While passing the 
other side of the island, to the south-westward, we were becalmed, 
and came to anchor about dark. The motion of the vessel being dis- 
agreeable, and somewhat sickening, we all took to our berths between 
nine and ten o'clock in the evening. 

Friday, November 2\th. — I could perceive, before I was up, that 
we were under full sail ; I had not forgotten the ugly motion of the 
vessel. The island of Hong-Kong looked very pretty from this side, 
having one little village, with the military station ; and seaward 
thousands of Chinese fishing-boats were within sight. 

Sunday, November 26th. — Early in the morning the barometer 
indicated a storm ; and during the day and evening we had it in full. 
The upper yards were all brought down on deck, and even then we 
expected to see the top-masts carried away. Several times the vessel 
was thrown almost on her beam-ends. We were amused to see the 
dogs and hogs sent, in some of her antics, sliding, helter-skelter, to 
the opposite side of the deck, and tumbling and kicking all in a heap 
together. As the vessel righted, they scampered back as fast as their 
legs would carry them. For the last three nights I have slept but 
little, on account of pain in my bones, the rolling and jarring of the 
seas against the vessel, and the creaking and cracking of the timbers. 
But most of the time my thoughts were of home and America, calling 
to mind many intimate scenes. Once, on awaking from a short nap, 
it took some time to realize that my very vivid dreams of home were 
not a reality. But conviction at length came, and I was forced to 
perceive myself far away in other regions. 

China Sea, for Manilla, Monday, November 27th. — The weather 
suddenly changed to-day to great heat, so that we all experienced very 



OFF MANILLA. 139 

depressing effects of it. So it is; yesterday there was too much wind, 
and to-day there is too little. I am poring over my Spanish grammar, 
endeavoring to reap some benefit from it before going ashore. 

Tuesday, November 28th. — I saw the sun rise, and the land of 
Luconia (the largest island of the Philippine group) was ahead. We 
had but little wind through the day, and we kept off down the coast, 
with the land on our left. 

Wednesday, November 29th. — For the last two nights I have slept 
on a settee, this being a cooler place than in my berth. Up at five. 
We are now quite near the high mountains of Luconia, the island of 
which Manilla is the capital ; and soon we expect to round the Cape, 
and enter the Bay of Manilla. The Cape is in sight. The weather is 
very warm. At times the vessel is almost becalmed. We saw, this 
forenoon, four whales spouting. They were about half a mile off, and 
are the first that I have ever seen. We could discern but little more 
of them than the column of spray which they threw up, and a black 
hump. 

We expected to have reached our port in four days, and it is now 
six. We cannot get in to-day, but trust we shall to-morrow. Three 
vessels are in sight, ahead. I saw a snake floating upon the water. 
It was about four feet in length, skin yellow, with dark patches, some- 
thing like the adder ; an ugly-looking reptile. 

Thursday, November 30th. — This evening we were on deck, watching 
our progress past Corregidor Island, into the Bay of Manilla, and look- 
ing for the Manilla lights. The captain was obliged to tack back and 
forth, in order to pass through the narrow entrance, clear of the reef, 
which is just off the island. At twelve p. m. we had passed the island, 
and were sailing slowly up the bay, with the wind almost directly 
ahead. The captain, not having been here before, had to be governed 
entirely by the chart ; and, consequently, our progress was slower. 
The distance from the Corregidor Island, which lies at the entrance of 
the bay, to Manilla, is twenty-eight miles, and will end our voyage, 
in ten days from Hong-Kong. 



140 CHINA AND MANILLA. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

ARRIVAL AT MANILLA. HOTEL. CALZADA. ORANG-OUTANG. FEAST 

OF SANTA CRUZ. INTERVIEWS "WITH THE PEOPLE. INDIAN THEA- 



TRE, ETC. 



LETTER TO MY PARENTS. 



Manilla, Friday, Dec. 1st 

My dear Parents : Early this morning Manilla was in sight, and 
about eight miles distant. At nine a. m. a Spanish gun-boat came 
off to us. It was a queer-looking thing in the distance, a row of long 
oars on each side, clawing over the water, appearing like the approach 
of some great spider. The officer and interpreter came on board ; and 
soon after two other boats came for the news. The officer was a large 
man, with gray hair, and a gold band around his cap, and puffing away 
at a cigar, as if it was a part of himself. He came into the cabin, and 
took the lists of crew and passengers, &c. He examined our passports, 
and said that we should have them when we left Manilla. I learn 
that they are very strict in their rules and regulations with foreigners. 
For instance, if I had not my passport I could not have landed till I 
had obtained one; and, as it is now, I cannot take any of my baggage 
on shore to-day. However, I took under my arm a white spencer, 
and no objection was made. All the baggage has to undergo an 
inspection from the custom-house officers. 

As our vessel would not get up for jsome time, we accepted the invi- 
tation of the officer to go ashore in his boat. Mr. Napper came with 
the officer, and invited us to his house. He was very polite, and made 
us sit down to a lunch with him. He seemed quite interested in 
natural history, showing us his collection of shells, and stuffed birds, 
and animals, which he had collected in Australia. He keeps pleasant 
accommodations for strangers, and a store as a ship's chandlery 
underneath. There is one other hotel here, kept by a Frenchman. 
But this has the pleasantest situation, with its rear upon the river 
close to the landing, and commands a view of the harbor from its 
verandas. 

As we approached in our boat, the city had a very ancient appear- 
ance ; and, as I should fancy from our distant view, looked much like 
Jerusalem. The walls were of a dull gray color, the roofs and domes 
of a rusty red, and the style indicated an existence of several centuries. 
Everything seems novel and curious, as in China. 

I was congratulating myself on not having seen any mosquitoes 
during the day, thinking that we might be free from them in Manilla ; 
but I was mistaken ; for at dark they exhibited themselves in large 
force, and commenced their dirges and attacks. 

I sent my letter of introduction to Mr. K., who very promptly called 
on me. He came in a fine carriage, with horses driven by an Indian 



MANILLA. AN ORANG-OUTANG. MESTIZOS. 141 

postillion ; and, after a little conversation, took me to call at a private 

boarding-house, kept by a Spanish lady, Dona , I do not 

remember the name. Mr. K. did the talking, and I the silent bowing. 
I looked at the room, and was pleased with the general appearance of 
things around, but did not conclude to occupy them at present. 

I called on Mr. Griswold, of the house of Messrs. Russell & Stur- 
gis, delivered letters of introduction, and dined with him in the 
afternoon. Towards evening 1 rode with Captain Saunders out on 
the Calzada. This is a fine, large, shaded avenue, encircling one side 
of the city, outside the fortifications, and is the favorite resort for the 
Spanish and foreigners, who take a drive in their carriages after the 
business and heat of the day are over. There were quite a number of 
Americans mingling in, whose easy, off-hand expressions would distin- 
guish them from the set faces of the Spanish. All the residents who 
move in good society here keep their carriages and servants, and all 
strangers adopt their practice. 

I suppose I may say I have commenced speaking Spanish ; for, hav- 
ing occasion to say two words, " adios, seTwra" to a Spanish lady, I 
said adios, but forgot the senora. 

There is at the hotel an orang-outang, and I am already one of his 
particular friends. He will come, with a mournful expression, and lay 
his hands in mine, first one and then the other, and run to my chair 
for protection, when in fear. He is quick and high-tempered when 
crossed in his feelings, though not inclined to bite, or to injure any 
one. Nothing annoys him more than to offer him something to eat 
and then to withdraw it before he can take it. In his disappointment 
he will scream, throw himself down, and tumble over, striking his head 
passionately upon the floor. He is naturally very tame and gentle, and 
will sit at the table, use a spoon, and drink from a cup or tumbler — 
seeming a connecting link between the brute and human species. 

I amused myself to-day in looking at the great variety of persons 
who passed my window. They appeared to be a mixture of Spanish 
and Indian blood, and are called by the Spanish Mestizos. Most of 
the females are quite pretty ; jet black hair hangs in large tresses 
down the back, or is arranged on the head. There is to be seen among 
them as great a variety of complexion as there are shades of color. 
Their dress, of such bright colors, in checks, makes them look very 
odd. As I walked in one of the principal streets, there were persons 
sitting, in two long rows, one on each side of the street, selling various 
calicoes and pinas. 

Manilla, Saturday, Dec. 2d. — To-day I had my baggage brought 
on shore. It had to go through the custom-house, and several boxes 
of tooth-powder were detained, as if it had been poison. I received a 
note from the officers, stating that the boxes would remain in their 
possession till Monday, when they wished me to call. My pistols they 
did not discover ; but my trunks were pretty thoroughly overhauled. 

After dinner I went to ride with Mr. M. in the Calzada ; just at 
sunset we saw numbers of the Mestizos, standing by the way-side, 
facing towards the city, and crossing themselves, as if the bells that 
were chiming had commanded them to stop and observe vespers. Our 



142 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

postillion (an Indian) stopped the carriage a few minutes also, took 
off his hat, and crossed himself. Others of the Spanish people did the 
same. On our way home we stopped, and for half an hour prom- 
enaded the Washington-street of Manilla. We passed several times 
the night-patrols, a body of mounted men in military uniforms. 
Armed guards are constantly stationed about the streets, gates, bridges, 
&c. At eight p. m. we formed a party, Mr. N. acting as guide, to 
ride out to see the illumination, previous to the feast, which takes 
place to-morrow. 

Sunday, 3d. — This is the day of the " Santa Cruz " feast. 

Santa Cruz is the name of one of the divisions of Manilla ; the city 
being divided into a number of these, like our wards, although the 
city proper has a wall around it, distinct from the other parts. The 
Spaniards live inside the walls, and the Mestizos outside. 

After breakfast I rode with several friends to call upon some Mes- 
tizo families. We were all made perfectly welcome at whatever 
house we entered, and invited to partake of everything the house 
afforded. Their tables were loaded with all kinds of pastry, pre- 
serves, confectionery, chocolate, &c. The ladies played to us on their 
harps, and produced very fine music. Those of our company who 
could speak Spanish held quite a lively conversation with them ; those 
who could not speak it had to sit silent. I of course was one of the 
silent ones. At one house they were dancing and waltzing, several 
of the families having bands of music, which they hire by the year. 
These are made up of natives, who play as well as Europeans. The 
ladies were dressed like Europeans, and danced very well, though with 
a peculiar shuffling step. 

One house, owned by a very wealthy widow lady, was almost like a 
museum, containing a great number of curiosities, with which several 
apartments were filled. Among these were stuffed skins of birds and 
wild beasts ; thousands of shells of different varieties, many of them 
the most beautiful I had ever seen ; and coins from all parts of the 
world, not excepting the United States. 

Most splendid representations of Christ and the cross, images of the 
saints in silver and gold, some costing hundreds of dollars, were to be 
seen ; and innumerable articles of a magnificent character, to which I 
could not give names, were arranged about the rooms ; and tables were 
covered with glass vases and ornaments without number. One large 
table was filled with every dainty to tempt the appetite, and we were 
strongly urged to partake. But I found it hard work to eat at every 
house, for we went to a great many. At each we must take at least 
one of their little cups of chocolate, which was very thick and rich, 
until I began to think I should have to sign off; for I had taken so 
many I could hardly taste or smell anything but chocolate. 

We entered one Indian house where a dozen persons were seated 
around a table, and, although Sunday, were engaged in card-playing. 
One Indian Catholic priest was also playing. They were not in the 
least disconcerted by our visit, keeping on as before. Here we were 
offered water to drink, sweetmeats to eat, betel-nut to chew, and 
cheroots to smoke. The betel-nut seems to take the place of our 



MANILLA. FEAST. 



143 



tobacco for chewing, and to be a principal item in their offerings of 
hospitality. It is a bitter astringent nut, a piece of which is rolled 
in moistened lime, and wrapped in a freshly -gathered, pungent, aro- 
matic leaf, belonging to the running vine of a pepper-plant. These 
are then put into the mouth, and chewed all together. The betel-nut 
grows in large clusters near the* top of a tall and beautiful tree of the 
palm species. At two p. m. we returned home. 

I was invited by Mr. Kierulf to dine with him, and go to witness 
the procession, which was to appear at five p. m. After dinner we 
called at a Mestizo house where he was acquainted, and there waited 
for the procession to pass. The streets were full of people and mounted 
police. No carriage was allowed to pass down this street, and several 
which had entered were stopped, the guard presenting a drawn 
sword. On one occasion the guard came racing down the street after 
a carriage ; and, dashing in front, struck the postillion several times 
with his sword, in doing which his horse suddenly whirled about, and 
threw him flat upon the pavement. 

There were present in the house where we were several families of 
the upper class of Spaniards, this being the only occasion in the year 
when they visit their Mestizo friends. Several of the young ladies 
were very amiable and handsome, but I could not converse with them, 
which, after an introduction, was a great deprivation. A little after 
dark the procession passed. First came a large cross, and torch-bearers 
in long rows, with lighted torches ; then the musicians ; then the 
images of different saints, and the Virgin Mary with the infant Jesus, 
all dressed in beautiful robes and glittering tinsel. I should think 
there were some twelve or fifteen images in all, and each borne on 
platforms on the shoulders of several men. Lastly came the priests, 
&c. It was magnificent to look upon the first of the kind I had ever 
seen. We went around to the various houses, feasting and listening 
to music till near twelve at night. Several others joined our party, 
and we went in company. At one house we stepped in and took seats 
at the long table spread out at full length, and loaded with soups, 
meats, pies, wines, fruits, nuts, &c, for supper. People were con- 
stantly getting up and sitting down, as fast as room was made. Ser- 
vants were busy replenishing and carrying away the empty dishes. We 
all received as cordial a welcome as if we had been acquainted for years, 
and were obliged to go through the ceremonies of eating, however 
much against our inclinations. I never saw people so very hospitable ; 
it seemed as if they could not do enough for their guests. After 
the supper, we passed into the large front rooms open to the street. 
These were filled with ladies and gentlemen, walking, sitting, and 
standing ; and all engaged in lively, cheerful conversation. Some of 
the ladies were too pretty and interesting for me to resist having a lit- 
tle conversation with them ; and, after I had exhausted my few words 
of Spanish, I found myself still engaged with them, using more than a 
dozen English words to one of Spanish. Sometimes one would ask me 
if I understood, to which I would reply, "0, yes ; " when she would 
say, " Why, no you don't," and away would run and bring an inter- 
preter, who would set us aright, and then leave us to go on again. The 



144 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Spanish ladies seem to have the faculty of making themselves very 
agreeable, even when with foreigners who do not speak their 
language. 

Monacly, December 4:th. — I called on the custom-house authorities 
to get my affairs settled, but was only able to accomplish a part. They 
require me to get permission from the governor to remain, even a few 
daj-s, in Manilla ; and also some responsible person to go with me 
to the governor, and give bonds for niy debts, respectful behavior, 
&c. &c. 

After dinner I rode a few miles into the country with Mr. Napper, 
calling at two houses, both Indian. The first was one of the poorer 
class, — not the best nor the worst of its kind, — and was built of bam- 
boo, cane, matting, thatched with straw, &c, and raised four or five 
feet from the ground on four piles. The inside was ornamented with 
various pictures, splendid crucifixes, &c. They offered us water, cigars, 
and betel-nuts. The other was a large house, built in the Spanish 
style, and occupied by the priest, a Koman Catholic Indian. We did 
not see him, but saw the uncle's daughters, and their cousins. One 
of the daughters was sick, and, learning that I was a doctor, requested 
my advice. At a glance I saw that she was inclining to consumption. 
It was not a little difficult, and a slow process, to question her concern- 
ing her case, as she spoke only the Indian language. I was obliged to 
call in Mr. N. to interpret ; and he, not speaking the Indian language 
much, was obliged, in turn, to ask the cousin, and the cousin the 
patient. The answers came in Indian to the cousin, who translated 
them into Spanish for Mr. N., who translated them to me in English ; 
and, by the time it reached me, I had almost forgotten the question 
I had asked. I ascertained, however, that my first surmises were 
correct, and wrote a prescription, directing the regimen, and other 
particulars. 

The cousin was a pretty and finely-formed Indian girl, dressed in 
the Mestizo fashion. After some acquaintance with her mother and 
other friends in the adjoining room, she became full of her jokes and 
prattle. She said she had lost her love lately ; he had died, and she 
wanted to know what she should do for it. 

I told her the best restorative was plenty of air, exercise, and 
occupation. 

" ! " she says ; " American dottor, humbudd ! " 

On our return we went to the Indian theatre. The play was taken 
from scenes among the Moors and Christians. The band, the scenery, 
acting, costumes, fancy dance by a little girl and boy, the style of the 
house and boxes, were all very well. The building was put together 
very rudely, the timbers inside being tied together with rattan strips. 
The ceiling was like basket-work, painted white. Chairs were used 
for seats, and the floor was like those of our theatres at home. The 
audience were mostly Indians and Mestizos, and nearly all were 
smoking — women, men, boys and girls; and the alcalde (the gov- 
ernor) even made his appearance with a cigar in his mouth, and sat for 
an hour, though the Spanish seldom attend. We could not understand 
a word said, for all was in the Indian language. The ticket-master 



MANILLA. FREAK OY AN ORANG-OUTANG. 145 

would not take our money, but told us, with a low bow, to " pass in ; " 
and we met the proprietor, who politely, though in Indian, gave us 
seats. 

Tuesday, December 5th. — I called again on Mr. Griswold, at Russell 
& Sturgis', to get my affairs with the authorities settled. They 
kindly become bondsmen to the government, giving security to a 
considerable amount for my behavior, debts, &c, and sign the letter 
requesting permission for me to remain in Manilla ; but it was too late 
for the authorities to be found in their offices to-day. 

I visited, with Senor B., the house of a Spanish lady. We saw the 
step-mother, and a pretty young lady, who played the piano and sung 
very well. I had some conversation, through Mr. B., who interpreted. 
She inquired particularly about my family in America, and was 
amused to learn that it comprised so many doctors. She gave me a 
cordial invitation to the house whenever I chose to call ; or, if I 
wished to practise music (as I told her I was fond of hearing it) , her 
piano was at my service any time. 

The interview was rather amusing, yet stupid for me. Only a few 
such Spanish words coming to my mind as " gracias " (thank you), 
" buenos noches " (good-night), very good, very well, and such terms ; 
and some of these came in pretty often ; for, if she did not wish to 
wait for the interpretation, she w 7 ould address the Spanish directly to 
me, and I felt obliged to answer something at once. 

Wednesday, December 6th. — Mr. Sturgis very politely took me in 
his carriage, and accompanied me to the government buildings within 
the city walls or fortifications. " The decree had not yet fallen " from 
the governor, and we returned without accomplishing anything. At 
evening a company of native musicians came in, and gave us tunes 
from their instruments, and melodies from their voices. A little boy 
and girl of their number danced polkas and waltzed. There were two 
other Indians performing on the flute and violin at the other end of 
the hall, each group facing the other ; and we had music from both 
parties alternately, though they were competitors. 

The orang-outang had another flare-up with me to-day, because I 
left him too suddenly. He stood holding his head pensively in my lap ; 
and, as soon as I started to go, he threw himself on the floor, and, 
screaming, rapidly knocked his head, then chased after me, and, not 
being able to catch me, would again whirl over sprawling on the floor, 
catching at the legs of the tables and chairs, and screaming with all 
his power. 

Some time after, he watched his opportunity, and, before I knew it, 
had hold of my leg, to which he clung tight, till he had, hand-over- 
hand, got his arms around my body. It was some time before I could 
release myself from him, which was not till I had allowed him to 
remain a while, to become pacified. 

Thursday, December 1th. — I called again, with Mr. Sturgis, on the 
officials, and signed a paper, which Mr. S. also signed, becoming my 
security. 

A large snake, of the anaconda species, fourteen feet long, was taken 
by the Indians this morning from a pile of wood and rubbish, and 

13 



146 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

fastened by his neck to a pole. Around that he twined, like the ser- 
pent of Moses, and thus exhibited himself in the court-yard of the 
hotel. 

After dinner I rode with Seilor Barado, to take a view of the buildings 
in the city proper — the chapels, cathedral, nunnery, lady's college, 
government buildings, tobacco-house, fortifications, execution ground, 
&c. We passed gangs of criminals in irons, returning from their labor 
to prison, guai'ded by armed soldier attendants. The public buildings 
had a very ancient appearance, being blackened by age and covered 
with moss, sprouts of vegetable matter, and little plants. At evening 
we called at Senor B.'s house, and there partook of chocolate and 
sweetmeats. Two Indian servants played the guitar and flute, while 
we waltzed with some of the ladies. We then rode again into the 
city, and listened to fine music from the bands in front of the govern- 
or's house, and on the Calzada. Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 

Manilla, December 8th. 

My dear Sisters : This is another holiday, or feast-day, and 
nothing is done in the way of business. After breakfast, with Mr. 
Napper, in his carriage, and Mr. Moses following behind in a sulky, 
we started for the feast at a place about eight miles in the country, 
called Pac-ig. 

At San Pedro, six miles out, we stopped at an Indian house, where 
they provided us with refreshment, and we got a banker (a small 
canoe) to take us up the river. About a dozen Indians ran along by 
the carriage for a quarter of a mile, offering their services and canoes 
up the river Our postillion took the carriage back to the village, and 
we were paddled up about two miles in a little narrow banca. We 
joined some other friends from Manilla, and, making up a party of six, 
visited at the different Mestizo houses all day, their tables being 
loaded with the usual variety of sweetmeats, chocolate, &c, open and 
free to all visitors. At evening we were again together, visiting at 
other houses, where we seated ourselves, listening to the music of the 
piano, harp, and voices. At every house a table was set as in the day- 
time, and covered with sweetmeats, &c, of which all were welcome to 
partake. The procession was, as usual, of a religious character, and 
very pretty, but short. From almost every house that was passed pro- 
ceeded music ; and the streets were brilliantly illuminated and hand- 
somely ornamented. 

During the day I went into the church, which is very large. I 
understand that the Catholic is the only religion tolerated on the 
island of Luconia. This church appeared as if it had stood for ages. 
The inside was very beautiful, and about the altar was a great quan- 
tity of silver plate. Near by is a circular stone building, raised upon 
eight arches, in which was a large image of Christ crucified. Human 
bones and skulls were lying scattered about in the enclosure outside, 
which I presume was the burying-place. 

We all started at half-past nine for home ; and, going back to look 
for two of our companions, found they had stopped at another house, 



MANILLA. AN INDIAN COCK-FIGIIT. 147 

where they heard music, and were again dancing and waltzing. "We 
then visited still another house, which we did not leave till an early 
hour in the morning. In this last house we waltzed on a floor con- 
structed of bamboo strips interwoven, though the owner, an Indian, 
was worth forty or fifty thousand dollars. This was not very easily 
done on such a bending, basket-like floor ; but all must dance. If 
they could not dance, they must hop and jump, which would answer 
as well. The proprietor continued to dance with almost frantic stepa 
and leaps, as if he would never stop. I wished Mr. N. to ask him if 
he was not fatigued. He did so, and the reply was, 

" When he danced, he danced, and as long as he could stand ; and 
when he worked, he worked till he was ready to drop down." 

In his ardor the Indian caught hold of me, and whirled me in the 
waltz for about fifteen minutes in such quick time as I had not 
experienced before ; and when we were through he patted me on the 
shoulder, and cried out, 

" Bueno, bueno Americana ! " 

Saturday, December 9th. — Our party left Pac-ig this morning 
about four o'clock. With the aid of the river's current we came 
down in canoes very rapidly, being only about an hour. The moon 
shone brightly, the scenery on the banks was very pretty, and the 
motion of the banca produced sufficient breeze to make it comfort- 
able. We reclined squeezed into the bottom of the canoes, and 
although nearly asleep, yet from the novelty we enjoyed it very much. 
These little boats are only wide enough for one, though long enough 
for several, and the sensation they produced was to make one imagine 
that he was in a coffin ; which, again, was not so agreeable. Having 
been on our feet most of the day, in a hot sun, and dancing aM the 
evening, we were naturally disposed to be quiet ; and so, on arriving 
home in season, we enjoyed a few hours' sleep. 

I took a drive with Mr. A. a few miles into the country before 
dinner. I had not been that route before, and found it an exceed- 
ingly pleasant one. 

Sunday, December 10th. — After breakfast I rode with Mr. JSTapper 
and other friends, and passed an Indian cock-fight, in an amphitheatre. 
We went in and witnessed a number of combats, but left on seeing 
one cock killed by his adversary. It seemed cruel to arm them with 
such sharp and pointed weapons, which were made hollow to slip over 
the spurs, with an edge as sharp as a razor, and shaped like a curved 
penknife-blade. The cock that was killed and his antagonist had not 
fought a minute before they both fell, at the same time, one upon the 
other, apparently lifeless. As they thus lay, a great tumult arose 
among those betting or interested in the game to decide which was 
the conqueror ; for the dollars which lay in small piles around were 
ready to be claimed by the winning side. In the midst of the dispute 
and excitement, when the decision was about to be made in favor of the 
one which fell at the top, the one underneath jumped up and ran off. 
Then came a shout and hurra, and it was immediately decided that 
the one which ran away was beaten, and the dead cock remained the 
conqueror. The proprietors of the establishment, for a license, pay 



148 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

the government ten thousand dollars a year. They charge twelve and 
a half cents as an admission fee, and receive a certain percentage of 
all the money staked. Hundreds of cocks were there, tied up by one 
leg in different places around the grounds, ready for a combat. 

Two American men-of-war, telegraphed yesterday, came in this 
afternoon. I went on board the " Plymouth " with Mr. Napper, and 
met several friends. 

Monday, December 11th. — This evening Mr. M. had a supper-party 
in his room, consisting of several friends from the " Plymouth " and 
myself. We remained at the table an hour and a half, with toasts 
and songs, the evening's amusement commencing at ten. Music and 
dancing filled up the remaining hours. I sent my baggage to the 
new boarding-place, Doha Agipita's, to-day, but lodged at my old 
home at the hotel this night. In the former part of the evening I 
was called to see an Indian woman in fits. An hour was sufficient to 
restore her to consciousness. 

Tuesday, December 12th. — Was in my room at my new boarding- 
place most of the day, selecting and learning some phrases in Spanish, 
to make myself understood, if possible ; for no one speaks English 
here. 

In the evening Sehor Papia, a Spaniard, invited me, with some 
others from the hotel, to his house in the city. I went with Mr. N. 
There were two pretty young ladies, and after tea they gave us music 
-on the piano and harp, to which all waltzed, danced, and sung. They 
sang a number of very fine Spanish songs. The one who played the 
harp was only thirteen years of age, though she seemed sixteen or 
eighteen. 

Wednesday, December lZth. — The barometer has fallen since yester- 
day thirty hundredths, indicating a severe blow. This evening it 
rains, and begins to blow like the typhoon in China. We have closed 
up the house. My room has the windows of the veranda and the 
doors shut (though usually all are open), which is stifling, this hot 
weather. 

Thursday, December 14th. — My doors, windows, &c, being closed, 
I did not wake rill past nine this morning. It blew very hard during 
the night, but I hear of no damage done. 

Friday, December 15th. — Dr. Skinner assisting, I administered 
chloroform to a gentleman, and removed several carious teeth. Much 
surprise was manifested by him when he learned that the operation 
had been done, and without pain or consciousness. 

Sunday, December 17th. — A Mestizo lady called this morning for 
medical advice. Mr. N. interpreted for her, and I thought she never 
would get to the end of her story, mixing into her case her present, 
past, and future history, and that of her relations. Breakfasted at 
the hotel at nine o'clock, after which Mr. N. and I accompanied the 
purser on board the " Plymouth," where we took tiffin, and after- 
wards dined with Captain Gedney. Yours, &c. 

B. L. B. 



MANILLA. AN ECCENTRIC MESTIZO. 149 



CHAPTER XVII. 

LETTER TO A BROTHER. EXCURSION TO LAGUNAS. — CROSSING THE LAKES. 

INDIAN HOUSE. LETTER TO A SISTER. EXCURSION CONTINUED. 

CROCODILE LAKE. DUCKS. 

LETTER TO A BROTHER. 

Manilla, December ISth. 
Dear Brother J. : The heat of the weather here is enervating, and 
I generally contrive to keep in the house a part of the ctay, remaining in 
during the middle hours. Dinner is served at four p. m., and after- 
wards it is customary to take a drive to the Calzada. One who has 
not been in a hot climate can hardly conceive of the luxury of a ride 
towards night, after the heat of the day, when the cooler air begins to 
return. This afternoon I had an engagement with Mr. M., and we 
went on board the " Plymouth " to take leave of some friends, the 
vessel being about to depart for China, with the United States Commis- 
sioner Davis, and Commodore Geisenger. Most of the Americans 
living here, and a number of Spaniards, were on board. After a pull 
around in the bay, we returned -home to take a ride into the country ; 
but I had lent my carriage, which had not been returned, and I was 
forced to remain at the house. The Spanish, and most of the foreign- 
ers here, keep their carriages ; walking out is a rare exercise, though 
I frequently do so with an umbrella. The horses here are smaller 
than ours. Your large blacks would make a most respectable appear- 
ance among them. 

To-day I had an interview with a wealthy Mestizo gentleman, who 
is said to be worth a million of dollars, and is upwards of eighty years 
of age. After chatting a while, through an interpreter, he gave me 
his address and left, saying he should call again. He is very eccentric, 
plain and independent, and in walking is obliged to lean upon his 
Indian servant. One of his eccentricities is, that he has three daugh- 
ters, far past the desirable age of matrimony, each of whom he has 
always opposed in any alliance of that kind. One of them once eloped, 
some years since, and went with her lover to the church to be married ; 
but in the midst of the ceremony she repented, and returned home 
without a husband, very much to the joy of her father. 

At nine this eve Mr. N. drove us to Sefior Tuason's to arrange 
about going to the " lagunas " (lakes). Christmas week in Manilla is 
one holiday ; no business is done. The lakes are thirty miles in the 
country, and are celebrated for pretty scenery, crocodiles, lizards of 
the larger species, ducks, serpents, &c. There is also a volcanic moun- 
tain to be seen in that region. 

By invitation from Mr. G., I dined with him, meeting a pleasant 
company of Americans, in the wholesome American style. 

la* 



150 (CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Wednesday, December 20th. — I took a sail in the harbor with Mr. 
A. and Mr. N., calling on board of several vessels, — one Spanish, two 
English, and the American man-of-war " Preble." 

Saturday, December 23d. — I went over to the city and called upon 
the alcalde, in compliance with a notice to all foreigners to that effect. 
Some ladies called to request my services for the diseased eye of one 
of their party. Towards night we dined ; and immediately after we 
set out for the lagunas, and volcano. Mr. Hood, formerly of New 
York, has done me the favor to procure a passport of the governor- 
general, permitting me to go into the country. Our party was com- 
posed of six persons — Mr. Napper', Captain Wood, Mr. Tuason, Mr. 
Marshal, Mr. Alexander, and myself. Two carriages took us a few 
miles up the river, to San Pedro, giving us a pleasant ride, and 
affording more variety than to have taken boats all the way. We 
stopped at the house of Captain Synod, an Indian, who was pleased 
to treat us to beer ; but he was still more pleased when we granted 
his request to sing a few songs. We sent the carriages back, and 
embarked in two bankers — long, narrow canoes, hollowed out of 
single logs. 

At Pac-ig, a few miles on, we called at Seiior Antonio's, and made a 
supper in part from the provisions we had brought with us. We 
sang several songs for the amusement of the family. Among these 
were " America," " Old Lang Syne," and " Long. Long Ago," which 
they seemed to enjoy much. We were very hospitably treated at both 
houses. These people are of the better class, and have the largest and 
best dwellings. The houses are built after the European fashion, with 
large and high rooms, decorated with pictures and various ornaments, 
and long entries and verandas. The low r er part is built of granite 
resting on arches, with long and wide stone steps. This class of 
Indians speak both the Indian and Spanish languages, and are quite 
wealthy. 

Soon after starting, we loaded our guns and pistols, and slept on 
them. Both bankers were lashed together, side by side, so that in 
case of any disturbance we might be all together, to act as circum- 
stances should require. We were seated in the bottom of the bankers, 
which were just wide enough to confine our sides, all in single file 
and facing the same way ; and for an hour we laughed and talked at 
our ludicrous situation, until, one after the other, we fell asleep. 
Between eleven and twelve at night we were aroused by the stopping 
and noise of the boatmen, and found ourselves at the entrance of the 
logunas. Not more than half awake, seeing strange boats approach- 
ing, and not knowing that we were to make a change here, we con- 
cluded that an attack on us was about to be made, and we caught up 
our arms and prepared for action. It was soon explained that it was 
the prow, coming to take us on the lakes ; and we removed ourselves 
and baggage, without-further alarm, into the prow. This was a larger 
boat, hollowed out of a large tree, rigged with sails, and covered in like 
the top of a teamster's waggon. We had a lantern, and arranged things 

{)retty comfortably, though the bamboo covering over our heads was so 
ow as not to permit of our standing ; and we had either to take the 



MANILLA. EXCURSION TO THE LAKES. 151 

recumbent posture, or sit on the same level, with our feet straightened 
out before us. We were soon under way ; and, little or nothing being 
distinguishable in the darkness, we sunk into repose again. 

Sunday, December 2\th. — We were sailing the wnole night ; and 
this morning early we were up, or part way up, looking out and 
enjoying the quiet scenery of the lake we were crossing. Afterwards 
we passed into a little river, and at nine a. m. we landed at Binyang, 
an Indian settlement a short distance from the lake. The banks 
of the river were thickly wooded, and many birds of bright plumage 
were flitting among the branches of the trees. Mr. N. shot several ; 
but they were so very beautiful — golden-yellow, red, and blue — that 
I did not like to kill any myself. We walked a while among the 
bamboo houses, and then crossed to the opposite side of the river on a 
bridge made of strips of bamboo, woven like basket-work. It required 
a little resolution, at first, to step one foot after the other on this 
yielding material ; and we passed slowly over, more frightened than 
hurt. 

At this village we went to the house of a wealthy Tndian acquaintance 
of Mr. N., and were treated to all the hospitalities his house could 
afford, and strongly urged to remain to breaklast ; but, as we had our 
own provisions in the prow, we returned to a house near the landing 
kept by a Mustesoe widow, and paid her a small sum to be accommo- 
dated. Our provisions and dishes were brought ; our boys prepared 
the food, and we breakfasted as independently as six kings. 

At eleven a. m. we started to go to a town twenty-five or thirty 
miles across the lake. The weather was windy, and the water rough, 
wetting us now and then. We should have capsized often, had it not 
been for the " outriggers" fixed on the sides ; these struck upon the 
water when the boat tipped, and kept it in an upright position ; it 
was a simple frame-work, curved, extending eight or ten feet from the 
sides like two wings, and when the prow was upright hovered eight 
or ten inches above the water. 

As we approached the shore, fifteen miles distant, we could see 
rising volumes of dense white vapor, which the boatmen told us 
came from a boiling spring. About four p. m. we reached the shore 
and landed, but had hardly left the prow before we concluded there 
was time to visit Crocodile Lake before dark, and we set off again for 
that purpose. This was only a few miles distant, and when it was 
over and we would land, the boatmen were afraid of the rocks, over 
which the water was breaking. All that we could say — that we were 
not afraid, that a wetting would not hurt us, that they (the boatmen) 
only wanted an excuse to get back, in order to have the remainder of 
the day to themselves, &c. — would not change their purpose. After 
scolding at and disputing with them for a quarter of an hour, with 
the outside bank of Crocodile Lake before our eyes, we were obliged to 
yield, and refrain from any attempt at landing. We then told the 
boatmen to go where they liked ; we did not care if they went home 
again, and we should know what boat to engage another time. But 
they took another view of the shore, and the Indian captain shaking 
his head, round we came, facing back again. They stood out now into 



152 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

the lake, so as to make a long tack, the wind being ahead. We were 
all much disappointed, and I particularly so ; for I realized so well 
that when an opportunity is once allowed to slip through the fingers it 
is hard to recover again ; and I should have proposed swimming to 
Crocodile Lake, had not the thoughts of a stray crocodile checked me. 
After a couple of hours of tedious beating back, we landed with our 
guns to walk along the shore while the boat should continue on its 
way to the boiling springs. We found nothing of note, except some 
large birds, which carefully kept out of our reach, till we arrived at the 
springs. These proved to be a small stream of hot water, which ran 
part of the way under ground, and part of the way out, emptied into 
the lake, and produced the clouds of steam. The origin of the stream 
is not known, but it can be traced several miles back to the moun- 
tains, where, no doubt, the water is heated from volcanic influences. 
At the place where the water empties into the lake the Indians were 
scalding hogs ; and where the water even mixed with that in the 
lake we tried the temperature by dipping in our fingers, which we 
gladly withdrew the same instant. 

At dark, all our provisions, sleeping apparatus, and various other 
things, were brought from the prow, and deposited in our room, which 
we engaged at an Indian house for safer keeping ; and while dinner 
was preparing we went up a little distance to the padre's (priest's) 
house, and made a call on him. We remained a half-hour, during 
which he was very sociable and agreeable, giving all the information 
of this part of the country he was able. 1 managed to make a few 
inquiries of him, through the three who could speak Spanish, about the 
volcano. But he said so much of the distance, the time, the bad 
roads, the robbers, and various difficulties, that my feelings were too 
much damped to hear more, and I was glad when he stopped. 
Several of our party were already so convinced of its utter impractica- 
bility that they thought it was useless to think of the project any 
longer ; but to me the visit to the volcano was the dearest wish of 
the whole trip. I thought I could discover, from the peculiar con- 
struction of his answers, that the padre was prejudiced against our 
going further into the country ; he did not speak with his usual 
candor ; and I concluded to let the affair drop here, and make 
further inquiries from some other source. The padre was exceedingly 
polite and affable ; treated us to little things to eat, drink, and smoke. 
He told us of the midnight mass for this evening in the church 
adjoining his house, and invited us warmly to call again. 

Returning to our room, we found our dinner ready. Potatoes and 
eggs had been procured of the natives and boiled, and portions of our 
cold cooked meats, bread, butter and cheese, &c, were placed on the 
table, and we sat down and ate one of the heartiest and best-tasting 
dinners we had had for years. There was quite a little concourse of 
Indians from the neighboring houses looking in at the door, with 
much curiosity and interest, to see us eat. 

The table being cleared, and our things spread on the floor, we soon 
were stretched out in tw r o rows, head to head, lor our nightly repose. 
A half-hour passed in turning and changing to find an easy position, 



DREAMS. 153 

and in joking comments on each other ; and all became quiet, except 
the deep breathing of the sleepers. I felt no disposition to sleep, and 
lay with my eyes partly closed, observing the scene. The Indians con- 
tinued to gaze in at the door, and two or three of them, bolder than 
their companions, gradually worked themselves inside, and stood look- 
ing on us. The inmates of the house, as if led by curiosity, passed 
and repassed, with their noiseless bare feet, through the room, to an 
adjoining one, scanning us at each turn. One Indian boy, of about 
eighteen years, stood back and looked in, with his mouth open, with 
awe and tear depicted on his countenance, as though we were a set of 
sleeping giants. 

As I lay, the only observer, to my knowledge, of the scene, I came 
to the conclusion that a hearty dinner of ham, eggs, &c, taken into 
the stomach at so late an hour as ten o'clock, was rather too weighty 
an aliment to rest under, particularly on a hard floor. When the Indians 
were gone, I sat up, and, looking on, laughed till I was tired. First 
one and then another would heave a long sigh, groan a little, turn 
over and screw around, until they were in any position but the one 
they had taken at first. One had his feet resting on the body of 
another, and an arm thrown back over the face of his next neighbor ; 
one had his feet on another's pillow ; and one, suddenly straightening 
himself out, brought his feet forcibly in contact Avith another's neck 
and chin, which awoke him, with the alarm that they were being 
attacked, and the Indians choking him. One groaned out something 
indicative of bodily suffering, and unconsciously rolled himself over 
his next companion, who, crushed by his weight, muttered out, loudly, 
" 0, heavens ! you are killing me ! " Another, soon afterwards, in 
a disturbed dream, cried out, " Clear the boat ! Clear the boat ! we 
are sinking! 0, for God's sake, where are you?" One other, I 
noticed, lay drawn out straight on his back, with his arms extended at 
right angles, representing a cross. He, probably, was dreaming of 
wild beasts or the Indians, and ejaculated rapidly, " Shoot ! Shoot! 
There he is ! " and some other similar phrases. 

The Indian family, composed of five or six, occupied the room adjoin- 
ing, and opening out of ours. Several times one of them came and 
looked in, glancing his eyes over us, then around to the guns in the 
corner, the powder-horns hanging up, boxes and other things around 
the room, with an anxiety of countenance which indicated to me that 
he was at a loss to know how to regard us. 

Between twelve and one at night, Mr. A., who was not able to sleep 
longer, and I, unable to sleep at all, resolved that we would go and 
walk a while. We went out, but finding it so dark, we could only 
make our way to the church, where there was an assemblage at mid- 
night mass, and a priest in his robes officiating. The church was lighted 
up, and the altar, images, and other furniture of silver and gold, looked 
splendid, in contrast with the dark walls. We groped our way home 
in the dark, not finding the house till we had passed it, and searched 
for it some little time, much to our discomfort and fear of some bark- 
ing dogs. We found our companions as Ave had left them, and, fixing 



154 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

ourselves down again, were able to get some sleep. I shall continue 
the account of our trip in iny letter to S. Yours, truly, 

B. L. B. 

LETTER TO A SISTER. 

Manilla, Monday, Dec. 26th. 

My dear Sister S. : We arose early this morning, and were glad 
to forsake our hard beds. The day was ushered in by a pouring rain, 
which darkened our prospect of enjoying the excursion, which we had 
attempted and failed in yesterday. Some thought we had better wait 
for the rain to cease, and some that we might as well give it up, and 
call it a lost day. But three of us were ready to start at once, and 
make the most of it, rain or no rain ; when another came over to 
our side, and four were for going and two for remaining. These said 
they would remain, while we might go, and they w r ould have the break- 
fast ready on our return. Our necessary comforts being conveyed to 
the prow, we embarked. With a favorable wind, the boat skimmed 
over the surface in an hour, and we landed without difficulty near an 
Indian fisherman's hut that stood alone ; engaging the fisherman's 
service as guide, we ascended a steep hill, clambering over stones, 
through slippery mud, and drawing ourselves up by the wet bushes 
and branches of trees. When we reached the summit, Crocodile Lake 
lay before and below us. It was circular, and looked like an immense 
earthen bowl sunk into the ground, and two thirds full of water. The 
banks are very steep, and covered with a thicket of brush and trees 
almost impenetrable to human steps, which form a black, scraggly ruffle 
entirely around it, and somewhat into the water. The surface of the 
lake appears to be two or three hundred feet below the top of the ground, 
and a mile or two in diameter. A few minutes' view of it leads one 
almost imperceptibly to the conclusion that it is the crater of a former 
volcano, since extinct, and afterwards gradually filled with water. I 
wished very much to make the descent to the water's edge, and get a 
sight of the crocodiles, large guanas, &c, with which it is said to be 
so thickly infested. We did make a slight attempt; but the ground 
was slippery, the descent abrupt, the brush thick and prickly, and we 
thought if we encountered any large serpents it would be a bad place 
to make any defence ; for nothing would be more disagreeable than 
to be in close communication with a serpent twenty or twenty-live feet 
long, without the free use of our arms and feet. With such considera- 
tions, we thought it more rational to dispense with it till we could 
come provided with hatchets to cut our way through. 

On the return descent we observed many beautiful birds, of rich 
and gaudy plumage, though they were not large. 

We made a short stop at the Indian fisherman's bamboo house. 
Underneath it (for the house is raised high enough to walk under), 
confined in a kind of basket, we espied a wild animal, a little larger 
than our domestic cat, with one young one. It was of the tiger 
species, and was savage in its actions, snarling, snapping, and scratch- 



INDIAN GIRL. 155 

ing at our sticks. Captain Wood purchased basket and all for fifty 
cents, and took it with us. 

We noAV went on board our boat again, to return, completely 
drenched with rain, clothing soiled, pants once white now black with 
mud, &c. We fired at a few birds, as we sailed along near the shore. 
They were so large, and had such a spread of wing, that it was nearly 
impossible to fire at them without hitting, which was frequently proved 
by the scattering of their feathers. The crane species, most abundant 
here, have very long wings, long legs, necks and bills, with bodies 
slender in comparison. We were obliged to put out into the lake to 
make the point from which we had embarked, and it continued to 
rain and blow hard. The basket-work covering to the boat proved a 
good shelter from the sun, but not from the rain. We Avere seated 
crosswise the prow's deck, ranged on each side, in alternate positions 
of bodies and feet, so that each one had a pair of feet and legs on each 
side of him, and a pair of bodies each side of his feet. In this way we 
sat, the dirty water drizzling on us as from a sieve, enduring our wet 
fate with the fortitude of philosophers, and making merry of all our 
discomforts until we reached the shore again. On disembarking, 
washing and cleaning ourselves as well as we could, we joined our 
companions, and partook of a warm breakfast with a keen appetite, 
after which we prepared to leave. 

While at breakfast, we were visited by several Indian families, 
among which were a number of very pretty Indian girls, apparently 
ranging from twelve to twenty years of age. They were dressed neatly, 
according to their custom, were bashful and modest in their deport- 
ment, attracted from curiosity to see us. One of them was quite 
pleased with our friend A., and showed herself openly, but timidly, 
attached to him. She was with her father and mother, and present 
a few minutes last evening while we were eating. This morning she 
walked with Mr. A. down to the boat, and seemed considerably dis- 
quieted when she saw preparations being made for departure. Some 
of her relations came down, and, after considerable persuasion, induced 
her to go back with them, but she quickly returned alone. Mr. A., 
taking her hand, bade her " good-by," and we pushed off. As the 
boat receded, she walked back and forth in such a troubled manner 
that I expected to see her rush to the boat through the surf. She was 
the last one standing on the beach and watching the boat. Mr. A. 
occasionally with his handkerchief waved her an adieu, which she 
answered as long as her form, and her long black tresses, wildly flying, 
could be distinguished. I told my friend that I should consider myself 
fortunate to be beloved even by an Indian girl. 

Not being able to persuade others of the party to attempt the jour- 
ney to the volcano, we gave up that project, at least for the present, 
and were making our way across an arc of the lake to another Indian 
town, where we stopped for a time, surveying the country, and shoot- 
ing some water-fowl, which were very plenty in this vicinity. The part 
of the lake that we had just crossed was thickly covered by immense 
quantities of wild ducks. For a mile or two each way the water was 
literally blackened with them. As we gradually approached them 



150 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

they rose, forming one dense circular cloud, extending, in an inclined 
plane, as far as the eye could reach ; and, as we advanced, they con- 
tinued to rise, circling away in the distance. 

Before reaching the land we held a short council, and concluded to 
go in quest of some accommodations for the night. Leaving to servants 
to guard the baggage in the prow, we took canoes up a little creek, to 
another small town, where we found the head man, the capitan of the 
place. At his house we held another council, and, after much discus- 
sion, concluded to try to reach our journey's end to-night, if practica- 
ble. The town we washed to make was four miles further in the 
country, and was quite a large place, where we could be sure of safe 
and comfortable quarters. Of the town where we were now stopping 
none of the party had any knowledge ; and, from the manners of the 
people, and their endeavors to induce us to remain, and the obstacles 
thrown in the way of our departure, we knew not but we were among 
robbers. They represented the road as dark, muddy, and liable to 
attack from thieves ; and said no one would let horses go at this hour 
of the evening. But we had decided on going, and the capitan was 
bound, by our passports, to furnish horses at our request, for wdiich 
we must pay the government price ; and we demanded them on that 
ground, forthwith. Meanwhile, some of us went down the creek 
again, and had our things from the prow brought up in the bankers. 
The capitan and his men were endeavoring, or pretending to endeavor, 
to get the horses ; still they did not come. We were very impatient, 
for it was dark, and there was no moon to light our way, and we were 
to travel unknown roads, in a strange country. Two hours passed, 
and only four horses were brought, which were standing saddled in 
the yard. We wanted eight, six for ourselves and two for the ser- 
vants, besides men to carry our baggage, and guides, with their horses. 
We held another council to deliberate on the state of affairs, in which 
the capitan seemed much interested, looking on as if with doubts in his 
own mind as to what conclusions our sober faces were coming to. The 
decision was to go with the four horses, and to take turns in riding. But 
on further consideration, we concluded it was better to all walk, each 
expressing himself ready to go through fire and water, robbers or no 
robbers. Accordingly our pistols were freshly loaded and capped, and 
our pants stripped above our boots ; with four Indians to carry our 
baggage, and two guides, fourteen in all, our little party marched 
forth. We had not gone a quarter of a mile before we met an Indian 
loaded with plantains ; the poor fellow thought he was taken, as we 
laid hold of his plantains, for we had not eaten anything since morn- 
ing. We took all he had, eating a part, filling our pockets, and giving 
the rest to the men to be taken along with us ; and paid him well, for 
which he expressed his entire satisfaction. In talking with him, he 
said he could get us his cart and buffaloes, and carry us all, and we 
eagerly engaged him. We returned to the capitan's and w r aited fifteen 
minutes, the time the Indian had allotted as sufficient for his prepara- 
tion. An hour passed, very impatiently, when, on inquiry, we 
learned that the buffaloes were out in the pasture and could not be 
found, and it wanted but a few minutes of ten. We considered the 



EXCURSION TO VOLCANO. 157 

late hour, the darkness, the bad state of the roads, the robbers, &c. ; 
and, in contrast, by remaining, there was a good Christmas dinner, a 
fine time, and a quiet night's rest. Mr. A. arose, made a speech, and 
closed with the remark that he " should go in for the dinner, at all 
events, whether we went or whether we stayed." There was no dis- 
sension, and the resolution passed to remain where we were, and have 
the Christmas dinner. The capitan seemed as pleased as any one 
with the result of the deliberations, and showed himself well disposed 
towards our comfort. 

The servants set about the work at once ; fowls, eggs, fruits, &c, 
were procured ; and, with our own provisions, the table apneared in 
an hour covered with dishes, smoking hot. We then engaged in the 
business of consumption with true zeal, and for an hour heartily 
enjoyed the Christmas dinner, without giving a thought to the effects 
of the late dinner of the last night. [Songs were sung, toasts drank, 
speeches made, and a most lively time experienced, such as quite aston- 
ished our host's family, which stood looking in from the other part 
of the house. 

Between twelve and one, having seen that the Indian's family were 
quietly sleeping in their own apartment, our blankets were spread on 
the floor, and, pistols underneath our pillows, we gave ourselves to 
the disposal of Morpheus. Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

CONTINUATION OF EXCURSION TO THE LAGUNAS AND VOLCANO. AR- 
RIVAL AT COLUMBO. PERPLEXITY OF LANDING. PREPARATIONS AND 

DEPARTURE FOR VOLCANO. RIDE BY NIGHT. DETENTION AT AN 

INDIAN HOUSE. 

Manilla, December 2Qth. 
My dear Sister : I will continue to you the account of our 
excursion to the volcano. We arose at five this morning. All the 
horses we wished were saddled and bridled, and stood at the door 
awaiting our orders. We started in the rain, leaving one servant to 
take care of the baggage, which was to be transported in a buffalo- 
cart. On account of the rain, our small, raw-boned, narrow-con- 
tracted ponies were urged to their full speed ; and, splashing through 
the mud, we passed the four miles very quickly. - Such a number of 
us entering the town together made the inhabitants stare as if they 
thought we were about to take the place. The capitan received us 
very cordially, gave us some breakfast, and accompanied us to the 
cotton factory and other places of interest. This is the only cotton 
14 



158 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

factory in the country. Mr. A. and I did not wish to examine it, as 
we could see these things at home ; and, passing hastily through the 
building, now not in operation, we took our guns and started lor the 
mountain, in quest of adventure. We travelled through the forest, 
among the largest and grandest trees I ever saw, — trees of dense, 
thick foliage, and towering up to an immense height very beautifully. 
Our elms at home, with a maple bark, carried up a number of times 
their length, might resemble them. We passed many places where 
the earth had been freshly rooted up by the wild boars and' hogs. 
Our guide says that these animals are very numerous, but we did not 
see any. We saw a few beautiful birds, and a flock of six, each of 
which was»about the size of an eagle. Monkeys, our guide informed 
us, are plenty here ; but, as it was raining very hard, they probably 
had sought a place of shelter, for we saw none. As usual, I kept my 
eyes wide open for the snakes, looking above, below, and all around, 
as we advanced. Once I stepped unconsciously on a large branch, 
which, starting up at the other end, set me, my hair rising, into two 
or three leaps, when I turned and put myself into an attitude of 
defence, and perceived the cause of my fears. b\y mind was so on 
them that I fully expected to encounter some of their snakesliips, and 
I kicked the dark branch about some few minutes, not satisfied with 
being frightened without finding a cause. I quieted my mind by say- 
ing 1 would rather meet one of these reptiles than to be so fairly 
startled by sticks. Being wet and muddy, we did not long continue 
our pedestrian tour, and turned homeward. On our way the guide 
climbed the trees and threw down a lew green cocoa-nuts, the ends 
of which being sliced off, we drank the sweet milk, which was quite 
palatable, and quenching to our thirst. We also discovered a numher 
of cinnamon-trees, being attracted to them by the aromatic fragrance 
of their foliage. We eat the green bark of the tender branches, and 
gathered some of the leaves to bring away. In passing a large field 
of sugar-cane, we saw fly out flocks of small birds of extremely beauti- 
ful plumage, which had there taken shelter from the rain. We 
broke off and chewed some of the stalks of the sweet cane, which 
seemed much like the sweet juice of our corn-stalks. The natives are 
very fond of it. 

At our host's house we met two gentlemen who also had left 
Manilla for an excursion. They had once visited the volcano, and I 
had a long talk with them about it, to judge for myself of the expedi- 
ency of making a trip there. The gentlemen represented a tour there 
as possible, but not unattended with difficulties, which, of course, we 
were prepared to expect. 

After dinner, while writing my few pencil-notes, I resolved on 
going to the volcano, even if 1 had to separate from the party and 
go alone. As I made my intention known, Mr. N. said that he 
wished much to go, if it could be arranged. Mr. A. would like to 
go, but feared that his infirmities would not admit of it, as our journey 
would be mostly on horseback. Captain W. would be pleased to 
join, hut such a journey on horseback would completely upset him, if 
tie did not get upset from his horse. Mr. M. and Mr. T., of the 



ARRIVAL AT COLUMEO. 159 

company, were in favor of going, were they not sure that the expedition 
would take a number of days ; but they must be back at Manilla at a 
certain time, to attend to some affairs of business. But we could not 
come to any united decision, although with me it was decided. We 
returned to the prow together, where we again discussed the subject. 
Mr. A. declared that he would make the attempt; Mr. N. was quite 
enthusiastic for the project, and ready to facilitate the prepa rations 
with all speed. I was fearful that the ride back to the lake, on such 
hard-trotting, short-necked, and short-legged ponies, would disable 
me, like my friend A., from carrying out our intentions. I was 
sorely harassed, but kept my ails to myself. Several times my stir- 
rups gave way, nearly precipitating me to the ground. It was well 
understood now that three of us were going to the volcano, while the 
other three remaining were to amuse themselves by hunting and 
fishing about the lake, &c. It was near three o'clock in the after- 
noon when we reached the prow, and things progressed so slowly that 
I assumed dictatorial power, and scolded the servants, setting them to 
reship the baggage, by taking hold myself and hastening their move- 
ments for getting the prow off*. 

In half an hour I was relieved, as well as rejoiced, to know that we 
were on the way to Col umbo, the opposite side of the lake, which 
was to be our starting-point. 

On our arrival at Columbo, Messrs. N. and T. jumped ashore and 
left for the capitan's, to procure horses and make the necessary prepa- 
rations, while myself and the others remained by the boat. It soon 
became very dark, and, tired of waiting for them to return, we had 
our things taken to an Indian house at some little distance from the 
shore. This was not a little perplexing, as we knew nothing of the 
disposition or character of the people, and every movable article had 
to be removed from the prow to secure its safety. 

The Indians were very ready to assist, and so much so that we 
feared they would make off with something. One of us stood with a 
flaming torch at the boat, to see that the things were properly taken 
away. Others followed the carriers with torches up to the Indian 
house, and saw them deposited in our room. It was a passing and 
repassing of flaring torches in the rain and impenetrable darkness. 
The wind would blow our torches out, and we lose our way, getting 
into some place, we did not know where, and only knowing the 
direction by some torch freshly lighted. Once I was hastening back 
to the boat in almost a contrary direction, when, finding so many 
obstacles in the way, I turned towards a torch, and, coming up to it, 
saw an Indian carrying some of our baggage. I followed, unknown 
to him, to a house, when [ found, much to my surprise, that it was 
the same which contained the rest of our goods, and tiie one I luid 
a little before left. 

With all the anxiety for our baggage and ourselves, it was with 
pleasure that we assembled in the room of the Indian house, and found 
no articles missing. Mr. T. returned without Mr. N. He said he 
had, in the extreme darknes3, lost sight of him, could find nothing of 



160 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

him ; and, retracing his steps for a time, finally procured an Indian 
to show him the way back. 

We found the house we were in to be that of a Teni-en-te, a kind 
of sub-official to the capitan. It was built of bamboo, like all the 
Indian houses, and set high from the ground on posts. When we 
ascended the steps to our room it seemed like being in a chamber. 
The floor, of braided bamboo, bent and crackled under our steps aa 
we passed over it. The provisions that we required were readily 
obtained, dinner was prepared, and, after waiting some time for Mr. 
N., we sat down without him. AVe finished dinner, played a game 
of whist, and still he did not come. Nine o'clock came, and, as we 
were consulting about sending the Teni-en-te in search of him, he 
entered the room, and, much to our satisfaction, made his explanation. 
He had found, with much difficulty, the capitan's house, at another 
village, after a walk of two miles, and made known his wishes. The 
capitan endeavored to dissuade him from the project, particularly in 
so dark a night. He told him that there was a gang of forty or fifty 
robbers somewhere on the way ; that this afternoon he had received 
news that a party of Englishmen had been attacked last night by 
them ; that there was a large forest to pass through ; and that, on 
account of the darkness, the bad roads, deep with mud, it would be 
almost impassable. He thought it doubtful if he could find horses 
and men to-night willing to go ; and, moreover, he was unwilling 
himself to take the responsibility of forwarding us at such a time. 
After this account there was a silence of several minutes, in which no 
one spoke ; and then the others strongly advised us not to think of 
going. It was certainly rather cooling to our ardor ; but Mr. N. had 
brought the secretary of the capitan, who was to carry our decision 
back, and, if we concluded to go, the capitan would make the best 
disposition he could. We were not long in considering ; each again 
expressed himself ready to go through fire and water ; and our enthu- 
siasm ran to such a pitch that the Teni-en-te caught it, and desired 
to go through fire and water with us. Nothing could suit us better, 
and the messenger-secretary departed with his message to the capitan. 
The business of our companions, who were to be left behind, would 
not admit of their remaining longer than the day after to-morrow ; 
and we arranged with them, if we were not back at that time (on 
Thursday, at noon), they could go without us. That would give us 
for the adventure a day and a half. The distance there being thirty 
miles, the sooner we were off the better. Putting our things together, 
and buckling on our freshly-loaded pistols, we took a parting glass of 
wine together, and set out on foot for the capitan's. The Teni-en-te, 
with a servant carrying a lantern, led the way ; Mr. Napper, Mr. 
Alexander and myself, followed, with the servants and baggage-car- 
riers. Each of us had an arm-full of blankets, saddles, bridles, or 
something else, notwithstanding which we trudged over the two miles 
at a rapid pace. 

At the capitan's house we found the preparations progressing ; but 
we had to wait their completion, and the capitan took the opportunity 



RIDE BY NlGnT. 16X 

occasionally to endeavor to persuade us to remain there all night, and 
start in the morning. Each time of which he was answered with, 

" Our determination is fixed to go to-night." 

About fifteen Indians collected around, and seemed to be much 
interested in us. I believe they had the impression that we were going 
in pursuit of the robbers who made the attack on the English party 
last night. The Indians took out their long knives, proposing that we 
should take them, flourishing thorn in their hands, saying, " That is the 
way they should be used." We took them, fastening them upon our 
persons, and promised to leave them on our return. 

At length, it being near eleven o'clock at night, the capitan 
informed us that all was ready, and, mounting our small, raw-boned 
ponies, we sallied out of the yard. The moment we were outside, 
everything was of one color. We could not distinguish the road, 
houses, fences, nor each other's horses ; all was one black mass above, 
below and around, and nothing but the lights at the Indian houses 
was to be seen. Two Indian policemen, armed to the teeth, acted as 
guides and guards. — one going ahead, and the other behind us, — 
eight persons in all. I involuntarily put up my hand to clear my 
eyes, as though they had been blindfolded. lily horse was mo\ing, 
but in what direction I could not tell, and 1 believed no one else could. 
1 cried out for a halt till we could get our lanterns ; but the guides said 
that would not do, as it would direct the robbers to us. <w 0, well," said 
I, " let us get together and go ahead." The sound of our voices was 
enough for that, and on we went. It seemed as if we were going 
through a boundless black waste, without roads. I fancied every 
moment my horse was about to run against something ; and as to 
guiding him, that was out of the question ; for, if he could see, it was 
more than I could do. I could tell when he w r as going up hill and 
down, and that was all. Had any one proposed it, I believe I should 
have been willing to turn about, and wait till morning ; but nothing 
was said about it, and I would not propose it myself. I thought that 
at the end of half an hour we should be able to see better ; but it 
made no perceptible difference. We were often obliged to call out to 
those in front to know if we were following. The sound of the horses' 
footsteps was some direction ; but that was often lost in the soft mud. 
Once I heard Mr. Napper's voice, as if in the distance, — 

" Doctor, doctor ! we are in the woods now." 

" How do you know ? " said I. 

" The Teni-en-te says so." 

" 0, very well ; I 'm glad if he can see them." 

Mr. N., who was ahead of me, had on a white coat, and I had a 
white handkerchief fastened under my cap, and hanging down my 
back, as a distinguishing object to Mr. A., who was behind me ; but if 
we became separated ten feet, the white was no longer visible. At 
times Mr. A. would cry out to me, 

" I say, doctor, where are you? Hold on a little ; I don't know 
where I am." 

When I was obliged to call out to Mr. N. to stop, or I should have 
lost him ; and he, in turn, had to call to those ahead of him. Some- 
14* 



162 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

times the horses would come to a pause, and then slide down some 
steep place, causing us to fear lest we should land, horse and all, at 
the bottom of some bank or precipice. Again, we were ascending 
some difficult place, for the horse came down on his knees, as his feet 
slipped. Then we seemed to he on some narrow ridge, the animals' 
feet slipping and gathering first on one side and then on the other ; and 
which way to lean, or which way to jump if the step were lost, could 
not be known. It was necessary to poise one's self easily and freely, 
without stiffness or restraint, holding by the knees only, and allowing 
the body to sway to and fro, adjusting itself to the motions of the 
horse. Twice I found myself moving very slowly in among branches 
of trees and shrubs, which were brushing on all sides. I asked of my 
friend behind if he knew where we were ; but, receiving no answer, I 
stopped and listened, and could just make out footsteps far below me. 
I now quickly called out, 

"Hulloa!" 

But there was no answer, and I repeated, at the top of my voice, 

" Hulloa, there ! " 

At some distance the answer came back, — 

" Hulloa ! come on." 

" Come on ! " said I ; " I am lost, and in the woods somewhere ; 
send the guide back." 

I soon heard the voice of the guide approaching, calling out at 
intervals, and directing himself by my responses. I had to laugh, 
perplexing as it was, to hear, every five seconds, his " Urngh," inquir- 
ing (where are you), and mine following immediately after, " Urngh " 
(here). Having pushed himself through the brush, he took the horse 
by the head, and led him down a deep descent, and brought us 
together again. It seemed like a charm to hear each other's voices 
once m«»re in concert, and to be able to distinguish each other's forms, 
though only dark shadows. Here we missed one of our armed Indians, 
who went behind. What became of him no one of us could divine. 

We travelled at a slow pace, walking, except when the horse 
was obliged to make three or four rapid steps in stumbling over some 
log, stump or stone, or clambering up an abrupt ascent. I often 
thought what would I give to be able to see, for once, what kind of a 
road this really is, if, indeed, there is any road at all. "What singular 
sensations I experienced this night in this strange country, passing 
through wild forests, our ears, now and then, assailed by the distant 
wail of some wild animal, with thoughts that he might suddenly honor 
us with his presence ; and then in narrow defiles, the walls of which, 
in places, were so near as to knock our legs on both sides ; and the 
knowing that there was a gang of robbers, whose visit would in no 
way surprise ub ! Did I not think of old Boston, and Northboro, and 
all my friends at home ? Did I not think of my aged father and 
mother, — of him in the depths of winter, although perpetual summer 
here, in his daily round of administering to the sick ; and of her at the 
old homestead, who, with her usual care and watchfulness for her 
children, might at the same moment be exchanging thoughts with the 
one absent, though she could not know where ! But a long time was 



AN INDIAN SLEEPING GROUP. 163 

not allowed for musing ; attention to the horse by his sudden motions 
was required, which would break up the connection of thoughts every 
few minutes. 

After a couple of hours, we were able to distinguish the outline of 
the forests, marked on the lighter sky on each side of us, like the 
banks of a deep trench, filled with solid blackness, in which we were 
moving. 

Wednesday, December 27th. — At about three o'clock this morning 
we came out of the forest on to a rise of ground, wliere, for the first 
time since starting, we could see anything. Directly before us were a 
few Indian houses, and we were all very glad to halt ; for it was much 
more fatiguing; to ride in the dark than in the light. We were con- 
ducted to a bamboo house, which contained but one room, on the floor 
of which lay the inmates, — about a dozen black men, women and 
children. They had curly hair, and their dark faces, protruding from 
their blankets, were more like negroes than Indians. I did not fancy 
them, and would have preferred to change our quarters ; but, while I 
was looking at them, my companions and guide were already down 
among them, and there was no alternative left for me but to occupy 
the most vacant place, and make one with the household. I took 
another survey of the cut-throat-looking people as they lay stretched 
out in disorder, and, wrapping around me the blanket which I had 
brought, I joined the prostrate company. When we first entered, 
three or four of them, awaking, raised themselves into a sitting posture, 
scrutinizing us with surprise. To do them credit, one of their number 
— a woman — pushed towards me the end of her bolster, or pillow, 
for my head, which civility I did not expect from such people. I 
accepted it, that I might be able to see arourid without raising my 
head ; and, taking out my pistols in her sight, I replaced them within 
the folds of my coat on my breast, and lay quietly down again. I tried 
to sleep, for I was very tired, and needed it ; but it was of no use. I 
could close my eyes, but, on the occurrence of any movement or slight 
noise, I was sure to open them, and take a glance around. 

Yours, &c, 
B. L. B. 

Manilla, December 27th. 
Dear Brother : At half-past four, after an hour and a half of rest, 
from which I derived very little benefit, our guides aroused us. Mount- 
ing our horses, we were again on our route, under more pleasant cir- 
cumstances than the preceding night. Here, for the first time, we were 
enabled, by the dawn of day, to observe how we looked together on 
horseback, and came to the conclusion that we presented a rather 
forbidding appearance to any Indians who might wish to attack us. 
The two guides looked more formidable than any of us. They had, 
instead of caps on their heads, a kind of shield, made of hard wood and 
leather, which, in case of need, they could take off and use as a protec- 
tion against spears and other missiles. They had a pistol on each side 
of their saddles, and the handle of a long knife projecting from their 
belts behind. We found that our saddles were made of wood. The 



161 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

stirrups, also, were chiselled out of a solid piece of wood, and were so 
smali that only the toe of the boot would catch in. It was necessary 
to keep a continual strain on the feet to retain them in their places. 
The bridles had but one rein, and that was a rope fastened to one side 
of the bits. Thus far there had been no occasion for reins, for the 
horses would pick out their way much better without any interference 
on our part, except from the use of a stick. 

We could now see the road, which here was pretty good. I looked 
back, trying to discover in what kind of a place we had spent the night ; 
but the uneven state of the country prevented me from making out 
any trace of it. We now urged our horses at a smart pace, the road 
being muddy, but not difficult, often leaving our guides a mile behind. 
It required some practice to know how to manage horses with one 
rein ; but we soon learned the art, and could whirl them round, and 
perform the various evolutions, with one rein as well as with two. 
The Indians teach them to go with one rein, or with none ; and I fre- 
quently saw them riding at full speed, and guiding their horses by the 
hand on the neck only. 

Our next stopping-place was at the capitan's of the next pueblo, 
about sixteen miles from Oolumbo. He provided us with chocolate 
and eggs, and a change of horses, detaining us more than an hour. I 
thought the animal I rode had some very singular actions, and, on 
examination, found him blind of one eye. I could not before account 
for his stumbling more than the other horses, but this explained it. 

The moment that our animals were ready, taking care this time to 
get one that could see with both eyes, we settled lor our guides and 
horses with the Capitan de Sillia, as he is called, and were again on 
our way. 

The price of horses and guides from one village or town to another, 
a distance of four or five miles, is twenty-five cents apiece. This is 
regulated by the Spanish government ; and travellers, having passports, 
can demand horses and guards at any time from the capitans, who are 
obliged to furnish them without delay, receiving for them the regular 
fee. 

The capitans are chiefs of the towns, and are native Indians. 
They live in houses built after the Indian style, constructed of bam- 
boo and cane, and raised on posts from four to seven feet from the 
ground. Beneath, usually, one can walk or fasten his horse, or the 
room may be used for many other convenient purposes. No nails or 
pins of wood are used in building, but all is fastened with straps of 
cane, or rattan, wound around the joints, The floors are laid on 
bamboo joists, strips of bamboo being interwoven crosswise, so that 
from below upwards through the whole extent there is a good circula- 
tion of air. The roof is of similar construction, and thatched with 
leaves of the betel-nut and plantain-trees. The windows are blinds 
made of cane, braided like basket-work, and fastened under the roof, 
or made to slide. Glass for windows is never used on the inland. The 
stairs are after the principle of the ladder, with rounds of bamboo ; 
sometiuics two or three rounds are placed together, which facilitates 



RIDE TO TAAL LAKE. 165 

going up and down, and makes them more like stairs. These dwell- 
ings are very neat, both inside and out. 

For the next few miles, after our change of horses, we had a 
delightful ride, though the sun beat down with considerable power. 
We galloped pretty fast, so that I had not much time to observe any- 
thing. My eyes were generally ahead, to see what view would open 
on us next, so new and strange did everything about us appear. We 
had glimpses of rare birds, various kinds of trees, thick shrubbery, 
vines, and many pretty flowers. There were some beautiful palms ; but 
the prettiest tree of all was the betel-nut. This looks, to the length of 
thirty or forty feet, as if it had been turned out by machinery and 
polished, and then surmounted with a tuft of green leaves, under 
which the betel-nuts were growing in clusters. We rode faster than 
our guides, and arrived at a river, at the end of the road, as it seemed. 
We galloped in various directions, hoping to attain the road again ; 
but did not find it, and we were obliged to wait for our guides to come 
up. They soon arrived, and, beckoning to us, much to our surprise, 
plunged into the river, and we plunged in after them. The ponies 
were good swimmers, taking us safely across, and up the opposite 
bank, when, Avinding round a large rock, we entered the road again. 

Five or ten minutes brought us into" another Indian town, and to 
the capitan's house. We promptly gave directions for fresh horses 
and guides to be made ready, and took some refreshment, — filling 
our pockets with dry cake, which we bought. We met here a gentle- 
man from Manilla, who was alone, and bound on the same excursion 
as ourselves. He desired us to wait an hour, and go on with him ; 
but we wished to be back to join our companions at the prow, and 
could make no delay. The capitan examined our passports with great 
importance, stating that we had already transgressed our limits, as we 
were beyond the province assigned to us, and that if he acted in 
accordance with his official duties, he should have us arrested, and con- 
ducted by a guard of soldiers to the provincial jail, to await orders 
from the government at Manilla. The capitan of another town was 
present, and Mr. N. entered into conversation, and soon made friends 
with both of them. We remained conversing with them for some 
time, treating them to some of our choice stores, and the capitan gave 
his consent for us to proceed. Before we left they embraced us over 
and over, shook hands with us, swore eternal friendship , promised us 
their assistance, if required, in whatever part of the island we might 
happen to be, and suffered us to proceed on our journey without 
further question. 

We soon found ourselves galloping, at full speed, on a fine road, 
making direct for " Taal Lake," in which the volcano is situated. A 
few miles on, and the road began to decrease in width, and we soon 
entered one so narrow that we could only pass in single file. Our 
path wound about in every direction, up hill and down, in many 
places so steep that the horses would slip, — sometimes forward up hill, 
and then backward down hill, — and had we been without a guide, I 
should have sought some other and safer path. I had constantly to 
be on my guard, as the pony stumbled over stones and uneven places, 



166 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

though I was sure he could see with both eyes, — as proof of which 
he would shy from imaginary objects on either side of the way. 
The occasional breaking of our stirrup-straps, made of brittle, sunburnt 
leather, was another source of uneasiness, especially when riding at 
full speed, which required considerable dexterity to prevent being 
thrown, and left on the ground behind. 

The almost scorching heat of the sun reminded me of its enlivening 
effects on serpents in tropical climates ; and my eyes searched every 
side among the limbs and branches, and particularly those low over 
head. I once imagined I saw one at some distance ahead, stretched 
across several limbs ; but, in our turnings, I lost sight of it, and when 
we came there it had disappeared. 2so animals of any kind showed 
themselves, except parrots, and several varieties of small birds of most 
beautiful colors. The parrots were of a pure white, and flew from 
tree to tree like pigeons. Yours, truly, 

B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

DISTANT VIEW OF THE VOLCANO. TAAL LAKE. ASCENT OF THE 

MOUNTAIN. CHARACTER OF THE VOLCANO. VIEW FROM THE EDGE 

OF CRATER, ETC. 

Manilla, December. 

Dear Brother : As we neared Taal Lake, from an elevated spot we 
caught the first glimpse of the volcano of Taal, as it is called. Enrap- 
tured with the first sight of such a natural curiosity, we all simul- 
taneously stopped and gazed on it. For some moments no one spoke, 
and then each one gave vent to his feelings of admiration. 

" Is it not grand ! " 

" How proud, how stately, it looks ! " 

11 How majestic it stands alone, enjoying its own glory, unconscious 
of anything else, as if it was the whole world itself! " 

" With what power, and yet with what ease, does it pour forth, to 
the skies, its massive-like clouds of incense ! " 

In the distance appeared a low, conical-shaped mountain, glistening 
as if of white sand. Its uncouthly-formed summit showed numerous 
ragged, angular, half-rounded, perpendicular points, standing against 
the back-ground of the deep blue sky beyond. From its centre shot 
upward a spiral culumn of dark-colored smoke, like a spiral shell stand- 
ing on its apex; and from its inverted base rolled off, horizontally, 
immense curling and twisting bodies of dense white vapor, spreading 
out into a broad mass, mingling and gradually disappearing in the clear 
atmosphere. And encircling its foot lay the quiet water of the lake, 
stretching out like a dazzling mirror, its broken and scolloped edges 



VOLCANO OF TAAL. 167 

bordered with a fringe of dark green trees. My emotions refused to 
form themselves into words ; and the starting of my horse, as he sped 
after his companions, Avhich were disappearing down the opposite side 
of the hill, broke in upon my thoughts, and buried them still deeper 
within my own breast. 

In half an hour we were at the lake, — a beautiful sheet of water, 
some fifteen or twenty miles across. Our horses had hardly stopped 
before we swung from their backs, and gladly touched the earth again ; 
for we were jolted, lamed, heated, and fatigued. In exercising to 
recover the use of our limbs, we cut most ludicrous figures. Age 
seemed to have crept on vis since we commenced the excursion ; our 
steps were like men of ninety, and each laughed heartily at the others, 
though each felt himself to be no laughable subject. 

We had passed several Indian houses a little way back, and the 
Indians followed to provide us with canoes. Our horses being secured, 
we stepped into a canoe, and two Indians plied their short paddles. 
Opportunity was now afforded for refreshing ourselves from our store 
of drinkables and eatables ; and never did water, mingled with a little 
wine, though thoroughly warmed by the sun, taste better. We felt 
invigorated anew, and were ready for other hardships. The water we 
kept in a hollow piece of bamboo, about five feet long and four or five 
inches in diameter, but a most disagreeable vessel to drink from. 
The open end is applied to the mouth, and the other end, like a gun, 
is raised to the required height. Generally, one receives a flood over 
his face before being aware that it has reached his mouth. 

The sun poured down its heated rays, which reflected with intensity 
from the smooth and glassy surface of the lake, so that we feared more 
from its brightness to our eyes than from its heat to our bodies, — 
though, the equator being within fourteen degrees, it was at least 
comfortably warm ! The superior comfort of the Indians, in their 
slight garments, could not escape our observation ; and, with all their 
simplicity, it rendered them, even in our eyes, more consistent with 
the laws of health than ourselves, with all our assumed knowledge. 
The perspiration ran freely down their tawny skins ; but, with all 
their labor, it was less profuse than ours, confined as we were in our 
saturated clothes. The less frequent passing and repassing of the long 
bamboo to them also confirmed our views ; for our parched mouths 
needed moistening once in five minutes. The canoe glided rapidly 
over the water, but, restless beings as we always are, we could hardly 
restrain our impatience for it to reach the shore. We watched the 
curling, ascending smoke for an hour and a half, when the boat 
touched the land, and we sprang out upon the base of the mountain- 
island. All that we could now see of it was a barren waste, with hero 
and there a tuft of grass. 

The most tedious part, that of gaining the summit, was now to be 
performed, and we set about it at once. The road was as hard and 
smooth as if prepared by a mixture of gravel and mortar ; but its 
inclination was steep, and the ascent, under a broiling sun, I knew 
would be laborious, though the height of the mountain did not appear 
to exceed a thousand feet. 



168 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

I had, before this, learned that if, in ascending high places, a per- 
son should commence gently and leisurely, he will have strength to 
hold out to the end. But if he begins hurridly, he will find himself 
failing before he has advanced a hundred feet : and at each subsequent 
step he will become more and more fatigued, and, after many halts on 
the way, will sink down exhausted, on reaching the top. My prog- 
ress, therefore, was slow over the more gradual ascent, while my 
more animated companions were pushing ahead as fast as they could 
go, in spite of my interpositions and endeavors to induce them to ** 
more protracted pace ; and, consequently, I was left considerably 
behind. 

The ground reverberated to our footsteps, indicating a hollowness 
beneath, and the gravel-like surface-crust, from long exposure, crum- 
bled under our weight. The last half of the distance was much 
steeper than the first, and at an angle of at least forty-five degrees, — 
making it necessary to take a zig-zag course, of double the distance of 
a direct line, and to turn our feet inward to make them hold. It was 
fatiguing work, obliging us occasionally to stop to take breath ; and 
the perspiration ran down my face in streams. I arrived on the sum- 
mit half an hour before my companions ; and it was not a little amus- 
ing to sit down and watch them below me, toiling up the hard way. 
But it was not so interesting to them. They were bent over, with 
their heads on a level with their knees, their faces of a burning red, 
and their steps and motions indicative of exhaustion, and of last 
efforts to proceed, which I too well understood. Every few moments 
they would stop, with one knee bent forward, pausing to take breath 
(and it seemed, as I saw their shoulders rise, that I could hear 
their long sighs escaping) ; and then looking behind them to scan 
the distance they had passed, and then turning, with wo-begone 
countenances, their eyes upward, they would measure the toil beibre 
them. 

As they made their last efforts to gain the spot where I sat, they 
certainly had my sympathy ; yet I could hardly refrain from indulging 
in a little merriment at their expense. They seemed like two aged 
men, humbled by adversity, and bowed down with years, making one 
grand effort to reach the goal of their hopes ; and, this attained, 
ready to relinquish all claim to existence; sinking exhausted on the 
ground, submissive to the will of destiny. A little rest, however, 
with the necessary comforts, brought by the servants and boatmen, 
soon restored us all to our natural selves. 

Our company now numbered twelve, and it was midday. Before 
moving further, we took a survey of the scene around us. The moun- 
tain is an island in the middle of the lake, and contains thousands 
of acres. It is made up of a variety of ill-shaped peaks, and deep 
hollows and chasms, as if an evil spirit had thrown up these masses 
of distorted forms. On our left extended a chasm, hundreds of feet 
deep, like an immense furrow ploughed through the mountain. It 
appeared to be about half a mile wide at the top, inclining so as to 
meet at the bottom ; and on each side were red lines, as the lava, in a 
liquid state, had flowed down. A narrow x>ath, or ridge, leads to 



THE CRATER. 169 

a peak half a mile or more distant, beyond which the smoke is rising. 
This ridge seems hardly wide enough to walk on ; yet it is the only 
way to the crater, and we proceed slowly along on it in single file. It 
is like a high, crooked ridge-pole, flattened a little on the top. We 
kept a steady balance, looking as much as possible to the path before 
us ; but it was impossible not to see the fearful depths on each 
side into which a single misstep might precipitate our then luckless 
bodies. A person liable to giddiness would be a fit subject for such an 
accident. None of our party had any tendency that way ; though we 
found it necessary to halt occasionally and fix our eyes on the peak for 
a few moments, as the path appeared to glide backwards from under- 
neath our feet. 

Arriving at the top of the eminence, the crater in its whole extent 
appeared to our view, with striking effect. For a few moments we 
could hardly realize that it was not a dream ; for we had had dreams 
as much like the reality as this. There we were, looking down into 
an immense basin of fire, with the smoke pouring out, and nothing to 
obstruct our sight. Our first impulse was to retreat a pace, fearing too 
close a proximity ; but, seeing no immediate danger, our confidence 
was quickly restored. Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 

December 27th. 

Dear Brothers : This basin or crater is of circular form, and 
appears to be about half a mile in diameter, — though it may be 
more than a mile, — and fifteen hundred feet deep, though we could 
not learn its depth. We were told that it had been measured, and 
found to be lower than the water of the lake outside ; but the height 
from that we could not learn. The sides of the crater are nearly per- 
pendicular, and resemble walls of dried clay with horizontal strata. 
In the ceutre were two cones, or chimneys, the outlets for the smoke 
and burning elements within ; their surfaces, slightly concaved, are 
grooved into sections, from top to base. These grooves are of a fiery 
red color, tinged with purple, on a ground-work almost black, giving a 
very ornamental effect. The chimne}^ stand side by side, like two 
large inverted tunnels, their noses broken off and touching at their 
base, and rise from the bottom of the crater to about one third the 
height of the walls. 

A beautiful sulphur-water lake occupies a fourth or fifth of the cra- 
ter-bottom, stretching nearly across one side, between the base of the 
chimneys and the wall. Its color is of a yellowish green, like that of 
sulphur, with a glistening silvery glare on its surface. It is not trans- 
parent, and at different places is continually boiling and throwing 
off vapor highly charged with sulphurous gas. From several places 
around the lake numerous white columns of steam in jets were being 
thrown up, as if from so many steam-pipes of engines buried below the 
lava-crust. 

From the larger of the two chimneys belched forth, in large, dense 
volumes, a mixed mass of fire, smoke, vapor and cinders, although 
the fire in the sunlight could only be seen by its faint glimmer ; and 
15 



170 ' CHINA AND MANILLA. 

a strong smell of sulphurous gas, at times almost suffocating, filled th8 
air. It would commence in a low, sepulchral, half-smothered rum- 
bling, a half-stifled groan deep in the bowels of the earth, gradually 
rising and increasing to a suppressed moaning ; then, as if unable to 
bear its tortures any longer, it burst out at the top in a long, half-hol- 
low explosion, like the last gasp of some dying monster. Remaining 
quiet for a few moments, as if holding its breath, signs of returning 
animation would begin to show themselves, and it could be perceived 
that life was not yet extinct, — that another sigh was in preparation, 
— and then, in the same suppressed fulness, another gasp would be 
wrung from it. And thus it continued as long as we stopped, each 
gasp seeming the last : but there was no last, and it is probably gasp- 
ing now, and may go on gasping to the end of the world, for anything 
we know to the contrary. The smoky volume arose into the sky far 
above our heads, and then bending abruptly, sluggishly floated off, a 
dense white body, over the lake, and then disappeared. 

Having satisfied our curiosity, and being tired, we sat down on the 
ground, had our cold meats and other refreshments brought and spread 
before us, and took our dinner with good appetite, enjoying it none 
the less for being in full sight of the infernal regions, as the Indians 
are wont to regard them. While thus engaged in eating and watch- 
ing the half-explosive bursts from the chimney, one a little louder than 
the others made us fancy that we felt the ground tremble ; and, 
remarking that the part of the peak we were on might cave in and 
precipitate us into the crater, we gathered up our things and removed 
further back, when we finished our meal undisturbed. 

Descending this peak, I walked along the edge of the crater to that 
portion which overlooked the sulphur lake, leaving my companions at 
rest. After watching a while the various operations of the steam-jets, 
the boiling of the water, &c, I thought I would throw a stone into the 
lake, to see the effect. Picking up a piece of hardened lava, the only 
stones to be found, I gave it a toss towards the middle of the lake, and 
following it with the eye. To my surprise, it curved, returned towards 
the wall under my feet, and was lost to sight. I threw another, which 
at first bent directly towards the centre of the lake, but, curving more 
and more, it came to the wall again. I threw another, with more 
force, but it returned to the wall and disappeared like the others. 
Puzzled at this, I took up another, a good-sized one, saying to myself, 
I will make sure of it this time, and whirled it with such force that I 
actually believed it would strike the opposite shore of the lake, which, 
for a moment, appeared to be underneath it ; but it performed a larger 
circle, returning over the shore and water, drawing nearer and 
nearer. I leaned over the crater, and saw it, apparently at the 
touching point upon the wall, vanish, as if it had evaporated. A 
fourth and more determined effort was attended with a like result. 
Foiled and nonplused, I stopped to philosophize. The wall does not 
appear to vary one foot from a perpendicular, and stands out so that I 
Was just able to see its whole face. Was the phenomenon caused by a 
refraction of the rays of light, by the attraction of the walls on a 
smaller body, or by a magnetic attraction ? I dropped some pieces far 



ADDRESS TO THE VOLCANO. 171 

enough from the edge to clear the ragged points, and saw them appear 
to touch and vanish at the same instant, without hearing the slightest 
sound. Could it be that I was deceived in the great depth of the wall, 
and that the vanishing point stood out from a perpendicular further 
than I could throw a stone at the top? I again experimented in throw- 
ing stones, but with the same results. I sat down on the ground, think- 
ing it over. I brought to bear on it all my philosophy, but it was of 
no use ; there was the fact, and I consoled myself with the thought 
that probably it was not the only problem I knew not how to solve. I 
wonder if a ball, fired from a cannon, would return and hit the wall 
from which it was fired. 

Having a large black bottle, I enclosed a paper with our names, 
date, visit, &c, and, sealing the bottle, threw it into the sulphur lake. 
It closed in with the wall at a short distance down, and then disap- 
peared as if it had been converted into air by an unknown solvent. I 
may safely affirm, according to the testimony of my ears and eyes, that 
it did not break, nor in the space of three minutes reach the sulphur 
lake. 

Turning my eyes towards the rounded peak where Ave had dined, the 
highest of all the eminences, I saw that my friend A. had risen to his 
feet, and was standing and gazing into the old grim volcano, while 
the others of the party were wending their way towards the descent 
homeward. 

Noticing his gesticulations, I listened, and found that my friend was 
holding forth ; unable, in his inspiration, to leave without a parting 
address. I could not hear the words, but I could imagine him saying : 

"0, Monster ! 0, King of Death ! whose terrible features we are 
now looking upon ; we do not approach thy presence without a due 
regard to thy awful power, and our own utter insignificance. We 
know that thou sustainest thyself upon the food of sulphurous earths, 
and the drink of corroding acids. We knoAV that thy tongue is a 
flame of fire unquenchable, that thy bowels are a fiery furnace of boil- 
ing elements, and that thy heated breath is filled with poisonous gases, 
the odor of which is death for us to inhale. We see in yonder floating 
mass the outpourings of the continuous blast from thy capacious 
lungs. We hear the low mutterings of thy voice, and dread to hear 
thee speak. When we feel thy tremblings we know it is thee, and 
men fear afar. In the manifestations of thy wrath thou vomitest out 
rivers of liquid fire, pouring them in torrents down thy sides, and 
men's hearts are struck with awe and terror, made sensible of thy 
inexhaustible strength. We know that thou sleepest neither by night 
nor by day, and the whole world is filled with wonder at thee. In 
ignorance we ponder the date of thy existence, and believe that death 
is not to thee. We do not leave thine awful precincts without an esti- 
mation of the grandeur, the magnificence, the greatness, and the sub- 
lime majesty, in which thou art enthroned, the remembrance of which 
will remain to the end of our lives freshly engraven on the tablets of 
our memories. May you continue a long existence in your own 
glory ! " 

As I arrived again at the peak, my friend had concluded ; and his 



172 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

majesty, the volcano, groaned out, as if in response, another gasp, " So 
may it be," and we bade him an adieu. 

We wished to walk entirely around the crater, but our time would 
hardly permit. Poising ourselves on the ridge, we followed it back 
and made a safe descent. It was now three o'clock p. m. The wind had 
thrown the lake into commotion, and the boatmen refused to embark 
in its present state ; and all we could say and offer in money would 
not change their determination. Perhaps it was better for us that 
they would not go, though it was a great disappointment ; and had 
we known of it, we would have made the circumference of the crater. 

It was too late then to think of climbing the mountain a second 
time, and we walked along the shore of the lake to a place where the 
grass grew rank and high, meeting a poor Indian fisherman, who 
offered to conduct us by a short way to his hut, — the only one, he said, 
on the island. "We followed him, winding and opening a path through 
the thick, long grass, while the canoe was paddled along the shore. 

A walk of a mile brought us to an open spot between the moun- 
tains, where the ground was covered with verdure, which seemed a 
delightful retreat in the midst of such barrenness. Tired and foot-sore, 
we gladly stretched ourselves on the soft grass in front of the hut ; 
though my two companions, fearing the effects of lying on the ground, 
took the inside, on the bamboo floor. 

Observing fowls and potatoes about the grounds, we set an Indian 
to work to prepare us a dinner. In an hour a fowl was cooked, by 
being held on pointed sticks over the fire, and also thoroughly smoked. 
But our stomachs were not now fastidious, and, sitting on the floor, 
the eating process commenced. With a bone in one hand, a potato 
in the other, and a boiled egg apiece (adding the bread we had with 
us, and an Indian paper of rock-salt, mixed with dirt), we fared quite 
decently ; though, when we came to deluge our faces and bosoms from 
the long bamboo which had traversed the volcano with us, we thought 
an improvement might be made, and the Indian, being attracted by 
our merriment, and unskilfulness in drinking, brought half of a 
cocoa-nut shell, which answered admirably. Without plates, we did not 
need knives and forks, which I suppose the Indian had never seen ; 
and two of us together could manage to pull the smoking members 
asunder without much difficulty. 

There were several children shying and peeping through the inter- 
stices of the hut ; but they did not show themselves openly. The 
mother we did not see, but concluded, if there was one, she must be 
at work on the soil somewhere. Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 



SUSPICIOUS INDIANS. 173 



CHAPTER XX. 

SUSPICIOUS INDIANS. DISMAL NIGHT. INDIANS FEASTING AND DANC- 
ING. DISAGREEABLE PREDICAMENT. 

Manilla, December 27th. 

Dear Brothers : A good look-out was kept to see when the turbu- 
lence of the lake should cease, for to-morrow noon we wish to join 
our companions at Columbo at the lagunas. We waited till six p. m., 
and then determined to go, even if we had to row ourselves. Having 
paid our hospitable Indian, we passed down to the canoe. Here we 
met Mr. listed, the Englishman we left this forenoon at the house of 
our particular Indian friends, and who wished us to wait for him, that 
he might join us back. He had just lauded, and generously offered us his 
canoe, which was larger, and had sails and outriggers, while he, 
accompanied by several Indians, shculd make his visit to the volcano. 
With many thanks we accepted of his kiudness, and, paying our own 
boatmen, were immediately off with his crew. 

In two hours, at eight in the evening, we landed at the place where 
we had embarked in the forenoon. A number of Indians, with torches, 
conducted us to a cluster of Indian houses, a little way in the forest, 
where our horses were secured. We entered one of the houses by an 
ugly ladder, and sat down on the floor to wait while the horses were 
brought. After a while, uneasy at the delay, we went out to see what 
they were doing ; but we could see nothing, it was so dark, and came 
back as wise as when we went, with the exception of knowing that 
it had begun to rain. Mr. N. blazed away at the Teni-en-te, who 
answered that the horses were put up ; that it was too dark and rainy, 
and that we should surely be attacked by robbers if we went ; and the 
servants manifested the same fear. 

" Fire and water ! " we all exclaimed, and told them to have the 
horses re-saddled and bridled, and torches prepared ; and that, when the 
rain should lessen, we should depart, robbers or anything else. The 
rain continued to pour, and Indian after Indian passed in and out. 
At one time there were nineteen or twenty seated before us on the 
floor of the only room, eating their boiled rice and fish, with most 
villanous-looking countenances. They left the room one after another, 
excepting three or four, and we deliberated what to do. It was past 
nine in the evening ; the rain rattled on the thatched roof, black 
darkness prevailed outside, and we should soon be asleep, for it was 
w r ith difficulty that we could keep our eyes open. The Teni-en-te, 
who had gone out to see what he could learn, returned with a long 
visage, and said that a large party of those who were in here had just 
left, taking a by-path, for the purpose of intercepting us on our way ; 
and he urged us, by all means, to remain over night. Whether it was 
so or not, we determined to go, and pledged ourselves, through all dan- 
gers which might assail us, to stand by each other to the last. By the 
15* 



174 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

aid of torches, the guides very reluctantly brought up the horses, 
declaring, at the same time, that they would not go. Our arms being 
adjusted and secured in convenient places, we thoroughly examined 
our saddles, bridles and travelling equipments, mounted into the seats, 
and started. We had proceeded but a few steps, when the guides 
said they would go ; and they brought out their horses, — which, as 
it appeared, were all ready, — and we went together. 

A dismal, dark and rainy night was before us, and our torches were 
cast aside, it being safer without them. The horses went at a walking 
pace without guiding, and we rode for an hour in silence, neither the 
guides nor ourselves hardly speaking. Our path was a different one 
from that we came, hoping thereby to elude any ambuscade that might 
be in wait for us. The unshod horses slipped badly, and struggled 
hard in climbing some of the hills. I could not see how the others 
managed, but sometimes I found the mane insufficient, and had to 
clasp the horse's neck to avoid sliding off behind by his violent 
motions in the ascent. In descending, it seemed that I should go over 
his head, in spite of all the exertion I could make ; and the jerk of 
the horse, slipping and catching, carried me several times near to his 
ears. A stray buffalo, or the limb of a tree, hitting our persons, 
caused us to draw our pistols a few times ; but we saw nothing of 
Indians until we emerged from the woods. We then entered on an 
open road, broad, but crooked, with thick brush on each side. The 
rain having ceased, we could see quite comfortably, and an Indian 
appeared alone. He was on horseback, and rode leisurely past, sur- 
veying each one of us. We watched him, and saw him stop and look 
after us a moment, when, putting spurs to his horse, he quickly dis- 
appeared in the darkness. Our Teni-en-te said that he must be 
reconnoitring for a gang not far off. After walking a few yards fur- 
ther, our leader exclaimed, " Now, go on ; " and, setting the example, 
the horses were urged to their fullest speed, till we came in sight of 
the lights of the town, and we dismounted safely in the yard of our 
" particular Indian friends." They received us with open arms, and 
embraced us ; and, while we were reclining for a little rest, they listened 
attentively to the story of the Teni-en-te, as he related our adventures. 
The intendante and guides seemed overjoyed at having reached this 
place in safety, and talked of the good night's rest we should have 
here ; but, as we ordered up fresh horses, they put on their longest 
faces. Our Indian friends had assured themselves that we were to be 
their guests for the night, and would not listen to our going. The 
rejection of their proffered hospitalities they regarded as such a slight, 
and as an act so unfriendly towards them, that, when we told them 
of our delays, and that to-morrow noon we were to be back at the 
lagunas, they even then refused to be reconciled. Moreover, they 
recapitulated all the innumerable obstacles and difficulties of the way, 
— the " gang of robbers," &c. They added that they were respons- 
ible to the Spanish government, which does not permit of travelling 
after eleven o'clock ; and that, any accident happening to us, the con- 
sequences would fall heavily on them for furnishing horses, and allow- 
ing us to go. 



MANILLA. INDIAN FEASTING AND DANCING. 175 

" No," said they, " you must stay till morning, and then all shall 
be ready for you." 

Mr. N. was of the opinion that they could not be compelled ; and we 
acquiesced with him that it was best to wait an hour, and then see 
what could be done. 

Our Indian friends told us that it was feast-day with them, — that 
they had attended mass at the Catholic church in the forenoon, and, 
as their house was filled with their friends, they wished us to join in 
their festivities and pleasures. They seated us at a table with the 
capitan from a neighboring town, and, though they had been eating 
all the evening, their politeness was such that they joined us, and eat 
again. Dish after dish of meats, &c, was brought, and several times, 
when we thought we had finished, we found our plates loaded again, 
in doing which they seemed to take much pleasure. After they had 
made us eat as much as they could, they brought on a variety of 
sweetmeats, and cups of hot chocolate. This last was very palatable, 
and rich and thick, and is much used as a beverage. 

This house was of bamboo, like all the others, and elevated about 
ten feet from the ground, on posts ; but it contained several rooms, one 
of which had regular board floors, instead of bamboo. In two of the 
rooms there was music and dancing. With our Indian friends it is a 
mass in the forenoon, and music, dancing and feasting, the remainder 
of the day ! We were conducted into these rooms, which were filled 
with the best class of Indian company, whom, I suppose, we must 
denominate Indian gentlemen and Indian ladies. There was an Indian 
band of music, of flutes, harps, two treble and two bass guitars, &c, 
which were fascinatingly played. A table was then loaded with 
meats, cakes, candies, sweetmeats, chocolate, &c. ; but we thought 
they would not attempt to make us eat again. We were, however, 
mistaken ; eating was the first thing to be attended to, and eat we 
must. This is such an important item of Indian etiquette, that we 
tried to make a show of eating, and passed through the ordeal to the 
apparent satisfaction of all concerned. I advocated an immediate 
departure, as the only safe mode of surviving the night, notwithstand- 
ing the robbers. 

But our time had not arrived ; we had not yet danced, and we were 
not suffered to remain idle spectators. They took us by the hand, and 
led us to partners on the floor, who at first seemed abashed, and fre- 
quently blushed through their dark skins ; but they soon threw off 
their reserve, on perceiving that we made ourselves quite at home. 
They were all dressed in their best, — the ladies, like the Mestizos, 
in bright colors, and in slippers which seemed just ready to drop off. 
clattering at each step ; and the gentlemen, in striped pants and light 
frocks. Several of the ladies were handsome, which our Indian friends 
appeared to be as well aware of as we ; for they selected the prettiest 
ones for us to dance with, though there were others plain and homely. 
The dancing continued almost without intermission ; and as fast as 
couples retired to their seats, their places were supplied by others. 
The figures were much like our own at home, though there were some 
polkas or fancy dances, which, I suppose, are peculiar to themselves. 



176 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

The step of the gentlemen -was in rapid leaps and skips, and that of 
the ladies was by slow, sliding shufflings, each marked by a jerk of the 
knees, and scarcely lifting the feet from the floor, which their slippers 
would not admit of; yet all in perfect time with the music. It was 
very novel and amusing to see those two opposites confronted, — the 
excited motions and gestures of the gentlemen on the one hand, and 
the cool, measured movements of the ladies on the other, and all at 
the same time. 

The favorite part of their dancing was the waltz, and here I made 
a jumble ; for the partners take hold of each other's hands, instead of 
the manner customary with us. We were ranged around with our 
partners, and the exhilarating music for the waltz commenced. I 
started with the others, but the lady smiled and shrank back. I fol- 
lowed, and she retreated, until we came to the bamboo settee, on which 
she seated herself. Not knowing what the difficulty was, and unable 
to speak with each other for an explanation, I was about to sit down, 
when she arose, and I putting my hand upon her waist, we began 
again. Still shrinking from me, she laughed, and stepped backwards 
as fast as I advanced, and we both were seated on the settee a second 
time. I felt a little confused, for she was the belle of the party, and 
it was my first dance with her, and the step was similar to our own. 
I could not make out whether the fault was mine or hers. I was sure 
there was nothing in the way of her dancing before, though I had not 
seen her waltzing. However, she threw back her beautiful tresses, 
and, with her black eyes sparkling and a lively smile on her face, she 
came forward again, and, before I had time to make any movement, 
she seized both my hands, holding them tightly in her own, and catch- 
ing the step, we went off around the room, amid the clapping and 
cheers of the Indian company who were observing us. My obtuseness 
was not so great but that 1 then perceived where the difficulty lay, and 
I concluded that the Indians were one step in advance of Europeans. 
The waltz ended, the Indian gentlemen gathered about me, and, with 
many shakes of the hand, and pattings upon the shoulder, congratu- 
lated me on my success ; and the Indian beauty, with an air of satis- 
faction at her exploit, seated herself, laughing and talking, in no little 
glee, with her companions. The gentlemen appeared to consider it 
quite an honor that we should condescend to mingle with them, and 
the ladies were no less pleased with the distinction of having had 
European partners. 

My friend N. told our Indian hosts that I could play the flute, and 
they handed me over, without any ceremony, to the band, as if deter- 
mined to make the most of us. The principal flutists delivered up 
their instruments, which I declined. They finally put a spare flute 
into my hands for me to play alone. This I refused to do, but con- 
sented to try with the band, though I was unacquainted with any of 
their music, except from hearing it played. This satisfied them, and 
the dancing went on. I contrived, alter my own fashion, to make a 
third part to one of their favorite tunes, with which they were 
delighted, though I could not tell whether from my good or bad play- 
ing. The excitement of the dancers increased, and the band of 



MANILLA. A LUCKY ESCAPE. 177 

musicians were soon all going in double quick time. The gentlemen 
leaped backwards and forwards, up and around, gesticulating, with 
peculiar emphasis, arms, heads and feet, and glancing at me or my 
companions dancing ; and, in the height of their enthusiasm, whirled 
each other's partners, to the discomfiture, yet amusement, of the 
ladies, some of whom lost off their slippers. I played as fast as 
I could, the band increasing their time until I was played off the track 
altogether ; and finally they played themselves off", and the dancers 
off the floor with them. Here the festivities ended, and the Indian 
gentlemen gathered around us, shaking our hands with many expres- 
sions of thankfulness for the enjoyment they had received. One of 
the oldest Indians, with his daughter on his arm, took leave ; and the 
others, as if his example was the sign of departure, followed, one after 
the other. 

It was now between eleven and twelve at night, and we besought 
our Indian friends for the horses. They endeavored to persuade us to 
remain ; but, seeing our determination, yielded reluctantly, saying 
that, as we had proved ourselves their friends, they were ours, and we 
should go if we wished. Horses were brought, and, in addition to 
our own men, they provided us with two well-armed guards, telling 
us that we should need them. Embracing us, shaking our hands 
with much warmth of feeling, and descending the steps with us, they 
saw us mounted on our horses, and, with many wishes for a safe and 
pleasant journey, bade us " adios, adios." 

Yours, &c, B. L. B. 

Manilla, December 21th. 

Dear Brother : We travelled slowly until we came to the river, 
which was to be forded. We heard the guides plunge in, but could 
not see them. Our horses kept along a little way, and then stopping, 
became unmanageable, and refused to go on. Supposing they were 
afraid of the water, we applied the sticks and jerked their heads by 
the bridle-rein, but without avail. They turned around with us, and 
we found, by the descent they were making, that we had missed our 
road, and had been trying to urge them over the steep bank of the 
river. The horses having regained their road, which was a cut 
through the bank down to the fording-place, w r e could indistinctly 
see where we had been, and which might be somewhere from twelve 
to thirty feet deep. The horses plunged in one after the other ; we 
congratulated ourselves that we had not leaped unawares from the 
top of the bank, and landed safely upon the opposite shore. 

Continuing our way, we could see tolerably well, the country being 
more open, the road comparatively good, and the darkness much less 
than that of the preceding night. We travelled in a close body, so 
that no one alone should be surprised. With the armed guards on 
all sides of us, and pistol in hand, scrutinizing every place, straining 
our eyes into the gloom of every thicket, and looking at every rustling 
leaf, we arrived at the next town, without meeting with any one, 
between twelve and one in the morning of Thursday, December 28th. 

Calling up the capitan, and procuring a change of horses and 



178 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

guards, though the capitan was very unwilling to do anything about 
it, we started once more with our little cavalcade of nine or ten per- 
sons. We were obliged to travel quite slowly, it being now dark and 
muddy, with many bad places to pass. The night air and our wet 
clothes chilled us through, making my body tremble and teeth chatter. 
Twice I fell asleep and nearly dropped from my horse, but as we 
approached another suspicious spot I became thoroughly aroused. 
Here was a deep pond-hole of mud, mire and water, which we must go 
through the best way we could. It was enclosed by a thicket, — a 
fine place for a band of desperadoes to conceal themselves and take 
advantage of our misfortunes. " The worst place of all is this old 
swamp-hole," remarked Mr. A. ; " it is such a fine place for the 
scamps to hide in, and we should not see anything till we feel their 
spears." To all of which Mr. N. and I perfectly agreed. Although 
I began to doubt our being attacked at all, I could not keep my eyes 
away from every dark object, and was not easy until we had passed ; 
for every one had told us that we should fall in with the robbers 
somewhere. I believed that our escape thus far was on account of 
their fear of so many of us, and more especially as there were three 
white men to contend against ; for the Indians fear one white man as 
much as several of their own people.* The horses struggled, and it 
was doubtful at times what the issue was to be ; they mired, stuck 
fast, and would have sunk down but for our sticks, which excited 
them to fresh energies. I could not help laughing, notwithstanding 
the dangers, when we were pitching and floundering in the midst 
of this slough-hole. But fortune favored us, and we went through 
without leaving any one of our number behind. 

Between two and three in the morning we suddenly heard a crow- 
ing of cocks around us, though no habitations were to be perceived. 
They commenced not far from us, answering each other, and died 
away in the distance. After listening to them a while, one of our 
companions exclaimed, 

"I say, does that not sound very much like human voices? I 
believe they are Indians crowing in that way to entrap us. There, 
that is not a cock crowing ! That is a human voice, surely ! " 

We all thought they sounded much like human voices, but no 
Indians appeared afterwards ; and we saw Indian houses, and con- 
cluded the sounds were not imitations. 

Not very long after we came to a guard-house, or police-station, 
with a bar drawn across the passage. These are small buildings, like 
a shed, erected over the road at intervals of several miles by the 
government. There was a door, which was locked, through which 
all must pass. The guard was asleep in one end of the building, and, 
after some delay, made his appearance. Much talking and discussion 

* Three days after this, Mr. N. received a letter from one of our particular 
Indian friend*, inquiring how we succeeded, after leaving his house, in reach- 
ing the lagunas ; also stating that on this same night his brother capitan 
had been attacked and robbed on the road that we had passed, and that some 
of the robbers had since been taken. 



MANILLA. RETURN TO COLUMBO. 179 

followed between him arid our leaders, which resulted in our horses 
beino- led off, and ourselves obliged to remain till daylight. The 
reason of this we did not know, but presumed that horses could not be 
got at this hour, and our own horses were too jaded to go on. Being 
conducted to a house of a village a little way off, and an empty room 
shown us, a hard, knobby bamboo floor, through which one could see 
below seven or eight feet, was once more our couch, and a blanket 
our bed. We wrapped up, extended ourselves like so many Indians, 
and were soon beyond the pale of wakefulness. 

We were aroused at early dawn, our horses were at the door, and I 
awoke sufficiently to feel the cold streams pouring through the inter- 
stices of the floor. Chilled through and stiffened, in my damp clothes 
with wet feet, I felt unable to move, and would have given ten dollars 
for another hour's sleep. Slowly bringing myself to a perpendicular 
posture, and gathering up my blanket, I mounted my horse from the 
ladder leading down from the door. 

During this part of our journey we had opportunity to see the road 
we had travelled over the first night of our leaving Columbo. After a 
few miles we began to enter on it, before the sun had risen. Of all 
bad roads I had ever seen, I never saw anything to compare with it. 
We passed many Indians on the way, who were mostly on foot, 
driving their pack-horses before them. They seemed to be going to or 
returning from market, generally in parties of ten to thirty. The 
horses had panniers hung on both sides, with potatoes, onions, pigs, 
chickens, eggs, &c. ; and some had their own families loaded in, the 
heads of several pappooses being sometimes seen sticking up above the 
sides. There were places in passing where one party must wait for 
the other, and if two parties met it was a dilemma how to proceed. 
If on a ridge, one must either turn into a slough-hole of an unknown 
depth, or ride down some almost perpendicular bank. I saw the 
place in which, I presume, I must have been when I was lost, and the 
guides came back to get me out. They were, indeed, sufficiently 
formidable by daylight or by moonlight, without groping one's way 
along in black darkness. For long distances logs had been laid down 
crosswise, apparently through a swamp, between which there was 
only room fur the horses' feet, and over which one foot must be 
stepped at a time. We went again through ponds of mud, where one 
would hardly know whether to call it wading or swimming. A 
number of monkeys scampered about the trees on one side of the road, 
stopping now and then to make up faces at us, and peering at us in 
all sorts of attitudes. A large serpent lay on the opposite bank, 
among some bushes, apparently watching them. We could not see 
his length, but we had not the time or inclination to engage him in 
battle. We went on plodding at a slow pace, but as fast as we could 
go ; and when we could trot or gallop five yards, we made it a point 
to improve it. Our last four miles were over a good road, and the 
tired horses were put to their utmost speed. We arrived at Columbo 
at one p. m., iustead of twelve, an hour past the time ; and our com- 
panions, after waiting half an hour for us, had departed. We did 
not like the idea of being left, but we contented ourselves by returning 



180 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

to the house of our intendante, and ordering the best breakfast the 
country could afford. 

Hiring another prow, and packing our things aboard, we set sail for 
Manilla. In a few hours we had crossed the lake to the river, where 
we changed our prow for a canoe, and, gliding down the river, we 
arrived at Manilla in the evening, much to the surprise of our com- 
panions. They had been at home two hours, and did not expect us 
for three days, if we came at all ; for they believed we were either 
killed or laid up by a conflict with the robbers. A good supper was 
provided in Mr. A.'s room, where we all met, talking over our 
adventures, and enjoying a happy reunion until midnight. 

Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

EXPEDITION TO A CAVE. A CALL AT SAN PEDRO MACATI. A GORGE 

OF THE MOUNTAINS, AND RAPIDS. EXPLORATION OF A CAVE, ETC. 

LETTER TO A BROTHER. 

Manilla, Dec. 29th. 

Dear Brother : After a good night's rest, in a comfortable bed, we 
arose this morning much refreshed in mind and body, notwithstanding 
the disagreeable weather, and the haste with which we had journeyed. 
All our party expressed themselves highly satisfied with the trip to the 
lagunas ; and those of us who had made the excursion to the volcano, 
in spite of bad roads, fear of robbers, and want of sleep, felt so well 
remunerated that we framed an expedition for to-morrow to the 
" Cave " in a mountain, which is spoken of as a curiosity. 

To-day I changed my boarding-place, and came back to the hotel, 
where I find myself situated much more to my mind. 

There seems to be nothing but parades and feasts here at this time, 
holiday succeeding holiday. 

This afternoon, with a small party, we rode out to San Pedro 
Macati, ten miles in the country. We called on several of the better 
Indian families, and were treated to some fine music, from their harps 
and guitars, by the daughters. Some of them live in large two-story 
stone houses, and have pianos ; but they play very little on them. Poor 
girls ! where they have adopted the habits, dress and customs, of civil- 
ized life, they become sickly. The dark red was fading from their 
cheeks, their peculiar animation and vivacity was lost, their naturally 
rounded forms were exchanged for angular prominences. From their 
close dresses vital organs were being impeded in their functions, and bile, 
which should aid in the digestive process, forced back and carried into 



MANILLA. EXPEDITION TO A CAVE. 181 

the circulatory system, imparted its yellow tinge to the skin. The 
lungs were showing the effects of their compression in short breaths 
and hacking coughs ; and a wasting consumption, unknown to them- 
selves, had already commenced. It does not look reasonable that this 
people of nature can, at one step, pass into civilization, without bring- 
ing its evils on them. I could not help thinking how much better off 
were they in their native state, with health and beauty, than now, 
with declining health and emaciating bodies. 

At one of the houses of a wealthy family, where we had called sev- 
eral times before, they showed us much hospitality, and insisted on 
our taking beer, wine, and different kinds of cake, &c. The daughters 
we have met frequently at feasts, in different places. One, however, 
had eloped and married during the last week. She had often declared 
this intention to her father, if he did not give his consent. He con- 
tinued to refuse, and she made good her word. At their request we 
sang " America," and a few other songs, in listening to which they 
seemed to take much pleasure. In the eve we returned home, and 
assembled in one of our rooms, where we had dinner. 

Saturday, Dec. %Qth. — This afternoon Messrs. Napper, Alexander 
and myself, were to start on the " Cave " expedition. We devoted about 
five minutes to dinner, and, with our indispensable box of provisions 
safely packed, we departed. One went on horseback, and two in the 
chaise ; and the two servants followed on horseback. Mr. A. rode 
the horse for the first few miles, and I rode in the chaise ; then chang- 
ing, I rode the horse the remainder of the way. We arrived at Mari- 
quina, a place inhabited by Mustesoes and Spaniards, without any 
particular incident, about eight o'clock in the evening ; the distance I 
should think was near twenty miles. The stirrup-strap broke once, 
and I was nearly thrown to the ground ; but I changed horses with 
one of the servants, and afterwards went on very well. In crossing a 
stream, not liking to get wet the first part of the way, I dismounted 
and rode over in the chaise, the boy leading my horse. But I nearly 
repented of this ; for we came to a stand in the middle of the broad 
river, the horse at last barely succeeding in drawing us out. 

Mr. Tuason having given us a letter to a relative of his, a widow 
lady in Mariquina, we stopped at her house and recruited, and exam- 
ined some beautiful Scripture-pieces with which the room was orna- 
mented, of which every Roman Catholic house contains more or less. 

We again started at full speed ; six miles from Mariquina brought 
us to an Indian house, about twenty-five miles from Manilla, the end 
of our journey with the chaise. Here they gave us a supper of fried 
eggs and boiled rice, which, with our own provisions, made us a hearty 
meal. Having paid our host, we were again ready ; and, procuring 
guides, we mounted our horses and pushed along. The guides walked 
ahead, with lighted torches to show the way, and they carried a bun- 
dle of torches and lighted candles, which we had procured at Mari- 
quina. As we passed through some narrow, rocky defiles, winding 
along through woody places, and over frail bridges, I thought that we 
must look like banditti prowling about, on a midnight depredation. 
Five miles further brought us to the last Indian house in this direc- 
16 



182 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

tion, and as far as we could proceed on horses. It was now midnight, 
and thirty miles from Manilla. 

Dec. Z\st, — — Soon after one o'clock this morning, I was seated 
in front of an Indian house on a log, Mr. A. was walking back and 
forth, Mr. N. was in the house, the boy was taking care of the horses, 
one man was holding a torch, while two or three had gone in quest of 
a canoe to take us up the river. The Indians did not seem to like 
being called up in the night. They came back in an hour and a half, 
having kept us waiting all that time, and brought us intelligence that 
they could not find the canoes till morning. It was already three 
o'clock, and we concluded to wait, and reclined on the floor to secure 
a rest of two hours' duration. 

At five we were all up, alive and well, not having slept, but rested, 
and with our boys and four Indians we marched to the river, where 
were no canoes. We waited a little, and told them to lead the 
way on foot, as we should wait no longer, although the distance and 
prospect were not very pleasing. The first thing was to cross the 
river. I was looking to see how we were to accomplish this, when I 
saw Mr. N. seated on the shoulders, and his feet on each side the 
neck, of one of the guides. One of them stooped before me, and, 
fixing myself in the same way, I followed Mr. N. in the same man- 
ner, and Mr. A. brought up the rear. Several times my Indian 
slipped on the smooth stones, and I expected to be tumbled headlong 
into the water. 

We could not raise our feet to prevent being wet, as the bearers' 
arms were clasped around our ankles. In this way we crossed and 
recrossed the river a number of times, following up the stream, climb- 
ing along the sides of almost perpendicular rocks, stepping on the 
jutting edges, holding on by the bushes and crevices, up hill and 
down, through brush, mud, sand, &c. Several centipedes were 
pointed out to me on the rocks we were scaling, and I was warned 
against touching them. Their bite sometimes proves very severe. 
They much resemble a caterpillar, but are blacker, with a greater 
number of legs. After three or four miles, we came in sight of the 
cave, which was across the river. Arriving opposite to it, we sat 
down to observe and admire the beautiful scene. 

A deep gorge separates two high mountains, once evidently united. 
Through this the water rushed with fearful rapidity, tearing along, as 
if it would carry everything before it. Immense rocks had been 
severed and hurled out from the mountain, and lay scattered along, 
for some distance down the stream ; and around them the water was 
dashing and foaming. The sides of the cut through the mountain 
were nearly perpendicular, and faced with an almost solid mass of 
stone, with ragged and jutting angles, and resembling a kind of white 
marble. About one third of the distance up one of these sides could 
be discerned the black mouth of the cave, — a large oval doorway. 
After in vain trying to get across, by jumping from rock to rock, we 
gave that up, and the guides brought bamboo poles to make a bridge. 
Two or three of these, being placed together, extended from one rock 
to another, and held at each end, by good balancing we passed over, 



MANILLA. UNDERGROUND EXPLORATIONS. 183 

holding on to each rock till the bridge was transferred to the next 
beyond. In an hour we were safely landed on the other side, and 
clambered up to the cave. 

After rest and refreshment, with lighted torches we commenced 
the exploration. The entrance was fifteen or twenty feet high. We 
had proceeded but a short distance, when one of the guides raised a 
shout, signifying caution on our part. We looked, and a snake, 
several feet long, ran before us. I sprang forward to kill it with my 
stick ; but, recollecting that some snakes were venomous, I desisted, 
and the Indians did not seem to like interfering with him, but let him 
escape. Soon the bats, startled by the lights, flew about as thick as 
mosquitoes, hitting us with their wings. Their numbers were aston- 
ishing. Above, the wall was literally blackened with them. We 
moved along slowly, looking on every side, and above and below, 
inserting our canes in every nook and corner : now over masses of 
large rough rocks, and then stooping and crouching beneath such. 
We felt our way with our long sticks stretched out ahead, and meas- 
ured the depths of mud and of water before our feet. Several times 
we thought we had come to the end, but, thrusting our sticks ahead, 
there was more space beyond. There was a great sameness in the 
passage, which was generally oval, like the letter D, with rough sides, 
and a variable roof, dripping with white, sparkling stalactites. Some- 
times it appeared to be fifteen or twenty feet high, and at others not 
more than four or five. Several times our torches were extinguished 
by the water dropping from above ; but we had a good supply of fresh 
torches, candles and matches, besides the other things necessary to 
our comfort. 

After travelling under ground for more than an hour, the question 
was proposed, " Whether we had not gone far enough?" "The 
further we went the narrower it became." But all were "for the 
end," which, in less than half an hour, we reached. It was simply 
narrowed down to a small aperture of ten or twelve inches, through 
which the stream of water emptied into a natural basin. I supposed 
the cave to be considerably less than a mile long, but my companions 
believed it to be more than a mile. 

Our curiosity being satisfied, having realized much less of the 
beautiful than we had anticipated, and the air being damp and chill, 
we willingly turned our footsteps towards the entrance. We had seen 
its end, which Mr. N. believed had not been done before, though it 
may have been, as there are no real difficulties in the way. As we 
made our way back, we looked into some short branch passages, where 
we were half-smothered by the bats ; and we gathered some of the 
stalactites, — the petrified drippings which hung like icicles from the 
' roof. Mr. A. fired his pistol inside the cave, and it reverberated with 
a tremendous concussion. One of the Indians had built a fire at the 
mouth of the cave, the smoke of which, blowing in, half-suffocated us 
before we emerged, and, getting into our eyes, almost prevented our 
seeing. We were some alarmed, for, at first, we could not tell how 
far we were from the outlet ; and were heartily relieved in both mind 
and body when, in less than half an hour, we reached it. Having 



184 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

refreshed ourselves with a lunch, we set off at once, and arrived home 
about dark. Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

LETTER. CASINO. SECOND EXCURSION TO A VOLCANO. — INDIAN TOWN. 

TOWN-HALL, OR COUNCIL-HOUSE. INDIAN CEREMONIES. VOLCANO 

VIEW BY NIGHT, ETC. 

LETTER TO A BROTHER. 

Manilla, Philippine Islands, Monday, Jan. 1st, 1849. 

Dear Brother A. : For the present, I will continue to write you 
some of my notings in this quarter of the globe, in journal form. 
As I have not time to write both letters and journals, I presume 
you will excuse it. I have given up my boarding-house at Dona 
Agipita's, and returned to the hotel. I found it was of little advan- 
tage to me, in learning Spanish, to remain there ; although the Doiia 
was very pleasant towards me, yet I saw her seldom ; and, yet 
expecting to stay but a few weeks, I could not make myself contented. 
The rooms were large, airy and clean, with good furniture and waxed 
floors, mosquito-nets, and well-behaved Indian servants, and the 
charges were the same as at the hotel ; but every dish of food was 
strong of garlic, which, to my unaccustomed taste, was a great objec- 
tion. 

A wealthy Chinese merchant, a convert to the Catholic faith, and 
whose house is in sight, has been making merry with' his friends all 
day. Their Chinese music assails our ears at all times of the day and 
night. In the eve went with Mr. N. to the Casino, calling on Serior 
Abeytua on the way. The Casino is a place where Spanish ladies and 
gentlemen once a month hold an assembly. Foreigners here also 
join ; and strangers generally receive invitations to visit them. I was 
kindly presented with a ticket by an American house. It is held 
within the city, in a large hall set apart for the purpose. A fine band 
of music is stationed at one end of the hall. Sometimes they have a 
concert, and sometimes a play or comedy, in which the members take 
part. Usually, although the floor is carpeted, there is, after the first 
part of the evening, waltzing and cotillons. There is another room, 
of the same size, parallel with this, where, in the intervals of dancing, 
those who choose to can promenade. I did not join in the amuse- 
ments, — acting the idle spectator. The governor, a fine-looking 
man, with gray hair, reminded me much of the portraits of Washing- 
ton. He, with his wife and her sister, promenaded up and down the 
rooms for a considerable time, and several very pretty ladies, hand- 
somely dressed, followed in their wake. Dancing continued till paet 
eleven. 



MANILLA. SECOND VOLCANIC EXCURSION. 185 

Tuesday, January 2d. — Mr. A. and I rode out after dinner with 
Mr. Moorhouse, and other English merchants, taking our course 
through different streets, and surveying various portions of the city ; 
and in the eve we took our own carriage, and went, with other friends, 
to a feast. After wandering among the various groups of people there 
assembled, we called at Senor B.'s, where we enjoyed music and waltz- 
ing. One band played in the passage-way of the house ; and, soon 
after, another came and played beneath the windows, — each alter- 
nately with the other. We returned to the feast, where we remained 
an hour, and returned home at eleven. 

Wednesday, January 3d. — I called, to-day, with Mr. N., on a 
French physician, who commenced the practice of medicine here ; but, 
the authorities interfering, he was obliged to abandon it, and opened 
a book-store, in which he has amassed a little fortune, and is about to 
remove with it to his native France. 

Thursday, January 4th. — I called, professionally, to see Dona M., 
having previously made her several visits. We are hardly able to 
converse otherwise than by signs. Her daughter, a pretty young 
lady, came in, followed by a servant with a harp, and regaled us with 
some fine playing. 

Friday, January 5th. — In my visit to Dona M. to-day, we found 
considerable difficulty in communicating ; and, after a half-hour of 
signs and misunderstandings, she sent below to Mr. W., the English 
vice-consul, who came up, and, interpreting, set us aright. She 
expressed her satisfaction for the improvement which she experienced, 
and was in such an overflow of good spirits that she joined her 1 daugh- 
ter, and sang to the harp. 

At the hotel, to-day, we were discussing, with different parties, our 
late volcano excursion ; when, warmed with our old enthusiasm, and for 
the doubts expressed of our first trip, we entered into a league to start 
to-day, and accomplish a second journey there and back, within three 
days. One principal attraction to Mr. A. and myself was to have a 
view of the scene by night. In half an hour our plans were matured. 
We were to take a carriage, travelling all night, with changes of 
horses, to Columbo, in that way avoiding the delays at the lagunas, 
and make the remainder of the route on horseback. A serious obsta- 
cle seemed to be that passports could not be procured under three or 
four days ; but our companions' time was limited, and, as we consid- 
ered ourselves all well-disposed people, we thought we would trust to 
the leniency of the Spanish rulers, and go without ; though W e heard 
that a party we had met at the lagunas had been fined for trans- 
gressing the bounds of their passports, and that the same course was 
to be pursued with some others, — intimations being made that we 
were to be the ones. 

Dinner being over, our carriage was at the door. Our box of pro- 
visions, lantern, blankets, a large coil of rope by which to descend the 
crater, and other things, were packed inside, and four saddles and 
bridles, and a trunk, were fastened on behind. Loario, who had been 
with us before, and an Indian barber, were to accompany us on horse- 
back. Senor Abeytua, the only one of our party who spoke Spanish, 
16* 



186 CHINA AIS'D MANILLA. 

was to be the director of the expedition. Having seen that everything 
was in order, Senor Abeytua, Captain Grey, Mr. Alexander and 
myself, took our seats, squeezing into the smallest possible space 
among our goods. The postilion mounted his left horse, and, with. 
three cheers from our friends of the hotel, we rattled over the flat 
pavements of the court into the street, the two servants on horseback 
following behind. Crossing the river, we passed the large avenue of 
the Calzada into the country. Finding that, by some mistake, we had 
taken the wrong road, we returned to the Calzada, and entered the 
right one. The postilion, according to his directions, drove with 
speed, and we soon came to a town five miles out, where we stopped 
to let the horses breathe, and got out to straighten our limbs, for w r e 
were much cramped up with our baggage. Mr. A. gave some direc- 
tions to the barber servant about looking after the things behind, 
enforcing his injunctions by taking his pistol from his pocket. The 
poor barber thought he was to be immediately shot, and, dropping on 
his knees, begged for his life, crying like a child, and entreated leave 
to return home. He was readily pacified, assurance being given that 
he was not to be hurt. 

We went on to San Pedro Macati. I had endeavored all the way 
to convince my companions that we were on the wrong road ; and 
here we ascertained that this road had been made impassable by the 
late rains, and the bridges washed away. They told us that we must 
return to Manilla and take another road. This all refused to do, but 
determined to keep the carriage as far as we could, and then take such 
conveyances as should offer. We followed the bank of the river a 
short distance, until the road terminated w T ith the water, and we were 
obliged to stop. Fortunately, canoes were to be had ; our baggage 
was transferred to them, the carriage sent back, and we went on. 

Arriving at the head of the lagunas, we changed again for a sailing 
prow. The Indians, as usual, could not see any use in hurrying, and 
it was only by scolding and threatening that they were not two or 
three hours in simply preparing to sail. As it was, we had to pitch 
the things and crew on board, and push the prow from her fasten- 
ings. With a fine breeze, we then skimmed rapidly over the water. 
We were indebted to Senor A. for the luxury of mattresses and pillows, 
which he took without asking from the house of our Indian boatman. 
We partook of a lunch from our provisions, by the light of the lan- 
tern, with good appetites, and lay down on our beds by twos, occu- 
pying all the room the boat could afford, where we talked, laughed 
and joked, till midnight. The deep breathings soon denoted that the 
others were asleep, while I, unable to sleep, lay awake for hours more, 
revolving in my mind how to expedite our affairs after this twenty-five 
i. r thirty miles which we had expected to avoid should be passed over. 

Yours, truly, B. L. B. 

LETTER TO BROTHER J. 

Manilla, January 6lh. 
Dear Brother J. : I will resume to you the description of our 
second trip to the volcano. 



MANILLA. INSTALLING A CAPITAN. 187 

At nine this forenoon we had crossed the lagunas, and landed at 
Columbo. We went at once to the house of the Teni-en-te where we 
were quartered on the previous occasion. The old Indian recollected 
us, and was glad to see us again. As my companions did not like to 
leave without a good breakfast, to sustain themselves under the fatigue 
of a long ride on horseback, we remained and had one provided. 
Leaving the barber in care of the baggage we did not wish to take 
with us, we started under loads of saddles, &c, for the capitan, two 
miles distant. We found the house easily, but no capitan ; the house 
was vacated, and another delay awaited us. We proceeded through, 
the village of bamboo houses, and found them all deserted. Arriving 
at the Catholic church, we discovered the inhabitants all inside. Not 
wishing to disturb them, we drew off to a bamboo structure near by, 
which proved to be the town-house. On inquiry of an Indian guard 
there, we learned that the capitan was in the church ; that it was 
election day, and that a new capitan was being installed in office. 
We therefore waited his appearance. 

The town-house was built entirely of bamboo, one story high, 
reminding one of a large bird-cage. It was divided into three rooms — 
the council-chamber, the public spectators' room, and a prison. This 
last contained eight or ten culprits in chains, with a guard armed with 
a spear stationed over them. 

The spectators' room had a few bamboo benches around the wall, on 
which we reclined, taking all the comfort possible on such hard sticks. 
A flight of steps, half stairs and half ladder, led up from the ground to 
the entrance of the house. The council-room contained only benches 
and a table. 

We waited half an hour, when we saw a swarm of Indian girls and 
women pouring out of the church. All wore white veils of muslin, or 
handkerchiefs of pi-nia, or cotton, on their heads, and their dresses 
were mostly of bright checked calico. One of our companions, full 
of fun and merriment, went out and joined the throng. He took up 
one of the little girls and walked with it in his arms, fondling and 
caressing it, as much to their amusement as to ours. Some of them 
had very pretty features, with jet-black hair ; and nearly all had 
handsome natural forms. 

After the females, the males made their appearance, marching in 
procession, headed by their native band of music, out of the church. 
They stepped slowly, in measured paces, with solemn countenances. 
Our comical companion's attention was now directed towards them. 
He put down the little girl, went back, and joined the two forward 
ones, who proved to be the new capitan and the ex-capitan, and 
marched by their side, keeping step, and making sideway motions with 
his head. We were somewhat fearful they would construe his actions 
as an attempt to ridicule their ceremonies. They at first looked 
as if they did not know how to regard it ; directly their Indian gravity 
relaxed, and they smiled, and, finally laughing, seemed amused with 
his oddities. They wore striped pants, and short white shirts out- 
side, with ornamental figures worked on them. The procession passed 
to the gate of the town-house where we were standing; and halted. 
They looked at us inquiringly for a few moments, as if wondering whaf 



188 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

four Europeans could be doing here. The request for horses, &c, was 
made ; but before attending to this, they had to finish their own 
affairs. The band now played a lively tune, and the chiefs marched 
into the house ; meantime our friend set himself to dancing a jig, which 
ainused them much. The capitans and their principals now engaged 
in some business affairs in the council-room, and we went in and 
looked on. Some papers and documents were read, and some short 
speeches were made. We could not understand what it was about ; 
but the Indian spectators present were evidently much interested, for 
the bamboo floor in the spectators' room began to crack, and give 
way, from the accumulated weight of those coming in. In an hour 
their deliberations were over, and they came out with an air of satis- 
faction on their countenances, indicating that they thought they had 
performed some important business. 

The capitan and his assistants now gave their attention to us, and 
despatched men after horses, to get which required considerable time. 

It was near noon when our little cavalcade of seven galloped out of 
Columbo, more swiftly than usual, hoping to make up for lost time. 
The first part of our way, on leaving the town, led over the miserable 
road Avhich we had so lately travelled in the night. The mud was, if 
possible, deeper than before, and our raw-boned, dwarf-sized ponies 
would frequently sink into the mire, and come to a stop, extricating 
themselves with difficulty, sometimes not till after several trials. We 
had about ten miles of this mud to go through. At one place our 
friend A. came to a halt, his horse sinking in the mud, when, thinking 
to relieve his beast, he jumped off, and sank himself in the mud to his 
chest. We had a hearty laugh at his expense. lie said he consid- 
ered it fortunate that he held on to the reins, as, without this pre- 
caution, he might have passed out of sight. 

We pushed on, as fast as we could urge our horses through such a 
road, across which, much of the way, logs of wood about a foot apart 
were lying. Between these were holes, and the horses' feet would 
sometimes strike on the logs, and again between, stumbling and pitch- 
ing, somewhat to the risk of the rider's neck. 

After the first ten miles, the road became better, and we urged our 
ponies faster, splashing on through mud and water, covering horse and 
rider with it, till we arrived at the house of our particular Indian 
friends, at the place called Tanauan where we changed horses, took 
a lunch, and engaged a prow of an old Indian whom we met here, and 
who lived on the margin of the lake. Our friends treated us very 
hospitably, saying nothing this time about the passports. 

We were soon under way again, the old Indian piloting us. He 
was a large man, and must have weighed two hundred and fifty 
pounds ; yet he galloped as fast as any of us. It came on to rain 
quite hard, and we stopped a few minutes at an Indian house near 
Taal Lake, and the only habitation in that vicinity. Here we asked 
for some water to drink, and they handed us a long bamboo, eight or 
nine feet in length, which stood against the house. This w T as made by 
cutting a bamboo off below a joint where it makes a thin partition 
inside, and breaking out the remaining partitions. 



MANILLA.** — AGAIN AT THE VOLCANO. 189 

" What ! " said the captain, " do you drink out of that big pole ? 
Why, you want one of those Indians to hold one end. I don't believe 
I can manage it, but I rather think I can get the water if it is there." 

He placed it to his lips, and, raising the other end too high, the 
contents came pouring into his face. 

" Thunder and zounds ! " said he, putting down the bamboo, 
" there is water enough there, and I believe I got it all, but none of 
it in my mouth. I had rather put my head in the lake to drink." 

We all drank, — the captain succeeding, after a little practice,— 
and placed the bamboo up against the house, leaving it for further use. 

We followed our Indian leader to a different part of the lake from 
the one Ave before reached. Winding around by the edge of the water 
to where we supposed we were to take the prow, we went on, and on, 
till it seemed as if there was to be no end to the road. More than a 
dozen times I said to myself " That must be the place ; " but on the 
old Indian went, and on we followed. Every turn we made towards 
Taal Lake I thought was the last. Once the road had contracted to 
a narrow path, which I could perceive led directly into the lake. 
" Well, now," said I to myself, " I am not mistaken this time, and 
here is the spot for us to embark ; this is the end of the road, there is 
the water twenty rods before us, and there is the canoe ! " I let my 
horse slacken his pace, to discover where we were to turn, as I saw 
them within a few feet of the water, and thought, " You'll have to 
turn quick, old fellow, or you will be in the lake ! " And sure enough 
into the lake the old Indian dashed, and on dashed Alexander and 
Abeytua. I followed, and Captain Grey dashed on after us, as if 
determined to follow, though we should go to perdition. The water 
was shallow, and we rode galloping near the shore, the horses splash- 
ing a shower of water over us. About two hours' ride brought us to 
the boatman's house, where we could get off our horses ; but it was 
with difficulty that we could move after we were off. 

It was now evening. We crawled into the house, and experienced 
true bliss when we found ourselves stretched on the floor for a little 
repose, while a dozen Indians stood around, gazing at us. Resting for 
ten minutes, we were ready to start ; but the old fellow's prow was 
away, and we had to wait till after nine o'clock in the evening ; when, 
declaring we would wait no longer, we took up with two small canoes. 
After paddling across, and around to the other side of the island, 
landing, and climbing the mountain, at eleven o'clock at night we 
stood on the brink of the crater, looking into its depths below. The 
circular outline seemed smaller and more contracted than in the day- 
time ; and from the centre of the dark abyss poured out and upward 
huge volumes of fire and smoke, apparently not a hundred yards from 
us, though in reality much more. The tire was not so bright as we 
expected, and was only distinctly visible as in convulsive throbs the 
accumulated gas was belched forth from the mouth of the conical 
chimney, when there could be seen a lurid glow, veiled by a body of 
reddened steam and smoke ; but a volcano must be seen to get a just 
appreciation of it, for lifeless words cannot convey a correct idea of 
such a scene. The sulphur lake showed itself like a bed of silver, 



190 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

melted and cooled. The red streaks coursing down the outside of the 
chimney were only to be seen by the reflected light of the fire within ; the 
interior of the crater had a reddish glare on its lower parts and sides, 
which likened it, in imagination, to Hades itself; and the whole pre- 
sented a truly grand yet awful appearance. Seiior A. cautiously ap- 
proached to within a few feet of us, peeped in for a few seconds, and then 
crouched back and beat a hasty retreat, seating himself a few yards 
below us. He said he had seen enough, did not like to remain in 
such a dangerous place, and wished us to go. He thought it very 
strange that we should wish to look more than a minute into such a 
" hellish" scene, telling some of our party that they were fools for 
trusting themselves so near its edge. Finally he said, if we would 
stay in such a horrid place, he would not ; and he left us, making his 
way down the mountain. 

The wind taking different directions, we were frequently obliged to 
change our positions to escape the sulphurous gas, which rose in 
great quantities, and rendered the air almost strangulating. Sometimes 
we were forced to retreat precipitately below the surface outside. 

We had brought a coil of rope for the purpose of making a descent 
in the daytime ; but our several delays had prevented our reaching 
here in season, and the only alternative left us was to make the 
attempt by night. Selecting a place where there was an inclination 
of the walls, the end of the rope was made fast to a lava rock, 
and guarded by Mr. A. Then taking the rope in our hands, Capt. 
G. went ahead, and I followed. We slowly let ourselves down, taking 
care to avoid sharp stones for the rope to grind upon behind us. For 
the first part we descended very comfortably, holding by our feet on 
any roughness which might present, and making short slidings and 
restings, to see where we were to come next. We were hardly out of 
sight of our friend at the top, when we came to a place where we 
could neither see nor feel any foothold ; nor could we, by rattling down 
pebbles, hear them strike anything below to which we might swing 
ourselves : it seemed almost folly to try to go any further. We waited 
to see if " old volcano " would give us a little light ; but he went on 
puffing and blowing with his usual intervals, not caring for us pigmies 
who were trying to scale his sides ; and his lurid glare would not illum- 
ine the black abyss beneath. As neither of us would trust our- 
selves where we could not see any hope of success, we turned our backs 
on invisibility, and, drawing ourselves up, sought visibility at the 
surface, our companion being at his post guarding the rope. 

We were f much disappointed, and I proposed returning to the vil- 
lage, and, sleeping there, make the descent in the morning ; but the 
others thought they must be back at Manilla. Concluding that if we 
could not make the descent inside we could outside, and collecting our 
apparatus, we descended, with the aid of the lantern, to the base of 
the mountain, where we found our friend, Seiior A., rolled up in his 
blanket and quietly sleeping on the ground, which was well warmed 
by the burning fires below. The servants and boatmen also were 
calmly enjoying their sleep. It seemed a pity to disturb them, but a 
few hulloas brought them to their feet. 



MANILLA. SPANISH PRONUNCIATION. 191 

We took the canoes to the village where our horses were, and con- 
tinued on our way. After a fatiguing night's ride, with no particular 
incidents, we arrived, at two p. m., at Columbo, where we stayed till 
near night. Recrossing the lagunas in the prow, in which we had 
no shelter from the damp air and chilly breeze for six uncomfortable 
hours, we procured canoes, glided rapidly down the river, and landed 
at Manilla between three and four in the morning. 

It was not yet light when we arrived, the hotel was shut up, and 
the servants asleep ; and, to disturb no one, we scaled the walls, 
climbing over the parapet on the terrace. Capt. Bridges, who had 
risen early to take the morning air, was sitting here in the veranda in 
a loose dress. We thought he was a ghost ; and he, not expecting us 
for several days yet, on seeing our heads appear above the walls, 
thought we were ghosts ; and so it was a ghostly time all round. 

Yours, &c, B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

VISITS TO FAMILIES OF THE SPANISH. CIGARS AND SMOKING. FEAST 

OF PANDACKAN. INCIDENTAL DESCRIPTIONS. — COUNTRY-SEAT OF DONA 

M , ETC. 

LETTER TO A SISTER. 

Monday, January 8th. 
My dear Sister L. F. : I had nearly made up my mind to leave for 
Hong-Kong with Mr. A. to-morrow ; but, from the solicitations of 
some patients, I have decided to remain for a couple of weeks longer. 
In one of my visits to-day I stopped for a while, practising in the Span- 
ish language with the family. Mr. W., who had interpreted for us, 
came up shortly after we had left, saying that the gentleman who had 
an office underneath " thought there was considerable noise above for 
a physician." We had been engaged in the pronunciation of both 
Spanish and English ; and, in the different trials of English sounds, 
the ladies raised their voices considerably above the natural tones ; 
and, when any amusing mistake was made, it ended in a merry laugh 
all round. Sometimes the Dona, perceiving, as she fancied, where the 
want of success with the younger ladies lay, thought she would try ; 
and, failing in a similar way, excited laughter anew. They wished to 
know how I pronounced my name, as they disagreed among themselves 
about it. I explained, and it was then with difficulty that they could 
pronounce it right, calling it Boul, Bale, and Bal, and anything but 
Ball. They told me, when they had it right, that we pronounced 
differently from what we spelt ; and that, according to my pro- 
nunciation, it ought to be spelt B-o-r-1. 1 could but admit the 
justness of the observation. At my mistakes they did not laugh 



192 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

* 

beyond an occasional smile, which, from their pretty faces, was more 
agreeable tlTan disagreeable. But, to avoid further cause for remarks 
from the room below, my stay was not prolonged. 

In the evening I went with several friends to the feast of Qui-apo, 
and afterwards to Sehor B.'s, where there was music and dancing. I 
had the pleasure of dancing with a Spanish lady who spoke English 
— the only one I have met in Manilla, though I presume there are 
many. There were two bands, one inside and one outside the house, 
besides a piano. The feast of this evening is the ninth and last of the 
new-year's feasts, but probably not the last of the year. 

When I came home I found that a large lizard had taken possession 
of my table, lying quietly on it ; but he quickly vacated it and escaped 
to the walls. They are very numerous, but harmless. Frequently, 
as I sit writing, I see eight or ten of them on the walls of the room ; 
and often,, when I have retired, I amuse myself by watching them as 
they chase each other over the ceiling. 

Wednesday, January 10th. — I have forwarded letters home by Mr. 
Alexander, who leaves for Hong-Kong to-day in a Spanish vessel. 
Several of us went down the harbor and on board to see him off, but, 
the vessel not being ready to sail, we returned ashore. I have had a 
long and pleasant chat with Mr. Balfour, an American, from Charles- 
town, who has been residing here many years. After dinner we rode 
over the Calzada, and then to Senor A.'s, and spent a pleasant evening 
with the ladies in music and dancing. 

Thursday, January 11th. — In one of my visits to-day, the daughter, 
Seiiorita P., a pretty young lady, promised to teach me Spanish, and 
I to reciprocate by teaching her English. How we shall succeed can 
be known, I suppose, only by the progress we make. Towards night 
I rode to the Calzada, calling in and looking at several stores on the 
way, some of which were fine and handsome. Then we went to the 
plaza, or public square within the fortifications, and joined the throng 
of people who were in their carriages, drawn up and listening to the 
military bands which were playing in front of the governor-general's 
palace. 

Friday, January 12th. — Almost every one here smokes cigars, from 
the wealthiest to the poorest, from the little boy to the old man, males 
and females, — cigars of different sizes, strengths and qualities, being 
adapted to the various tastes and means of the consumers. They com- 
mence smoking the first thing in the morning, and it is the last thing 
at night. Every morning, at the hour of rising, which is about sun- 
rise, the servant brings a cup of chocolate with a cigar and a light 
fire, and places them on a little table by the bedside ; if you are not 
awake he calls you, and leaves the room. 

A person without a cigar in his mouth is out of fashion. The little 
Indian boys will run along by the side of carriages, for a considerable 
distance, with burning pieces of rope in their hands, offering a light, 
for which they expect a small coin to be thrown them. They seem to 
take it for granted, when they see a gentleman who is not smoking, 
that it must be from the want of a light, and they hasten up at 
once with the burning ropes, calling, " Fuego? fuego ? " The Spanish 



MANILLA. CIGAR MANUFACTORIES. 193 

ladies, I believe, do not generally smoke ; the more matronly ones I 
occasionally see smoking, but the young ladies never. It seemed strange 
at first to have a Spanish lady offer me a cigar ; and especially when, 
wishing to show particular attention and interest, she would first 
light it, drawing it with her own mouth. To refuse it would be 
considered an offence to their politeness. The Mestizos ladies are to 
be seen in the streets at all times with cigars in their mouths. The 
poorer classes among the Mestizos and Indians smoke cigarettas, 
which are made of tobacco rolled in a husk or leaf; and the other 
classes the best cheroots, or some of the cheaper qualities. The tobacco 
is raised here, and the cheroots are made in the government manufac- 
tories. By a permit from the authorities we visited the one in Ma- 
nilla, where there were seven thousand Mustesoe and Indian girls at 
work. It was quite a curiosity to walk through the different depart- 
ments, and see the various processes. The operatives were ranged in 
rows, seated at low tables, and making a clatter reminding one of a 
factory. The operation of rolling is very quickly done. The girl 
takes between her fingers a little bunch from the prepared heap of 
leaves, places it on the flat wrapper, straightens and rolls it, and then 
pastes the edge and cuts off the ends. The making of the boxes, the 
packing, papering, lettering, &c, is all done here. I did not see any 
opium used, yet I am under the impression that in the cigars of the 
best qualities a little in solution (though a very little, it may be, in 
each cigar) must be intermingled to give the peculiar flavor, and render 
them so fascinating to those who give them the preference above all 
others for smoking. 

Saturday, January 13th. — "With Senor A. and others I attended a 
feast in that part of the city bordering on the bay. It was much like 
all the others — a great crowd of people moving about the streets, 
going in and coming out of houses, with many carriages, &c. In the 
evening I went over to the opposite part of the plaza, where there was 
to be a celebration by the soldiers — the anniversary of some battle or 
massacre. The soldiers paraded in a procession of two lines, each bear- 
ing a lighted candle. They marched without music, with a slow and 
mournful tread, and as they entered the plaza the effect was very 
pretty — two rows of moving lights encircling the square, forming 
angles here and there, and their dark forms and illuminated faces on 
a darker ground-work gave quite an air of solemnity to the scene. 
Making a call on a Spanish family, we received an invitation to attend 
them to-morrow, in the country, to the feast of Pandackan, and to the 
baths. Then, returning to the great feast of the afternoon, we spent 
the remainder of the evening in visiting various families, who made us 
most welcome to their hospitalities and pleasures. 

Sunday, January 14^A. — Senor A. called this morning, at six, for 
us to go to the feast of Pandackan. He went with Mr. N., in his 
carriage ; Captain G. with me, in mine, followed. We started early, 
as it was arranged to meet a party at the bathing-places, and had a 
fine ride in the cool air of the morning five or six miles, through a 
part of the country that we had not before seen. 

These feast-days remind me of our old May-election days in Massa- 

17 



194 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

chusetts. Everybody seems to be in high spirits. The streets out here 
■were thronged with human beings, many of whom were Indians ; and 
every fourth or fifth man we met had a fighting-cock under his arm. 
Cock-fighting is the great amusement, and Sundays and feast-days are 
the principal occasions for it. We saw the amphitheatre, but did not 
think it of sufficient importance to call there. 

The Indians in the morning appear in nice, clean, white, shirt-like 
frocks, worn outside, but by night they are so soiled as to lose their 
attractiveness. These garments are of cotton, cambric, or muslin, 
and wrought with various figures. Taking a canoe, we crossed the 
river to a village a little way up, on the opposite bank. The river 
was filled with canoes, laden with Spaniards, Mestizos, Indians, and 
a sprinkling of Europeans, arriving from different directions, all in 
pursuit, I suppose, of the feast, or the holiday which the feast caused. 

We assembled at the house of an Indian family on the edge of the 
river, where we met our friends of the Spanish family from Manilla. 
At nine we had a breakfast of fried eggs and meat, bread, fruits, 
chocolate, &c, prepared by our Indian host. Soon after, hearing 
music and the firing of guns, we all walked to the church, where the 
procession was just entering for mass. The ima^e of Christ, glittering 
and sparkling with the finery and ornaments of gold and silver with 
which it was enveloped, was carried on a platform supported on the 
shoulders of four men. Eour others held a white canopy on gilded 
sticks over a priest walking behind. The procession was preceded by 
the band, and two rows of men and girls, bearing lighted candles. 
Our stay in the church was only a few minutes, the ceremonies being 
like those we had seen in all Catholic churches. 

At noon, robed in our bathing-dresses, we entered the baths, — a 
large bamboo enclosure, covered, and leading into the river from the 
house. The ladies were already there, enjoying, with merry laughs 
and acclamations, the refresning element. We numbered a party of 
about ten. The weather was very warm, and the cooling water was 
most grateful. The ladies showed themselves to he excellent swim- 
mers, superior, if anything, to the gentlemen. This would seem 
natural, when one considers that it is their custom to bathe every 
day, and often several times a day. After an hour here, _ all 
repaired to their dressing-rooms, and soon appeared in the principal 
room in their usual attire. During the afternoon one of the Spanish 
ladies played and sung to us with the harp. We promenaded the 
streets for an hour or two, and stopped a few minutes at the cock- 
fight, where there seemed to be much excitement among the Indians. 
We saw two fights, and two of the combatants killed. In theevening 
we walked out with the ladies to see the fireworks, but a rain com- 
mencing prevented their taking place. The evening continuing dark 
and rainy, Captain G. and I returned home, leaving our companions 
still remaining there. Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 



MANILLA. LAMP OF THE COUNTRY. 195 



LETTER TO A SISTER. 

Manilla, Monday, January 15th. 

My dear Sister L. : I will continue mj journalizings to you, if you 
will accept them for such as they are, and not such as they might be. 

Towards night Captain G. invited me to take a ride with him ; and 
where did he go, but to the feast of Pandackan ? I thought we had 
finished that yesterday ; but it closes to-night, and we thought we 
would see the last of it. We there met two other parties from our 
hotel, and other acquaintances. I also saw several Spanish families 
which I knew, and went with them to various places. Music, feasting, 
illuminations, dancing, promenading by a great collection of people, 
&c, were the order of the evening. 

Wednesday, January 17th. — Morning and evening, when inside the 
mosquito-net, are the only times we can be really free from the mos- 
quitoes, especially in rainy or cloudy weather. At these times I do 
the most of my reading, writing, and studying. 

In our rides this evening we called with Senor A. on the seiioritas, 
at his house. They were at home, and two hours glided by very 
pleasantly. I talked all the Spanish that I could muster, and they 
inserted what I omitted, which, I presume, was at least two thirds ; 
but they were willing, for the amusement which it afforded, and it 
seemed mutually to be so considered. Late this evening the mosqui- 
toes were quite furious, and they imparted a similar disposition to 
me. As I went to rise quickly from my writing-table, hitting the 
lamp, it was upset, and deluged my journal. I cleaned it up as well 
as possible, but it had saturated the leaves. I remembered the words 
I learned when a little boy, " Let your moderation be known unto all 
men ; " but I thought it would be better known here to myself. These 
lamps are open tumblers, two thirds filled with water, covered with 
cocoa-nut or pea-nut oil on the top. The wick is a small pith from 
some tree, and is held in its place by an iron spiral wire, bent, with 
arms, which hang on the edges of the tumblers. Then, set into a 
plate, it constitutes the lamp. 

Hot weather reigns here, although it is winter. We seek for cool 
places, and no one pretends to go out except in his carriage, and then 
not much in the middle of the day. I break through the rules, and 
go out when I like, with my umbrella. I have a carriage, but I pre- 
fer to walk. Vegetation is green and flourishing the year round ; 
fresh fruits are seen in the market every day ; and lemons, oranges, 
plantains, guavas, cocoa-nuts, &c. The ladies ride in open carriages 
on the Calzada, without anything over their heads but parasols. The 
Mustesoes usually wear a pinia handkerchief instead of a bonnet. 
Children about the streets wear very little clothing, and many nothing 
at all. 

The people of Manilla are extremely free and open-hearted to their 
acquaintances, and they invite strangers with as much cordiality to 
their hospitalities as if they had always known them. To-day, in 
making a visit, I found the family at dinner. I said I would wait in 
the other room. The Doiia urged me strongly to partake with 



196 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

them. On declining, she insisted that I should sit down at the table, 
and then that I should taste from her own spoon or knife of each of 
the many dishes that were served. My perceptions were not so deli- 
cate but I was able to acquiesce. The house was large, well finished 
and furnished, and two stories high. Few buildings, with the excep- 
tion of the public buildings, nunneries, &c, have two stories, on 
account of earthquakes. The rooms are spacious and lofty, the floors 
of hard wood, and, waxed every day, retain a beautiful polish. Under- 
neath is an arched drive-way, from which stairs lead up to the upper 
rooms, and form the entrance to the house. In the rear is the court, 
surrounded by other buildings, — the stable, bath-house, kitchen, 
servants' rooms, &c. Light and airy verandas encircle the house at 
the second story on three sides. The basement, or first story, is occu- 
pied for offices. 

In the evening, with Mr. N., I attended the Casino, which was 
filled to overflowing with the fashion and beauty of Manilla, with a 
few strangers interspersed. After a comedy and a few songs by the 
amateur performers, dancing commenced, which continued till twelve. 
At the close I could not, among the throng of vehicles, find my car- 
riage readily ; and, being afraid the gates of the fortifications would 
be shut, I went without it ; but a Spanish acquaintance saw me, and 
took me home in his — many thanks for his politeness. Half an hour 
afterwards my carriage came in, the coachman telling me he had 
waited till all were gone. 

Sunday, January 2\st. — I rode out with Mr. N. a few miles, and 
passed over the floating bamboo bridge. This is constructed of braided 
strips of bamboo, which bend and creak under the horses' feet and 
the carriage as if we should break through ; but it is considered very 
strong. In the evening we went to the feast of San Sebastian. We 
called on several pleasant Spanish families, and were made most wel- 
come. At one house I met Dona M. and daughters and others, and 
had an agreeable time. The Dona introduced me to her daughter, 
Sehora C, whom I had not before seen. A large and long table was 
loaded with luxuries of meats, wines, cakes, fruits, nuts, chocolate, 
preserves, &c, which were put there not to be looked at, but to be 
eaten ; and all ate as though they were not afraid to eat, and as if 
they came with the intention of eating. I am very sure I did my 
part ; and, with the attentions of the frank and generous people, it 
was not possible for one who entered the house to leave hungry. I 
noticed butter upon the table here, not having seen it but once before 
at any other house. I think the people rarely eat it. While here I 

met Mr. , whom we fell in with at the lagunas, and who gave 

us much information about the volcano. He told us that, since he 
returned, he had been fined fifteen dollars for crossing the limits of 
the province his passport stipulated. We remained about two hours, 
enjoying ourselves every moment. I talked all the Spanish I knew, 
but soon got through, and had to begin over again. There was one 
little girl here who was learning English, and with the two languages 
we managed to get along together quite glibly. 

Saturday, January 27 th. — It seems to be so arranged that when 



MANILLA. A COUNTRY-SEAT. 197 

there is a feast in the city it is confined to a particular district or 
ward, and only that portion is then illuminated for the occasion ; and 
the feast takes the name of the ward, — as San Sebastian, San Miguel, 
&c. After one is over another commences in some other ward, or 
district, and after that another, and so on. Where they end I do not 
know. 

I rode with a party of friends ten or twelve miles, to San Pedro. 
Called there upon the Indian Captain Synod and others, and was 
agreeably entertained with the harps, pianos, &c. 

After dinner Mr. N. called with me at Dona M.'s, and we accom- 
panied the family out to their country-seat, a few miles distant. She 
and her daughter, with two other young ladies, went in their carriage, 
with postilions and footmen, &c, and we in ours. The place was 
very pretty, — a large house, with fine verandas, commanding an 
extensive and interesting view, and surrounded by a garden full of 
plants, flowers, orange and lemon trees, guavas, cocoa-nut, betel-nut, 
&c. The betel-nut tree is much the handsomest, and appears like the 
work of art. A delightful fragrance filled the air. The house stands 
in the centre of the grounds, and is unoccupied except when Doiia M. 
visits it. Convenient bathing-rooms are attached at one side, and the 
whole is enclosed by a high plastered wall of stone. 

I here applied the lotion which they had brought with them to 
the eye of my patient. The guava-tree, from which came the cause 
of the affection, was pointed out to me. A poisonous insect, six 
months since, had flown or fallen into her eye while she was standing 
under the tree, which caused an immediate inflammation, that had 
assumed a chronic form. I examined the leaves and branches of the 
tree, but could discover no small insects there. 

On our return we all went into the San Sebastian church, and 
attended vespers. The people were constantly going in and out, and, 
although very large, the church would contain, at one time, but a 
small proportion of those who frequented it. The floor up to the 
altar was filled with kneeling devotees. The greater part were ladies, 
and the beautiful soft pinia veils of white, contrasting with their 
rich black hair and brunette faces, gave them an exceedingly fasci- 
nating appearance. Yours, &c, 

17* 



198 CHINA AND MANILLA. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

SAYAGES AT THE THEATRE. MARRIAGES. DEPARTURE FROM MANILLA, 

ETC. 

LETTER TO SISTER-IN-LAW. 

Manilla, January 28th. 
My dear Sister A. : In my visit to the dona, this forenoon, I 
found only herself, the family having gone to mass at the church. 
When they returned, each one entering the room advanced and took 
her hand, kissing the back of it. In about a half an hour they went 
out again, each performing the same ceremony before leaving. I pre- 
sumed it to be a form of salutation, of affection and respect, from the 
younger members towards the oldest, or head of the family. 

Monday, January 29th. — I am often asked why I do not go to the 
theatre oftener, and why I refuse such invitations. I answer that I 
am not fond of it except as an occasional thing. It is dull to sit and 
look on without understanding the language well enough to be amused 
by the plays ; but this evening there was a new attraction, and I was 
induced to join a party of friends, and go. A party of savages, who 
dwell in the most mountainous parts of the interior of the island, were 
to appear. They were all chiefs, — a deputation of forty from their 
tribes, which the Spaniards had never been able to subdue, on ac- 
count of the difficulties of access to them. Being tired of constant 
warfare, they had come down to Manilla, and voluntarily delivered 
themselves up. They have been treated very kindly by the authori- 
ties, who have taken pains to show them their arsenals, fortifications, 
guns and weapons, &c, that they might be impressed with their 
superior power ; and, at the request of the authorities, they consented 
to show themselves at the theatre. 

As they came on the stage in a state of almost nudity, one would 
not have to be told that they were savages. They were the largest 
and fiercest specimens of the human race I have ever seen. They were 
tall, straight, very broad across the shoulders, with full, expanding 
chests, large frames, with well-developed muscles, and very symmetrical 
forms. They performed several of their dances, which were anything 
but dances ; leaping and hopping, with violent gestures, and wild 
contortions of the face. They, however, displayed great muscular 
power and energy. Their color was nearly black, — and their hair 
black, a medium between the curly of the negro and straight hair of 
the Indian. 

Tuesday, January 2>Qth. — To-day we have witnessed a review 
of several thousand Spanish and Indian troops. In the evening, Mr. 
N. and I called at* Doha M.'s, listening to fine music. Mr. N. 
examined the heads of the compauy phrenologically, which created 



MANILLA. EARLY MARRIAGE. 199 

much amusement. I returned home, and read within my mosquito- 
net till twelve ; and then, pushing the lamp away from the curtains, 
watched the darting lizards on the walls until I fell asleep. 

Friday, February 2d. — With several friends, I went into the 
country, to the feast of San Pedro Macate. We had a delightful 
ride. The illuminations, processions, feastings, music, dancing, &c, 
were like all the others. 

For variety, a large paper balloon was made to ascend by combusti- 
ble materials fastened underneath. The amusements closed with fire- 
works in the plaza, the last of which represented an immense bull 
galloping back and forth, spouting fire from his nostrils, and his 
whole body streaming with fire. 

Saturday, February Zd. — Dona M. took me with her family this 
evening to visit her son-in-law, Col. C, and wife, who live in that 
part of the city within the fortifications. The colonel, a very amiable 
gentleman, did his best to make me speak Spanish, but I was too dull 
of comprehension to make much headway. On our return we called 
on Seiior B., and it was a great luxury to speak English with him. 
He had lived in Calcutta, and spoke English perfectly. 

The ladies here marry very young, sixteen to twenty being the 
common age, and often fifteen : some marry at fourteen, occasionally 
one at thirteen, and in rare instances they marry at twelve ; but these, 
I believe, are mostly among the Indians. A lady of my acquaintance 
has two daughters, one thirteen, and the other fifteen, and sheas not yet 
twenty-nine. The daughter of thirteen, I am told, is already engaged. 
People arrive at maturity in these tropical climates much sooner than 
with us. 

The laws respecting marriage differ somewhat from ours. The 
ceremony must be performed by a Catholic priest. If done by a Prot- 
estant, it is considered null. Before a Protestant gentleman can marry 
a Catholic lady, he must take some vows, or go through some forms 
of the Catholic religion. In such cases, they are married first by the 
Catholic priest, and then by the Protestant clergyman. But the 
Protestant form is not permitted here, and after the Catholic marriage 
the parties go on board a foreign man-of-war and are married by the 
chaplain ; or, if there is no vessel or Protestant clergyman, they go 
to Hong-Kong, or some other place where Protestantism is tolerated. 

Sunday, February Ath. — I rode with Mr. N. into the country 
towards Fonda. Mr. N. had late English papers, in which was an 
account and drawing of the sea-serpent, as seen by the officers and 
crew of H. B. M. ship " Daedalus." We discussed the subject until 
the bad state of the roads compelled us to turn round, in doing which 
the coachman nearly tipped us off backwards over a bank, and the 
sea-serpent story was driven out of our minds. It rained most of the 
time (it being the rainy season here), which did not add to our pleas- 
ure ; but the air was much cooled and purified by it. 

Monday, February 5th. — To-day I had a pleasant interview with a 
Roman Catholic priest, who has been living at the hotel for a week or 
two past. He has a fund of knowledge on almost every subject, and I 
have had many interesting chats and discussions with him. He has 



200 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

travelled a great deal as a missionary, speaks six or seven languages, 
and, as a man of the world, has all the angular prejudices of home or 
localism rubbed off. He rode out with me this afternoon to the Cal- 
cada, and afterwards showed me over the Roman Catholic seminary. 
We discussed Catholicism, republicanism, &c, freely; and, like all 
those endless subjects, left off about where we began. He took me to 
visit a brother priest, whom he wished me to see professionally, — of 
course gratuitously, — in which I was very willing to comply. He 
has declined an offer of the president of the seminary here for the 
education of priests, preferring to always remain in the capacity of 
missionary. He is going to California, where he wishes me to accom- 
pany him. 

The seminary which we visited is very large, extending over an area 
of more than two acres. It comprises the unadorned and almost 
unfurnished rooms of the padres, gloomy cells of the student-priests, a 
fine cathedral, and soldiers' barracks. The building reminded me of 
ancient convents of which I had read, — long halls, winding-stairs, 
rows of rooms, all in solid brick and stone, dark, damp, and cheerless. 

Saturday, February 17th. — I rode into the city after breakfast, and 
visited with Seiior Philippi the college or convent of St. Dominique. 
In our ride after dinner on the Calzada I had a chat with Mr. N. 
upon cocoa-nut plantations. Great profits are said to be realized by 
those obtaining grants of land from the government, and planting 
cocoa-nut trees for the manufacture of the cocoa-nut oil. 

At Dona M.'s this eve I met several senoritas, and enjoyed a musi- 
cal treat, accompanying with my flute to some of the pieces on the 
harp and piano. I met Captain Codman at the hotel, who invited me 
to make a trip with him next week in his vessel, the " Vandalia," to 
Hong-Kong. I may accept of his politeness. Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 

LETTER TO MOTHER. 

Manilla, Philippine Islands, February 20th. 

Mr dear Mother : It is more than nine months since I have had a 
word from you, — the longest time that I have been away without 
some intelligence from that endeared place, " home." I think there 
must be letters on the way, which, perhaps, have been delayed. 
When I do hear, I shall appreciate them all the more. 

You can easily judge what the weather is here, when I tell you that 
I have worn none but thin clothing this winter. I ought not to call 
it winter in Manilla, though it is the winter corresponding to yours. 
White pants, white vest, socks, shirt, gloves, spencer, are worn and 
have to be changed every day. Black shoes and a black hat compose 
the two extremes, and the remainder of our dress. 

I have been to Mr. W.'s and had some daguerreotypes taken, and 
exchanged with friends. So you see that in Manilla one can have his 
likeness taken, and by an American, and done as well as in America. 
Mr. W. has been here, connected with a mercantile house, a number 
of years ; and occasionally gives his attention to this art, much to the 
accommodation of his friends. I am now making preparations to leave 



DEPARTURE FROM MANILLA. 201 

on Saturday next, with Capt. Codman, who is from Dorchester, Mass., 
for Hong-Kong. 

Saturday, February 2ith. — I have been busy all day for the departure 
this evening. I had my baggage taken to the custom-house and 
cleared, made several calls on friends, and succeeded in getting round 
to dine at Dona M.'s at four p. m., an hour after the appointed 
time. There I met Senor 0., and several young ladies. We dined 
sumptuously. I was surprised at the variety of meats, pastry, wines, 
preserves, fruits, etc. Only to taste of each, such was their mul- 
tiplicity, would have made a sufficient repast ; but one must eat as 
well as taste. In the evening we had music from the harp, with an 
occasional note from the flute, and singing. I enjoyed the occasion, 
and, delaying the hour as long as possible, took leave at nine with 
many sincere pangs of regret, but with a hope that it was not yet my 
last interview with them. I waited for Capt. C. at the hotel until past 
twelve at night ; but something prevented his being here, and I retired 
to my room for one night more in Manilla. 

Off the coast of Luzon, February, 1849. 

Sunday, February 25th. — This morning early I hurried off in a 
canoe on board the vessel, Mr. N. accompanying me. The Spanish 
gun-boat lay a little way from us, keeping a watch, according to their 
custom, on the vessel ; and we were obliged to approach it before 
nearing our vessel. At one p. m. we sailed down the bay, passed Cor- 
rigedor Island, and then stood out to sea. This evening we are in sight 
of the coast of Luzon, the wind is light, and the " Vandalia " moves 
along very quietly ; but all the old associations connected with leaving 
and being at sea are strongly fastened on me. The captain and all have 
retired, excepting the regular watch and myself, and I am sitting and 
musing alone. 

I cannot help thinking of the kind-hearted, hospitable people, from 
the chief magistrate down to the thoughtless though happy Indians, 
whom I am leaving behind. The friendship, society and hospitality, 
of many of them, I have enjoyed with real satisfaction. And among 
them are the Danish Consul, Mr. K.'s family, consisting now of sev- 
eral brothers and sisters, all living at their house in harmonious con- 
cord. They speak so many languages, and with such fluency and cor- 
rectness, that I should hardly have known what nation to call them, 
and was always disposed to believe the language they happened to be 
speaking their own native tongue. I have seen them conduct a con- 
versation in five or six different languages at the same time — to one 
English, to another Danish, to another French, Spanish, German, &c. 
And what seemed remarkable was, that they could speak and change 
from one language to another with ease and facility. Their accom- 
plishments in music, &c, could not be much less. I have spent many 
agreeable and home-like hours in their society, eaten and drank at 
their table, listened to their sensible words, and been cheered by the 
music of their instruments and voices. 

We passed the " Amistead," a Spanish vessel bound into Manilla 
from Hong-Kong. Captain C. attempted to speak her, but she did 



202 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

not understand, or did not wish, to pay any attention to us, and kept 
on her way. 

Monday, February 26th. — This evening we are nearly becalmed, 
and have been nearly the whole day ; but now, at eight o'clock, our 
sails fill with a moderate breeze from the land. 

Tuesday, February 21th. — I had a fine cool berth to sleep in last 
night ; but if a person feels unwell it is hard to sleep anywhere. I 
lay the whole night dreaming, awaking every half-hour only to change 
my position, and return to partial sleep again. I find my thoughts 
many times a day turning back to Manilla, somewhat as they did to 
Boston when leaving for the first time ; and they traverse in a moment 
of time to all the places and persons of my acquaintance. It seems 
almost like leaving home to leave Manilla. 

We are now standing out to sea, leaving the land behind us, with 
the wind from the wrong quarter. A small vessel crossed our bows 
this evening in just time to clear herself. Had we come in contact, 
we should probably have sunk her, or been sunk, either of which 
would have been sufficiently unfortunate. 

Wednesday, February 28th. — Last evening from eleven to twelve I 
promenaded the deck alone. Falling into a thoughtful mood, I paced 
back and forth almost unconsciously. The moon had sunk below the 
horizon, and the stars were shedding a bright light, as if to make good 
her place. All around was lulled to solemn stillness, except now and 
then the dull splash of a wave against the sides of the vessel. I seemed 
alone, the only living thing on board, and as if floating at the mercy 
of the wind and sea. Although my body was here, my mind was at 
home among the friends nearest to my heart ; and I could see them in 
their different places, as if from some point of observation, and all 
comprehended at a glance. We are now out of sight of land, and I 
am again, for the third time, in the China Sea. The weather is very 
mild, and most agreeable. 

With much affection, your son, 

B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

PASSAGE FROM MANILLA TO HONG-KONG. LETTERS FROM HOME. CHI- 
NESE SERVANTS. — THEIR CHEATING, ETC. CHINESE PIRATES. OPEN- 
ING OF THE CITY GATES. 

Thursday, March 1st. — We are having very light winds, but 
there is a strong current which enables us to make a little headway. 
Yesterday we made two hundred miles, which is not a bad day's work 
for a sailing vessel. But we all feel more interested in the progress 



PASSAGE FROM MANILLA TO HONG-KONG. 203 

of this voyage, on account of a bet pending between our vessel, the 
" Vandalia," and a Spanish one, which left some days since. The 
vessel arriving at Hong-Kong in the shortest time wins the bet of 
fifty dollars, the time being reckoned from the hour of the vessel's 
sailing to the dropping of the anchor. 

The wind freshens this evening, and produces a motion that is any- 
thing but agreeable ; but I am willing to endure it while there is 
confident expectation of beating our competitor. The captain and 
Mr. Farnum have full conviction that we shall beat, and I remarked 
to him that probably the Spanish captain was equally as sure that 
he should ; which it will be, remains to be seen. 

Friday, March 2d. — This evening I had with the captain a very 
agreeable conversation about home, and friends there. We found 
that many of them were known to us both, and the evening passed 
off with much enjoyment. Last night the captain was quite sick for 
a while, but this evening he is quite well again. 

Saturday, March 3d. — All the past night we have been going, as 
they say, " at a fearful rate," " like the wind," rolling and pitching 
" quantum sufficit." To-day the wind is strong and violent, and we 
tear along at an unusually rapid rate. The vessel seems almost to 
skip from sea to sea, and often her white sails go down and touch the 
rising water on each side. 

Toward night we came near the land, but, being unable to see or 
make out the passage or entrance to the harbor, we " hove to," and 
waited for a pilot, with the anchors ready to let go. I was fearful 
that a pilot's boat would not venture out in this weather, and that 
we might have to stay all night, and by that means get beaten by 
our Spanish brother, who was probably safe in the harbor. In the 
course of two or three hours a Chinese boat ventured from its con- 
cealment, and was seen directing its course to us. We several times 
expected to see it turn back, but on it came, buffeting the water and 
spray that broke over it, tacking both ways until she reached us, and 
the pilot came on board. The bargain was soon arranged, which it 
is very necessary to do beforehand in dealing with the Chinese. It 
saves much disagreeable dispute, time, and exorbitant charges. The 
pilot took us very directly into the harbor, and we came to anchor 
before the town of Hong-Kong at half-past eight o'clock. 

Hong-Kong, Sunday, March ±th. — Captain C. and I went ashore, 
and breakfasted with Mr. Drinker at Messrs. R. J). & Co.'s. I met 
a number of the officers of the " Preble " in the evening, with many 



204 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

of whom I enjoyed conversation. I was here shown the curiosity of 
twelve hundred dollars in gold-dust, so called, though consisting of 
gold pieces or fragments. Wonderful stories are told about the 
California gold, and incredulously listened to here. 

At evening I returned on board with the captain, and passed the 
night. The weather seems cold compared with that of Manilla, and 
is much like our March in New England, with the cold east winds. 

I found to-day, at Mr. D.'s office, a large package of letters and 
papers, which was not seen yesterday. 

Monday, March 5th. — I breakfasted on board with Captain C. 
The captain of the Spanish vessel came on board to breakfast, and 
acknowledged that our vessel had beaten his ship. He had been 
twelve days out, and we less than seven. 

I called with Captain C. at Mr. Bush, the consul's, and at Mr. 
R.'s, this eve, where I met Rev. Mr. Dean, Rev. Mr. Loomis, Lieut. 
Burt, and Dr. Lober. I took up my residence at Messrs. R. D. & 
Co.'s. Everybody is engaged in talking of California. 

LETTER TO MOTHER. 

Hong-Kong, China, March. 
My dear Mother: I arrived here by the ship " Vandalia" the 
3d inst., at evening. I could not wait till daylight to go ashore, for 
my mind was on the letters, should there be any, from home. Two 
officers, calling on board on their way from the American man-of-war 
" Preble," offered to set us ashore ; which invitation I very readily 
accepted, and soon had in my hands some letters which were waiting 
for me. Several of them were notes from persons about here in 
Hong-Kong, &c. ; but I was greatly rejoiced to see one which the 
numerous postmarks on it indicated had come over land, and must 
be from some of you. In a moment after, I saw A. before me in that 
well-known hand- writing. Immediately I was in the midst of you 
all, transported from China to America in a second of time. I could 
see father and mother, brothers and sisters, friends and relatives, 
all at their respective places. Boston, Northboro, Quincy, Medford, 
and all the towns in which I was acquainted, were crowded at once 
before me, without any change. I returned on board the ship to have 
a quiet read. The next day I discovered another package, which had 
been forwarded from Shanghae by Mrs. B. to Hong-Kong. It had 
gone there by mistake, and again had returned. I looked over a pile 
of papers till I came to some letters. "And who are all these for ? " 
was the mental inquiry. I looked them all over, and, to my great 
surprise, found my name on every one. I could not believe that 
they were all for me, and looked them over again. " Well," I 
thought, " I did not expect to find such a treasure in a Chinese des- 



CHINESE SERVANTS. 205 

ert. This is like the traveller and the oasis in a barren waste. He 
did, at last, even in the great Sahara, find water ' to moisten his 
parched lips, and cool his feverish tongue.' And I, at last, have 
found in Ciiina the so-much-desired draught to quench my burning 
thirst for news from home ; and I have a pretty good day's work 
before me." I breakfasted with the captain on shore, and after that 
commenced breaking the seals, and read till time for church ; after 
the service resuming the reading, and finished before night the 
moderate number of thirty letters. I was agreeably surprised to find 
letters from others than the family, — Dr. E. R. IS. and Mr. N. A., 
&c. 

Three days after this, there came still another package, by the 
" Ariel." So that in the space of a few days I have had a very- 
bountiful supply, both written and printed, and I denied myself 
any indulgence until I had consumed the whole. 

I should have liked much to have seen you when I sailed from 
Boston, and given you an affectionate son's " good-by ; " but it was 
not to be. Mrs. G. was nearly right when she said to you that in 
China the servants put one to bed, take him up in the morning, lay 
him on the floor, wash, dress and comb him, &c. There is here very 
little waiting on one's self. Custom obliges every foreigner living 
here to have a servant as much as to have a room. I am becoming 
more reconciled to it, and they follow me up pretty closely. They 
are all called boys, if forty years old ; and it is, 

" Boy, bring me the paper," — " Boy, get me a glass of water," 

— " Boy, bring me a cup of coffee," &c. 
Or rather, it is, in the Anglo-Chinese, 

" Boy, go catchee that paper he make a-read-pigeon " (that is, 
not a blank or sheet of writing-paper, but one that is to be read, — 
a newspaper) ; — "Boy, go catchee mye glashe water," — "Boy, 
bring mye coffee," &c. 

I do not much fancy one of this celestial race, as sometimes called, 

— a heathen Chinaman, with his long head, long face and distorted 
features, long arms, hands and finger-nails, long, kink body shrouded 
in a long white or blue frock, long tail or queue, long neck pitching 
angularly forward, and head thrown backward, and the long strides 
of his long, clumsy legs, — moping along after me. There is some- 
thing so disagreeable about their countenance and in their senseless 
expression, — like human faces carved out of pine boards, — that I 
do not like to have them in such close communication as their duties 
impose on them, namely, to take off my shoes, stockings and pants ; 
to hand me the different articles of the toilet, and to hold one thing 
while I put on another. Helpless beings they must consider us ! I 
prefer to wait on myself a little longer ; and, when my " boy " comes 
in while I am dressing, and stands gaping at me, I take the liberty 
of sending him out. At the table each one is obliged to have his own 
boy to stand behind his chair and wait on him. *He watches while 
you eat, passing to you one dish after the other, and endeavors to 
anticipate your wants. The boy I had before I went to Manilla was 
a pretty good one, and seemed somewhat attached to me. His duties 

18 



206 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

were light, occupying hini not more than two or three hours in a 
day, which I am inclined to believe was the principal cause of his 
attachment. He came to me as soon as I returned, and wished me 
to take him back again ; but, as he was engaged in a family, I did 
not wish to interfere, and refused him. The one that I now have I 
do not like as well, though I cannot say how he will turn out. 
When I look at him, which is as seldom as possible, he reminds me 
of a tall green cornstalk. 

The servants live mostly on boiled rice and vegetables, some meat, 
and some fish. They are supposed to buy their own provisions ; but 
it is pretty evident that, when they buy for their masters, they are 
careful to know that there is enough for themselves also. It is 
amusing to look at the Chinese servants when they take their chow- 
chow (food) in the little open court by themselves. I have often 
looked down from a window above, and seen from twelve to twenty 
sitting on stools around their circular tables, all engaged with a true 
devotion to the cause such as is rarely to be noticed elsewhere. They 
are waited on by servants to themselves ; and whether there are ser- 
vants to these servants' servants, I do not know ; but I think that as 
soon as the dishes are served they sit down and eat all together. 
Their bowls are filled with boiled rice, and set before each one, and a 
plate of vegetables, and one of fish or meat, cut in small mouth fuls, 
are in the middle, within reach of all. Almost simultaneously 
they insert their chopsticks into their rice, and, all raising their 
bowls to their chins, they bear down the chopsticks over the edges of 
the bowls, and, with rapid motions, pitch the rice into their mouths. 
This they continue, their cheeks on both sides expanding as they 
crowd the rice into their mouths, until their enlarged faces appear to 
have reached their greatest tension, when, with their heads raised a 
little upward, their bowls lowered in one hand, and chopsticks rest- 
ing upon the table in the other, they commence masticating with 
slow evolutions. One almost expects to see them choke, and snap 
their heads, like hens with their dough ; but a few circlings of their 
chin outward and gapings of the mouth enable them to swallow 
after a while, which they continue until their mouths are emptied, 
when they commence filling up again ; and, if the observer notices, 
he will perceive their chopsticks gliding out now and then into the 
vegetables, or meat-dish, and as rapidly return to the bowl again. 
With these changes several bowls of rice are emptied, when, with a 
little fruit and cups of tea, their meal ends. Sometimes they eat 
curry and rice with their other food, for variety. The impression one 
receives while looking on such a table is, that each one is trying to 
eat faster than the others. The Chinese are great cheats, the whole 
of them, I believe. 

Say to James, who wanted me to send him some of the Chinese 
cattle, that they are not superior to the fine cattle of England and 
America. They are generally large, but ill formed, like their mas- 
ters ; and the horses are miserably small. The Chinese have no 
milking cows, but goats are used instead, though the Chinese them- 



HONG-KONG. SINGULAR ACCIDENT. SEDAN-CHAIR. 207 

selves eat neither milk, butter, or cheese. The Shanghae sheep and 
fowls only are considered finer than ours. 

Will E. say to Dr. B. that I am right side up yet, and not on my 
head, as he would have it ; and that if one of us is on our head, I am 
sure it is not me. I will make the great stamp that he proposes ; and, 
on the fourth of July next, if he listens, precisely at twelve o'clock, 
mid-day, he can hear it on the other side. He may at first think it to 
be thunder or an earthquake, but, if it is generally noticed, he will be 
able to explain the phenomenon. Do not be afraid of my falling in 
love with the " little feet " and " long hair " of the Chinese ladies. 
There is very little attraction about them for me, though they are 
superior to the men in every respect, especially in good looks. 

I have to submit to many things that are nut agreeable ; but that is 
the case everywhere, though perhaps more here than in many other 
places. I do not like the scoffs, the self-conceit and arrogance, of the 
Chinese. Every act and look of theirs betrays their supposed superi- 
ority over Europeans. This sometimes stirs a rankling sensation within, 
particularly when it comes from some low, miserable cooly ; but it is 
better not to notice them. " There is no place like home." Good- 
night — in return for yours. Affectionately, yours, 

B. L. B. 

Wednesday, March 7 th. — I have been quite unwell to-day, mostly 
from dyspepsia ; but I can take care of myself. The weather is cold 
here now, though I am told that the weather has been hot through 
the w r inter. 

Thursday, March 8th. — I found pleasant rooms on the main street 
at Mr. Markwick's house, with a furnished parlor, for which I am to 
pay twenty-five dollars per month. My meals I shall continue to take 
with Mr. D., as usual. 

Sunday, March 11th. — Dined and spent the evening with Mr. B., 
the United States Consul. Met there Capt. Codman, Mr. Anthon, Mr. 
Dana, and other Americans. After tea in the evening we enjoyed 
New England singing, Mrs. B. presiding at the piano. The music 
was very good, and I was agreeably reminded of our pleasant Sunday 
evening gatherings at home. 

Yesterday Mr. F. met with a severe and rare accident. While rid- 
ing horseback, the horse threw his head up and struck Mr. F. in his 
face, loosening and breaking some of his teeth. I replaced them, 
secured them with ligatures, and made some applications of astrin- 
gents, &c. 

On account of the rain, Mr. B. sent his sedan-chair and coolies to 
take me home. I had never been in one, and thought I never would 
if I could avoid it. I did not fancy being carried by human beings so 



208 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

much like slaves. But, preferring not to get wet or muddy, nor to 
refuse Mr. B.'s politeness, I accepted, and took the chair for once. 

One cooly went before and the other behind, and I went swinging, 
with a kind of jerking, rising and falling, between them. The sensa- 
tion was disagreeable, but not uncomfortable; yet they carried me 
safely, and set me down at my door. 

Tuesday, March 12>th. — Went on board the " Vandalia " to see 
her off for Manilla, Capt.C. sailing to-day. I had half a mind to 
accept his invitation to go with him, but concluded I was not yet 
ready. Mr. J. Kierulf and Mr. Dana were passengers. 

Thursday, March 15th. — At six this p. m. I dined with Mr. Mark- 
wick ; for which I had only to step from my room to his. He is the 
government auctioneer here, and lives alone in his bachelor glory, with 
only his servants around him. There were several of his friends present, 
and a finer spread table I have not seen in this country. I remarked 
this more particularly for the reason that he is a man of so little show 
and pretension. The dishes were numerous, with a profusion of meats 
and viands, and various wines ; and the silver plate was massive and 
handsomely wrought. Not feeling very well, I soon excused myself, 
and retired to my own room. 

Saturday, March 11th. — The weather is cold and disagreeable. Mr. 
M. sold, by order of the police, the effects belonging to the notorious 
murderer and pirate Chui-a-poo. I bought the earrings and anklets 
belonging to his wife, and some other things, enclosed them in one of 
the handbills, and added them to my stock of curiosities to send home, 
— a curious fancy of mine for such mementoes. 

Mr. M. calls frequently in my room, and is very kind, showing me 
many attentions which I could not expect of him. 

Everybody is talking of California, and often one may hear, among 
the Chinese, " Kalyporny," beginning or ending their sentences. 
Some talk confidently of making two hundred per cent, on goods sent 
there. I am myself a little inclined to go, but shall consider it first. 
Sunday, March 18th. — Dr. Burt, from the "Preble," dining at 
Mr. D.'s to-day, stated that one of their boats was attacked by 
Chinese pirates, last night, while it was on the way to Macao, where 
two sick men were being conveyed. All who were in the boat jumped 
overboard and saved themselves ; but the guns, cutlasses, and other 
things, were seized by the pirates. This evening an armed boat has 
gone in pursuit. 

There is a report here that four men have been murdered by the 



HONG-KONG. A WOULD-BE EXTORTIONER. 



209 



Chinese at TVharnpoa, and that two others are missing. The steamer 
" Medea," with English troops on board, has gone up there to investi- 
gate the affair. The Chinese forts all the way up the river are in a state 
of activity, and the soldiers being exercised every day at the guns, in 
anticipation that the English may attempt to force the opening of 
the gates of Canton, the sixth of April next. 

This morning I called at the printer's office to get a newspaper, 
and the Chinese shroff, in making the change, undertook to cheat 
me in several different ways. When I perceived his object, I deter- 
mined that he should not do it. I gave him a Spanish dollar to take 
out one quarter for the paper. He took the dollar and went into another 
room for the change, returning with two half-dollars. Finding that 
I would not give him one of them, as is sometimes done to avoid delay, 
he took it and went across the street to get it changed. As he was 
gone a long time (very likely was waiting for me to go without it), I 
started after him, and met him. He said he could not get the half- 
dollar changed. " Very well," said I, " as I live but a few steps from 
here, I will get 'the change, and call in and pay it in the course of the 
day. He then thought he could get it changed at another place. I 
consented, and he went and returned with the change. I expected he 
would make short change by a few cents, and watched to see how he 
would manage it, expecting he would give me a string of his copper 
cash for a part of it ; but it was all silver, — one doubtful quarter, and 
two worn ten-cent pieces. I paid him the two small pieces, when he 
asked me for the half-dollar of his money. He looked so very plau- 
sible, that, for the moment, I began to doubt, and felt in all my pock- 
ets to see if I had the two. Finding but one, I recollected that he took 
one of mine, and told him so. " 0, no ! " said he ; " my money! 
my money! " He continued to persist, and had I happened to have 
had other half-dollars he would have succeeded ; for, if at all doubtful, 
I should have paid it to him. 

Wednesday , March 21st. — There is a report that the " post-boat " 
which carries the mails to Canton was attacked during last night by 
pirates, and robbed, and that some of the boatmen were killed or 
drowned. 

I have a new boy — a Chinese pagan, who has come to-day from 
Macao to enter into my service. He is a green, country-looking genius, 
and has nothing prepossessing in his appearance. 

I met to-day with Capt. Patterson, who is originally from Northboro. 
I had a long and social chat with him on home affairs. To see some 
18* 



210 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

one from my native town is next to being there in person, and brings 
to mind many pleasant reminiscences. 

Saturday, March 24//L — Had a pleasant interview with Mr. Mc- 
Kee, a merchant at the Sandwich Islands. He was formerly master 
of a vessel from Nantucket. Cruising at one time about the islands, 
his black steward made an unprovoked attack on him in the night, 
when he was asleep in his berth, and gave him severe blows from a 
hatchet on his face and head. The steward then ran on deck, dis- 
charged two pistols at the mate, and, jumping overboard, was 
drowned. The mate was uninjured, but Mr. McKee was so disabled, 
one side of the face being paralyzed, that he was laid up for a consid- 
erable time, and afterwards took up his residence at the islands. No 
cause could be assigned for the desperate assault of the steward. 

LETTER TO BROTHER A. 

Hong-Kong, Thursday, March 22th, 
Dear Brother A. : ###**#* 

Tell Mrs. C. that every Sunday I think of her, especially as I read 
her papers, and realize the difference in church affairs out here. 
When I return I shall appreciate the churches in America more 
than ever. On several Sunday mornings, before I was fairly awake, 
I have thought, " Well, I must hasten up, dress, take a little walk, 
go up to the Winthrop to breakfast, read the papers, &c, and call at 
Mrs. C.'s at half-past ten to go to church with her, and then at noon 
go to Mr. M.'s to dine." But when my calculations were made, a 
sudden move to put them into effect would bring to recollection my 
position, and I would think, " Well, there is no getting up to H. -street, 
to D. -street, nor to any other street in Boston, to-day or evening; 
and I may as well content myself, and rest again." 

To live" in China, compared with America, is like being shut up in 
a convent. One is almost entirely separated from the civilized world. 
The Chinese call us barbarians ; but we call them barbarians and 
heathen. They are true heathen, for they w r orship the " blocks of 
wood and stone." It is almost provoking to witness such foolish- 
nass, Bach superstitious nonsense, as their idolatry ; to see them, pay 
such profound adoration to a senseless idol; chin-chin their god, 
that he will not have a fire this year to consume their houses ; burn 
Josh-sticks and Josh-paper for a prosperous journey, voyage, or trade ; 
kneel before a carved image, bowling this way and that, kissing the 
ground, supplicating the god to befriend them, to give them a favor- 
able wind, and to make plenty of business for them, &c. &c. 

The " Ariel " remained here but a short time, and is noAV at 
Whampoa, from whence she leaves in a few days for the United 
States. I should send some little articles home by he^, but am fear- 
ful to send them up to Whampoa, on account oi the pirates. AU 



HONG-KONG. PIRATES. 211 

about Hong-Kong and the islands here, and through the Canton 
river, there swarm great numbers of Chinese pirates, who get their 
living by robbing boats, and occasionally fishing a little. These 
places, and many others on the coast, are completely infested by 
them. Every day or two news comes that a certain boat was attacked, 
and that certain persons were killed, wounded, or drowned. Their 
aim does not seem to be to take life, but to plunder ; though they do 
not respect life when they cannot succeed in their intentions by other 
means ; usually, when any resistance is made, more or less lives an- 
lost, Chinese as often as Europeans. The Chinese often give up to 
these pirates, without a word of opposition. There are so many 
islands for places of retreat, and so many hundreds of boats, that it 
is almost impossible to detect the pirates. They lie in wait, sally 
out, do their work, and are quickly in retreat. No boat pretends to 
go without fire-arms, and other weapons of defence. Large ships are 
also armed ; but the pirates generally fear to molest these. Their 
manner of attack is stealthily to come alongside, or, as a ruse, hold 
up a piece of white paper, indicating that they have letters to deliver, 
until they are close to, when they rapidly throw fire-balls and suffo- 
cating mixtures on board, and immediately attack with guns, spears, 
pikes, and cutlasses. The party attacked, when less in number than 
the pirates, are soon overpowered, and to preserve their lives jump 
overboard. Those disabled by wounds, and those unable to swim, 
are drowned ; others escape by swimming ashore, or are afterwards 
taken up by vessels passing. Every article of any value on board is 
pillaged. The Chinese government is unable to subdue or to detect 
them. Rewards are freely offered ; and if a pirate, perchance, is 
taken, he is beheaded with little ceremony. During this month of 
March they have been uncommonly bold. The secretary of the 
English consul told me lately that he was attacked by them on the 
Canton river, fought them a while, and was wounded in several 
places ; but fortunately saved himself by swimming ashore. Some 
of his boatmen were drowned. A day or two since, the Spanish 
mail-boat was attacked, and the mail-agent drowned, with most of 
his crew. Some of the Chinese fast boats, with a crew of eighty to 
one hundred men, regard them with so much fear that they pay the 
pirates a regular sum yearly, and are not molested by them. A boat 
with nothing valuable on board is rarely, if ever, troubled by them ; 
as they know, without going on board, what it contains. Their 
emissaries are so scattered about that some of them may continually 
see you ; but you would not know them from any one else. Coolies 
about the streets, or your boatmen, may be their emissaries. Shop- 
keepers, or your own boy, may be in league with them. I am told 
that through their system of communication, by signs, signals or 
other ways, they are well informed of every boat that leaves Hong- 
Kong, Canton, Whampoa, Macao, or any place about here ; the time 
when they leave, when they may be expected to pass any given place, 
and what there is on board, — having some of their emissaries stationed 
at all these places. Thus, those only which are considered valuable, 
or worth the trouble, are attacked. 



212 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

On the river the robberies are of such frequent occurrence that 
the j are hardly noticed by the public, unless some person is killed or 
severely wounded. Dr. B. informs me that nearly every day he has 
patients from among the pirates ; wounds to be dressed and sewed 
up, balls to be extracted, broken bones to be adjusted, chronic ulcers 
to be healed, &c. A boat which has any amount of specie on board 
is sure to be attacked. No matter how much secrecy or precaution 
has been ussd to keep the knowledge of it from the boys, coolies and 
others, the pirates will not fail to know it. But, generally, the ser- 
vants have to take care of their master's property, which affords an 
easy way of its being known to others ; and your own boy, the 
servant that waits on you, is often supposed to be an accomplice, and 
for his information to receive a share of the spoils. The steamer 
which goes occasionally seems to be the only really safe way of trav- 
elling. 

According to the treaty between the English and Chinese, the city 
gates are to be opened on the sixth of April next, and foreigners 
allowed to do business inside, and to go in or out at pleasure. 
Although there are now but a few days to that time, yet nothing 
definite can be known. At present both nations seem to be acting 
on the defensive. Governor Bonham has had an interview with the 
governor of Canton, which resulted in the same excuses as have been 
made on former occasions — one of which is, that the authorities had 
not the power to restrain the mob, if the gates should be opened to 
foreigners. This I should judge to be true, to a certain extent. All 
the people are opposed to the carrying into effect of that part of the 
treaty ; and, doubtless, the authorities are also. 

During this month they have been actively engaged in repairing 
their fortifications, and they have placed some thousands more of men 
in their forts on the river. A day or two since they reported to their 
general that the guns were all mounted. They have organized, in 
the city of Canton, a large force of eighty thousand men, who march 
through the streets by day ; and they have a large patrol at night ; 
but the Chinese say that this is for protection against large and 
numerous bands of robbers, who take advantage of any change of 
affairs to make depredations on the citizens. These troops are called 
" braves," and are brought from the interior; I have myself little 
faith in their bravery. The English say they do not expect any 
trouble with them, and have a war-steamer lying off the factories, 
and others at hand. They are evidently prepared for any difficulty, 
but do not like to give an impression that they expect it. They have 
ten or twelve vessels of war here, and others, I believe, up the coast. 
It is generally believed by foreigners that the gates will be opened 
by an imperial order from Pekin, merely as a form on the part of the 
emperor, to comply with the article of the treaty. 

March '.M)th. — The mail closes directly. News has just arrived 
that Governor Su, of Canton, has received despatches from the empe- 
ror respecting the opening of the gates, and that his instructions are 
to do as he pleases. "Compassionate the people," " do the best 
you are able," are the imperial words addressed to Su. It is impos- 



HONG-KONG. OPENING GATES OF CANTON. 213 

sible to see how the affair will end. Considerable excitement exists at 
this time, and a slight circumstance would be sufficient to break the 
peace. In haste, your brother, 

B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

TREATY OF THE ENGLISH AND CHINESE. LETTER TO A SISTER. VISIT 

TO A CHINESE SCHOOL. LETTER TO DR. F. CHINESE EDICTS. 

PUNISHMENT OF CHINESE OFFENDERS. DILEMMA. 

LETTER TO A BROTHER-IN-LAW. 

Hong-Kong, Sunday, April 1st. 

My dear Dr. F. : It is a lovely day, but rather jrarm here. I 
breakfasted on board the " Heber," with Captain Patterson and other 
friends who were there, and attended church at the new Episcopal 
building. I took tea at Dr. Morrison's. A night or two since the 
doctor had his house pillaged of silver plate, his gold watch, &c. The 
robbers entered and took it from his own bedroom, where he was 
sleeping at the time. His Chinese servants are supposed to know 
about it, but it is impossible to ascertain anything. Some ancient 
and valuable pieces of family plate were taken, and are probably 
melted up before this. 

April Qth. — According to the treaty between the English and 
Chinese, the gates of the city of Canton were to have been opened to 
foreigners to-day, which appears likely to pass, like all other days, 
without any disturbance. The Chinese authorities and people are 
both against it ; and Su, the Chinese governor, has lately sent an 
official notice to Governor Bonham that the gates would not be 
opened, on the plea that the people are strenuously opposed to the 
measure, — of which, I believe, there is no doubt, though most persons 
here have thought that this was merely a feint to deceive on the part 
of the government. I took considerable pains, when at Canton, to 
ascertain the views of some of the people there, and there was not a 
single instance in which they did not express themselves firmly and 
decidedly opposed to the opening of the gates. One of the merchants, 
accompanying his words with violent gestures, said, 

" Foreign man no can go inside (the gates) too muchy long time. 
Have got Cheena custom, no can do. English have got custom Hong- 
Kqng, Cheenaman no can do," — that is, nothing opposed to it. 
" Cheenainan have got custom Canton, Englishman, no can do," — 
that is, anything opposed to it. In other words, both these nations 
have their own customs or laws, which are not to be infringed upon by 
the other. 



214 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

"Suppose the English should bombard the city," said I; "you 
could not prevent them." 

" Englishman can do that fashion, — can burn city, — can kill fifty 
tousand man, — niarsa-que, Cheenaman go in country; but foreign 
man no can go inside ! " 

Another man, taking his long braided hair in his hands, and making 
a sawing motion across it, said that " they would as soon have that 
cut off as to let foreigners go inside the city ; " and then, drawing his 
hand across the throat, he said that " Chinamen would as soon have 
their heads taken off as their hair." So degrading do the Chinese 
consider the punishment of having the hair cut off, that after it has 
been inflicted on them they have been known immediately to go out 
and commit suicide. They do not generally appear to know that it 
was stipulated in the treaty by their government that the gates of 
Canton were to be opened to the world, imagining it was the port 
only which was to be opened. 

They seem to be under an impression that the English have some 
sinister motives for going within the walls, besides those of trade. Some 
think that they wish to discover their arts ; others believe that 
foreigners have, the power of seeing into the earth, and that they are 
desirous to obtain possession of the money and treasures which, in 
some instances, are for security kept buried there in large amounts ; 
and many other things are ascribed to the English. Placards of 
various signification, and addressed to the people, have been posted in 
all parts of the city. Meetings have been held in the different wards 
among the different classes of merchants, and resolutions passed by 
which they bind themselves, under severe penalties, to suspend at the 
present time all intercourse with the barbarians (foreigners). Reports 
have been circulated among the loAver orders of Chinese that the upper 
class have offered rewards for barbarians' heads ; but, whether there 
is any truth in it or not, the simple fact of such a report would make 
it dangerous for foreigners to wander much beyond the factories. 
Another report is, that Hong-Kong is seriously threatened with exter- 
mination by the Chinese. Yours, truly, 

B. L. B. 

LETTER TO SISTER E. C. B. 

Hong-Kong, Tuesday, April 10th. 

My dear Sister : The weather here is quite warm. Mr. Drinker 
to-day had some boxes of silk goods broken into by Chinese boatmen, 
while being transported from the storehouse to the vessel. Some of 
the goods were taken away, and the place they occupied filled in with 
old pieces of ropes, &c. Mr. McKee's packages also were broken into 
a few days since while coming down the river, some valuable articles 
removed, and straw substituted in their place. I could enumerate 
many instances of their adroitness in stealing. 

Almost every day I notice some of the ragged coolies who have their 
stand in front of my window attacked by the passing dogs. To-day a 
dog about the size of a spaniel sprang barking at one of them, who, 



HONG-KONG. CHINESE AGRICULTURE. 215 

half frightened, cried out, crouched on the ground, and suffered the 
dog to bite him without resistance, until a foreigner came up and 
drove the animal away. The cooly was a great, lusty Chinaman, 
and able with one kick of his foot or blow of his brawny hand to have 
laid the dog straight ; but he evidently had not the courage to make 
any defence. 

Friday, April 13th. — I breakfasted with Rev. Mr. Dean, and then 
went with him over to the main-land of China. Hong-Kong is English 
ground, — an island quite separate from China, though a great many 
Chinese reside here. We took a good boat, and, passing up northerly 
through the harbor, in two hours landed at a small town in a deep 
bay. Here Mr. D. has a Chinese school, which we visited, and which 
was quite a curiosity to me. There were about a dozen scholars, 
whom we heard go through their recitations. They all study aloud, 
which seemed to cause no confusion with them, though it did con- 
siderable to me. There were two Chinese teachers, acting under the 
direction of Mr. D. I bought two of their school-books as curiosities. 

We next visited the Josh-house, and walked through the village 
over to another place, called Cow-loon. Here we saw the rice-fields, 
— little level patches of ground, divided into a variety of shapes by 
raised footpaths between, some of which patches were hardly large 
enough to turn the ploughing-team in. And such ploughs ! One 
would suppose there had been no improvement in them since the days 
of Adam ! Women, with single bullocks, were ploughing, digging, 
and cultivating the ground in various ways. They get three crops in 
a year of rice or potatoes. It looked singular to see females at work 
on the land, with bare feet and bare legs, broad-brimmed hats, like 
shields, of basket-work, short frocks, and short pants. They keep 
the fields, by irrigation, covered with water to the depth of two or 
three inches, which extends back from the marsh to the hills. We 
visited the fort, which commences in the midst of the town, and 
extends back to a point on the top of a high hill behind. The wall 
was about twelve feet thick and twenty-five in height, being made by 
erecting two parallel walls, and filling the space between with dirt. 
At intervals and at the angles little towers are built in the wall, 
within which a gun is mounted. The people stared at us consider- 
ably, but did nothing to molest us. On our return I stopped at and 
rambled over a small rocky island. Here were immense rocks under- 
mined by the washing of the sea, some of which were fallen over and 
separated into parts. I brought away some curiosities, and found 
there two idols, which had been washed ashore and partially buried 
among the rocks. 

Saturday, April 21st. — Took a walk after dinner with Mr. Menne- 
ken to " Happy Valley." Here is the race-ground where gentlemen 
and ladies resort to ride on horseback. Many were there this evening, 
among whom I saw the governor and his lady. 

Truly yours, B. L. B. 



216 CHINA AND MANILLA. 



LETTER TO DR. F. 

Hong-Kong, April 22d. 

My dear Dr. F. : The mail leaves earlier this month than 
usual, and is going in a few days. Very little of importance has 
occurred during the month. The Chinese were firing crackers here 
on the evening of the 6th inst., — I suppose on account of the tem- 
porary victory which they had gained in maintaining closed gates on 
that day. Everything is quiet at Canton, though, for several days, 
appearances indicated that it would take very little to cause an out- 
break. The Chinese are naturally so jealous and excitable that it 
would not be surprising to hear at any time that a mob of several 
thousand men had collected about the factories, though, two hours 
before, there might be no sign of any disturbance. 

Among Su's preparations for the defence of the forts he is said to 
have had twenty thousand bags of quick-lime procured, to throw 
into the eyes of the English soldiers, should they attempt to scale 
the walls ; also twenty thousand bags of cotton placed as a breast- 
work on the walls. It would seem from the official despatches that 
the authorities are not as much in favor of opening the gates as they 
appear to be. I send you a copy of the emperor's edict from 
Pekin, which was addressed to Su, the governor at Canton. Forty 
thousand copies were circulated among the Chinese in the city, and 
Su sent the English plenipotentiary one, which is as follows : 

' ' Walled cities are erected with the view of protecting the people ; 
and by protecting the people only can the country be preserved. 
And that to which the hearts of the people incline is the will of 
Heaven. Now, since the people of Kwang-tung (Canton) are all of 
one fixed opinion, in being averse to the entrance of foreigners into 
the city, shall we circulate and post up a luminous proclamation, 
transcribed on yellow paper,* constraining them to the opposite 
course ? The Chinese government cannot thwart the inclinations of 
its people in order to comply with the wishes of strangers from afar ; 
and foreign governments ought also to pay attention to the wishes of 
our people, and spare the power of the merchants. You ought still 
more rigorously to guard against native banditti, and prevent these 
from availing themselves of the opportunity for creating disturbances, 
and throwing the inhabitants into a state of disorder. And as the 
foreign merchants, who come from a great distance across the vast 
ocean, undoubtedly desire to live in tranquillity, and take delight in 
their occupations, you ought, therefore, to render them protection in 
the same manner. Thus all will forever rest in harmony, and enjoy 
universal tranquillity. Respect this." 

Governor Su remarks, in the despatch which he sent : 

" You will perceive, from the foregoing, that the language I held 
during the personal conference I had with you was not based on an 

* Imperial edicts are addressed directly to the people in this manner, on 
yellow paper. 



HOND-KONO. PUNISHMENT OF CHINESE OFFENDERS. 217 

obstinate adherence to my own views, but that the Imperial Rescript 
which I have received from a distance also corresponds with the views 
of the public. 

" For this reason, I send you a communication, and, at the same 
time, take the opportunity of wishing you happiness and tranquillity. 

" A necessary communication." 

With relation to the former part of the emperor's edict, where he 
asserts, " And that to which the hearts of the people incline is the 
will of Heaven" I would say that, according to my ideas, that _ to 
which the hearts of the Chinese people incline is more the acquisition 
of money than any other object ; and, to accomplish this, they will 
resort to cheating, stealing, lying, robbing, murdering, and the most 
debasing practices. This, of course, they consider as the will of Heaven. 
They do not understand how anything can be done to promote 
another's interest unless they are to be paid for it in money. I think 
that my boy's heart is inclining somewhat towards me ; for, this 
morning, before I was up, and while apparently asleep, I saw him 
trying the lock of my trunk with some of his keys. 

The authorities at Canton, on account of the anticipated difficulties 
in regard to the gates, have been pretty severe with some of their 
people during this month and the last. A Chinese builder had a 
contract with an American to build the church, which, I believe, he 
had been engaged in for some time, and had not finished. He was 
seized, bastinadoed, and died soon after. The crime alleged was 
breaking the Chinese rules, — that is, by working for the "bar- 
barians," which had been prohibited. Another Chinaman bought 
some cotton yarn of an American house, and, on taking it away, was 
stopped by some of the members of the cotton guild or compact, and 
compelled to carry it back again, although he was not a member of 
the guild, or in any way connected with them. However, they 
accused him of smuggling, or of having broken their rules ; and he 
was arrested, severely beaten, and finally died under torture. 

Some Chinese artists, who were sketching some of the city streets, 
were arrested under the supposition that they were employed by 
the Europeans to furnish them with drawings of the city. They 
were taken to the torture, where they denied that they were thus 
employed, or had any connection with Europeans. Yet they were 
imprisoned, and sentenced to death, in case there should be a war 
with England. If no war takes place, they are to be discharged ; 
thus their guilt or innocence is to be established by the contingency 
of a war, — they believing the case to be justly decided, that they 
were giving the artists an impartial judgment ; and the condemned 
artists themselves may perhaps consider their trial just, and the prin- 
ciples of the judges to be magnanimous. 

Gangs of banditti are very numerous in and about Canton. The 
wealthy Chinese are obliged to hire "braves " (the troops) to take 
care of their property. One man has hired and pays seven hundred 
men for this purpose. The number of- banditti is stated to be up- 
wards of eight thousand. They move about from place to place, and 
19 



218 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

plunder in regularly organized bands. People send their valuables 
from the country into the city, considering that they will be safer 
inside than outside the walls. Su, with a large body of men, has 
gone into the country to break up one desperate band of them ; so 
that there are plenty of robbers here on land, as well as on the water. 

April 25th. — The mail leaves this morning. It is reported that, a 
few days previous to the 6th of April, Su, the governor of Canton, 
visited Hong-Kong in disguise, making all the examinations that he 
desired with regard to the affairs of the English, without being 
detected. It appears by the report that, had Canton been attacked 
by the English, the Chinese were to have made a simultaneous attack 
on Hong-Kong, and would have received reinforcements from the 
opposite side of the harbor. 

You see that I have not gone to Shanghae yet. I have been hesi- 
tating whether to go at all, but have about concluded that I will go 
soon. It happened fortunately for me that I did not go last fall, 
as I had some thought of doing ; for, unfortunately for others, sev- 
eral vessels were lost at that time. Mr. Nye, brother-in-law of Mr. 
Bush, the U. S. consul, has not been heard from, nor the vessel in 
which he embarked. His friends here have nearly given up all hopes 
of him. Yours, truly, 

B. L. B. 

Hong-Kong, Sunday, April 29th. — This is the first that I have sat 
up since Tuesday, when I had an attack of bilious cholera, which 
was violent and very painful. 

Yesterday, Rev. Mr. Johnson, a missionary here, came in to see 
me, and was quite surprised to find me sick. He sent me some milk, 
— real cow's milk, and American cow's milk, — the greatest 
luxury I have yet tasted here ; so it seemed at the time. The cow 
was brought from America by Rev. Mr. D., and supplies the milk 
to their families. 

Monday, April 30th. — Called this morn, at half-past seven, at the 
residence of Rev. Messrs. Dean and Johnson, and breakfasted with 
the family, confining myself to the simple and nourishing diet of 
Indian pudding and milk. Met Rev. Mr. Loomis there, and an 
English missionary. Mr. L. and I held quite a long conversation 
respecting the Seaman's Bethel he had in construction at Whampoa. 
Resumed some professional engagements, but was not able to be out 
much. 

Tuesday, May 1st. — I have been miserably sick all day, and while 
gazing out of the window at dusk, watching the heavy clouds as 
they were borne swiftly westward, I said to myself, " I wish I was 
going the same way." 



LEAVING FOR SHA.NGHAE. 219 

The police made a fine haul of pirates yesterday, capturing eight 
boats, or junks, over forty men, and thirty pieces of cannon. Many 
other pirates escaped ashore and fled. I called at Mr. Bush's this 
evening, where I met several friends, passing a few hours very pleas- 
antly. ^ 

Thursday, May 3d. — I rose at six, and took breakfast with the 
Rev. Messrs. Johnson and Dean. I have a standing invitation there 
while recruiting my health. I am somewhat better, and the weather 
is quite hot. I am in doubt and perplexity how to move or act, 
or whether to proceed in any direction, or to stand still. I feel too 
much prostration to make any particular effort of mind or body 
towards a decision. I should like to go up the coast, and visit other 
Chinese cities — Shanghae, Ningpoo, &c. I should like to go to Java, 
Calcutta, up the Red Sea to Cairo, and across Europe home. I 
should like to make a trip to the Sandwich Islands and California. 
I should like to make a visit to Japan ; and I should like to find 
myself in Manilla again, and make an extensive journey through the 
country, and see various friends there. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

LEAVE FOR SHANGHAE. NINEPIN ISLAND. ANNOYANCES FROM COCK- 
ROACHES. ISLAND OF FORMOSA. CHUSAN ISLANDS. YANTZ-TZE- 

KIANG RIVER. WOOSUNG. — -ARRIVAL AT SHANGHAE. 

Saturday, May 5th. — The " Pacific," Captain Swain, left this 
morning early for California, taking Messrs. Baker, Anthon, and 
Meredith, as passengers. So many of my acquaintance are going, it 
seems that soon there will be none left whom I shall know here. 

Dined at Mr. Rawle's. Called on board the " Dart," with friends, 
to see Captain Porter ; talked a little of going up to Shanghae with 
him. Tea at Mr. Bush's, where I met Captain Watkins and wife 
and Mr. Williams, and there concluded to go up in the " Dart " to 
Shanghae, which sails to-morrow morning. Mr. Bush kindly offered 
to give me letters. It is my intention, by going now, to return before 
the typhoon season commences, which is in July and August. 



220 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Captain W. leaves, with his wife and MissR., on Monday, also 
for Shanghae, so that we shall be in two vessels not far apart, and, 
perhaps, in company. 

Sunday, May Uh. — My boy " Assam," seeing my trunks packed, 
came to me with a wonder-stricken countenance, and, looking me 
earnestly in the face, said, 

' ' To-day you go way some place ? ' ' 

"Yes! " I said, " Shanghae." 

Then wishing to know if I wanted him to go with me, and on my 
answering " No ! " he said, 

" More better, makee-pay my littee wagey " (the balance of his 
wages) . 

I informed him that I could not pay him until he found my toath- 
extracting instruments, which had lately disappeared ; and that I had 
given the money into the hands of Mr. M., to pay him when they 
were found. The boy was satisfied, and said, 

" Very well." 

I did not know whom to suspect, the boy, or senor, who was dressed 
in the garb of a gentleman, and who was the only person in the 
room at the time they were lost. After a few weeks, the boy being 
unable to find the instruments, the wages were paid to him. 

I got my baggage on board, calling at Mr. B.'s for letters, and at 
other places on the way. 

At twelve o'clock the " Dart " moved off before a gentle breeze, 
with two passengers — Mr. Trotter, clerk in the court at Hong-Kong, 
and myself. We had a beautiful sail out of the harbor, passing high 
lands on both sides of us, but mostly barren of vegetation. Here 
and there a solitary house appeared in the midst of a few stunted 
trees, or behind masses of rocks. The English barracks also could 
be seen, though nearly concealed from view by the hills. Now we 
are bound on a voyage, somewhere within a thousand miles, up the 
coast of China, to Shanghae. At nine in the evening we stood off 
the " Nine-Pin " Island. 

Coast of China, for Shanghae, Monday, May 7th. — Last night at 
nine I went to rest on the transom, and had lain there but a few 
minutes when I felt a nibbling at one of my toes. Raising myself 
up carefully, expecting to find a mouse, I saw a large cockroach 
busily engaged in eating the nail ; but it slunk quickly away on 
being discovered. Those acquainted say that during the night these 



COCKROACHES ON SHIPBOARD. 221 

insects stealthily eat off the nails from the hands and feet, and some- 
times so closely as to cause bleeding. They began to make their 
appearance early this evening, coming out simultaneously from all 
parts of the cabin. Believing that it was me they were after, I gave 
battle at once, killing a considerable number, and dispersing the 
others ; but, as soon as it was still, they appeared again. I then 
took my blanket and pillow, and, going on deck, laid down in the 
open air, and slept very finely. These cockroaches are about the size 
of large crickets, and are disgusting-looking insects, having an odor 
similar to assafoetida, which they leave wherever they pass. They 
run very fast, and make a noise like dry leaves, or a rattling sound, 
as if their legs were made of slips of dry wood, full of joints, striking 
against each other. 

With a very fair wind we kept in sight of the coast, till about four 
p. m. ; when at dinner a squall came up, the wind veered to nearly 
ahead, and we were obliged to change to the eastward. We are now 
sailing towards Formosa, instead of keeping the direct course. 
" Pedro Blanco " (White Peter), a large, high rock, rising out of the 
water, we passed within a short distance, and left it astern this after- 
noon. 

Tuesday, May Sth. — It is one year to-day since I left home. I 
have read some in surgery, and from the " Last Days of Pompeii." 
Captain Porter sets an excellent table, has the best of everything, fresh 
meat, vegetables, nice fresh bread, &c, which is well served up. I 
never was on board of a vessel where the fare was better. He tells 
us to call on the boys for anything we wish to eat, drink, or have 
done, and at any time. 

Thursday, May 10th. — The breakfast hour is eight, although 
when I sleep on deck I am up at sunrise. Mr. T. and I keep on our 
backs below, on the transom, — not really sick, but so near that it 
is almost as bad. I have no energy or strength, and my head is 
giddy when I attempt to sit up. 

At noon the captain said that we were getting too far south, and 
he tacked to the north-west. With head winds and heavy sea, the 
water continually breaks over the bows of the vessel to-day, it being 
pretty rough. We can discern rocks and islands in the distance. 
These are the Bashee Islands, which are inhabited by Indians. Just 
at night, while standing and looking at the land in sight, a sea came 
on board, drenching us all. I think I was the worst served ; for I 
19* 



222 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

had to change all my clothing. Notwithstanding the salt-water pickle, 
we all laughed heartily at each other. If a person gets a splash 
over him, he is laughed at by sailors ; no matter what his importance 
may be, it will not save him. 

In the evening we saw a light ashore at a distance of fifteen miles 
or more, which looked very pretty, as it shone up into the sky. 
Goat Island was plainly seen. 

Friday, May lllh. — The island of Formosa appeared this morning. 
At twelve we were within a few miles, tacking on and off the shore. 
The wind holding north-east, we were obliged to go outside of the 
island. The land is very high, looking from the water rather pic- 
turesque. It appears to be partly under cultivation. We could see, 
indistinctly, several of the native dwellings. It is slow progress 
beating up the coast in this way, wind all the time ahead. It rains 
this evening, which obliged me to give up the deck and take to my 
berth at midnight. 

Saturday, May 12th. — Here we are, running up the eastern coast 
of Formosa, as well as we can. The winds are still unfavorable, and 
we are standing off and on the land, alternately, about eight hours 
each. If the ship's path was to be described, it would represent the 
teeth of a large saw. As we approach the shore the land is green, and 
rises in a variety of shapes, with an aspect quite interesting. The 
hills and mountains appear to be tumbled together, with no regard 
to order, one on another. On this part of the island we can dis- 
cover no signs of habitations, though on the side next to China the 
inhabitants number two millions. The natives are a race similar to 
the Chinese, formerly originating from them. 

A part of the island is subject to China ; and the other part, mostly 
interior and very mountainous, has never been subdued. The natives 
are said to be very hostile and treacherous ; any unfortunate foreigners 
getting ashore are immediately taken prisoners, and what becomes 
of them is not known. 

Sunday, May lZth. — We again made the land of Formosa early 
this morning. The fresh green slopes looked very inviting, and I 
should not hesitate, with a few of the crew, to go ashore. I would 
much like to explore the deep ravines between the mountains and the 
valleys, &c. We saw smoke rising from one spot, which was the 
only sign of habitation to be seen. 

All day the vessel has been rolling with a sluggish motion to the sea- 
swells. In the evening a fine breeze sprung up, and we were off again. 



WOOSUNG. YANTZ-TZE-KIANG RIVER. 223 

Blue Sea, coast of China, Monday, \^th. — I slept on deck, and 
was up at sunrise. The others on board do not like to trust them- 
selves there, so that I have it all to myself. Formosa has disappeared, 
and nothing is to be seen but the boundless ocean. 

Wednesday, May l§th. — We have been becalmed all day, and 
must wait patiently. Saw a group of islands on our left, about 
twenty miles from the main land. The weather is mild and favorable, 
and the surface of the water is smooth, though the sea swells with 
gentle undulations. 

Thursday, May 17th. — Saw several islands in the distance, towards 
the shore on our left. They appeared like large hay-stacks, and 
prove to be the " Chusan Islands." Had a beautiful day's sail, 
though we made but little progress against the light head-winds. 

Mr. T. was very sick all day with bilious colic. I attended him as 
much as possible, and prescribed what seemed to be necessary. He 
suffered much, not being free from pain during the night. I gave 
him medicine every twenty-five minutes, and sought by every available 
means to relieve him ; still the pain was severe, inducing nausea, and 
the stomach rejected every antidote in a few -minutes after being 
taken. "We are happy to see him much better this evening. 

Friday, May 18th. — This morning early the " Fisherman's Chain " 
(numerous islands) had a very pretty appearance as we wound along 
through them, reminding me of those in the harbor of Boston. We 
passed the English brig-of-war " Mariner," from Shanghae, about 
noon. The water is very yellow, though some miles from Shanghae. 
The broad Yantz-tze-kiang empties itself here, and appears as much 
like the sea as a river. Being very large and long, it carries, mingled 
in its waters, a great quantity of yellow mud, which gives the yellow 
coloring. The Yellow Sea and Yellow river, a little further up the 
coast, receive their names from this coloring of the water. 

It is now evening, and we are at anchor in the harbor of Woosung, 
in the Yantz-tze-kiang river. This place is about twelve miles from 
Shanghae, and is the anchorage for vessels which are too large to 
proceed up the Woosung river ; being to Shanghae what Whampoa is 
to Canton. Shanghae lies on the Woosung river, twelves miles further 
in the country ; and Woosung is situated at the junction of the two 
rivers, about forty miles above the mouth of the Yantz-tze-kiang. I 
have just returned from a visit to the receiving-ship of Messrs. Russell 
& Co., which lies next to us, a little way down the river. Captain 
Endicott, of Messrs. Heard & Co.'s receiving-ship, called and took us 



224 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

on board in his boat. We took tea there with Captain Roundy, 
meeting Mr. Ford and other officers of the " Plymouth," and spent a 
very agreeable evening with our countrymen. Captain Bush after- 
wards took the boat and returned me to the " Dart." 

About fifty miles out we passed Gutslaff Island, meeting on the way 
many junks, moving in every direction. They are great, coarse, shabby, 
ugly-looking deformities in the shape of vessels. One English ship we 
saw ashore, having gone too far on the flats. With the spy-glass I 
could discern near the shore, for many miles, a line of embankments, 
which I took to be the fortifications of the Chinese ; and, very near, a 
line of trees, green and thick with foliage, forming a dense hedge ; 
and now and then, interspersed, very large, high trees, with wide- 
spreading branches. From this a green slope extended down to the 
water's edge, dotted with buffaloes grazing. Behind the bank could 
occasionally be seen a rusty-looking Chinese building. 

At one time, with the glass, I discovered near the shore what looked 
like crows of large size, mounted on long legs, with outspread wings, 
wading through the shallow surf. Some time afterwards I found the 
orows had become men, and they proved to be Chinese fishermen, with 
black nets spread on frames, and held out on each side. I also 
learned that the long lines of supposed fortifications were simply 
dykes, built to protect the people against inundations, as the land is 
extremely low. Yet the dykes had guns mounted on them, which 
gave them the appearance of fortifications. On both sides, at Woo- 
sung, these dykes stretch along for miles. 

As we came in we passed the " Plymouth," U. S. N., lying at 
anchor. She sent off an officer, with a boat, to board us, to get any 
letters or news we might have for their company. The captain says, 

" Be ready there, one of you, to throw out a rope as the boat comes 
up." 

The man took his station. We were driving through the water at 
a rapid rate just at this time, with a strong wind, yet with several 
sails taken in. The boat was steering at a right angle with us, as if 
to cross our course ahead. As we came up she was close to, and, 
rounding up with a sweep, was alongside. The rope was promptly 
thrown, and quickly caught and held by three or four of the boat's 
crew ; but the boat was so near, and was drawn with such rapidity 
through the water, that it filled and capsized, and they all were sub- 
merged in the water. Our vessel was brought to, and a boat lowered 
for their assistance. They were a long way astern before the boat 



WOOSUNG RIVER. SHANGHAE. 225 

reached them, but kept themselves afloat by holding on to the sides 
of the boat, which appeared with the bottom-side up. The " Plym- 
outh," looking on, sent another boat and picked them up, and they 
all safely returned to their ship. We have made the passage up in 
twelve days, which is considered an excellent run for the season. 

Sunday, May 20th. — About eight a. m. we got under way for 
Shanghae. Captain E. came on board and went with us. As we 
were leaving we discerned through the trees, over a point of land, 
the white sails of the " Antelope " (Captain Watkins), just coming 
in. Captain P. seems well satisfied at having beaten her, as she is 
considered the fastest-sailing vessel. We are now sailing up the 
Woosung river, tacking from side to side, with head winds. Numerous 
Chinese junks are on all sides of us, some going up stream, some 
down, and others at anchor. The " Ann Eliza," an English brig, 
has just run into one, carrying away her own jib-boom. There goes 
her anchor, and she is obliged to haul up to extricate herself from the 
snarl and repair damages. 

We are now within about four miles of Shanghae, and can easily 
distinguish the single foreign residences from the Chinese mass. The 
fine, large, commanding houses, of European construction, contrast 
like hotels by the side of the rusty, shed-like structures of the Chinese. 
Beyond, on the river, can be seen a forest of the masts of junks, and 
of the few foreign vessels there. With my eye to the spy-glass, 
coursing up and down and over the low banks, the scenery of the 
country, with its uneven flats covered by a beautiful green verdure, is 
quite attractive and refreshing after a number of days at sea. Still 
there is much sameness between this and that near Canton, except 
that there is more of country and less of city here to be seen. We 
notice along the edges of the river several old Chinese batteries, which 
have been partially destroyed during the English war. 

At two o'clock p. m. we arrived at Shanghae, but expected to have 
been up at noon, or before. Our voyage ended, Mr. T. and I took 
one of the curious red sculling Chinese boats and went ashore, separ- 
ating on the jetty, each to our respective course. Directed by the 
stars and stripes floating above the American Consulate, I went in, 
and delivered my letters to Mr. Griswold, the consul. He received 
me with an openness of manner, and kind, hospitable cordiality, which 
made me forget that I was in a strange place ; and, engaging in con- 
versation, I almost fancied myself at home. 

On being introduced to Dr. Hall, we were both surprised each to 



226 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

recognize in the other a familiar countenance, and we almost as soon 
remembered that we had met many times before in the lecture-rooms 
of the Boston Medical School. It was very pleasant so accidentally 
to meet a familiar face so far from home, after a separation of several 
years, and it afforded us an interesting subject of conversation. 

After accepting Mr. G.'s invitation to return and dine with them, I 
went and surprised Mr. and Mrs. Baylies by my sudden appearance 
there. I soon found that I was to remain their guest while in Shang- 
hae, and I was made welcome to a room in their house and a seat at 
their table. As there are no hotels in Shanghae, a stranger is under 
the necessity of quartering on some of the residents, among whom 
generosity and hospitality seem never to be wanting. 

I returned and dined at Mr. G.'s, meeting Mr. Cunningham and 
several other Americans at the table ; and I enjoyed the occasion 
much. I begin to think Americans are to be found in every part of 
the world. If I should go to Pekin or Kamtschatka, I should expect 
to find Americans already at each place. Mr. G. gave us the hours 
of breakfast, dinner and tea, with an invitation to come in without 
ceremony at any time, when disposed. 

Towards evening I met with Mr. Clark, a former acquaintance in 
Boston, and who walked out with me to see the place. He said that 
he was looking through a spy-glass and saw me land, and recognized 
me at once. He came out in the same vessel with Mr. and Mrs. B., 
and inquired for Dr. F. and others of Boston. We walked around 
among the European residences, and a portion of the Chinese habita- 
tions. Almost every lot of land that we came to belonging to the 
Chinese had a tomb on it. "We passed the English chapel and the 
European grave-yard. The land is very low in Shanghae, and is 
generally wet, and always damp. I stopped at and saw Dr. H.'s 
house, which he is building. There is quite a large and pretty garden 
attached to it, and many vegetables and flowers are growing. I met 
Mr. Graves, a brother to Captain G., with whom I came out from 
Boston. I called at his rooms a while, and then came back to tea at 
Mr. Baylies', where I had a long talk with Mr. and Mrs. B. of friends 
and events at home. 

Shanghae, Monday, May 21st. — Mr. B. occupies a part of the 
large building formerly the hotel. The citizens are so hospitable 
towards strangers that a hotel cannot be sustained, and now they 
have none. I called on Dr. H. this forenoon, and had a long con- 
versation about the Medical School and affairs at Boston. It rained 



SHANGHAE. A NEW BOY. 227 

most of the day, and in the evening I recounted to the family some 
of my adventures in Manilla. Nearly the whole of last night I 
battled the mosquitoes, there being no net to the bed ; which, to say 
the least, was not interesting. 

Tuesday, May 22d. — Had a mosquito-net put upon my bed. "We 
had hard rain, with thunder and lightning, through the night ; the 
rain continuing through the day. I met with quite a party of 
Americans at Mr. G.'s in the evening. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

NEW BOY. DR. LOCKHART'S HOSPITAL. WALK INTO THE CITY. — 

VISITS WITH SEDAN-CHAIRS. LOSS OF VESSELS. MISSIONARIES. 

COUNTRY AROUND SHANGHAE. LETTER TO A SISTER. CHINESE 

LADIES, ETC. 

Wednesday, May 23d. — It is still raining most of the day. This 
evening read the American papers and played at checkers. Yester- 
day Mr. B. sent out to get mea" boy," and to-day one came ; but I 
did not fancy him, he is such a big, over-mature fellow. When he 
first appeared, and told me that he had come to be my boy, I thought 
it would have been nearer if he had said man ; for he was, I should 
have supposed, upwards of forty years old. He seemed to have fixed 
himself up nicely, for a Chinaman, — his head being freshly shaved 
bald, his long black queue braided out with silk till it nearly reached 
the ground, a clean white frock on, reaching below his knees, with 
white leggins, and large, clumsy shoes, and a fan in his hand. He 
is so much older than myself, and so dignified in his demeanor, I 
almost fancy that I ought to wait on him, instead of he on me ; but I 
shall endeavor not to make the mistake. 

Thursday, May 2\th. — Dr. H. called, and we went out to Mr. 
Robinson's and Mr.Walcott's, American merchants, and then to Dr. 
Lockhart's, an English missionary-physician. We found all to be 
very agreeable people. In company with Dr. L., I visited his hospital, 
which seemed much like Dr. Parker's, at Canton. Most of the female 
patients had small feet, and some of them were clean, neat, and good- 



228 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

looking. The others looked filthy and bad enough to counterbalance. 
I should think there were nearly two hundred patients, all waiting 
for him at the same time. Dr. L. sat on a stool, dispensing pills and 
draughts to them, as the case required, which they took on the spot ; 
made applications to their eyes, and applied plasters and washes to 
ulcers, &c. They came up, one or two at a time, showed their disease, 
took their medicine, received their ticket which informed them when 
to come again, and wheeled off for others who followed. 

After dinner I accompanied Mr. and Mrs. B. to the residence of 
Bishop Boone, a missionary. They were living in comfortable and good- 
looking houses, in a group of missionaries' houses, about half a mile 
beyond the merchants' quarter. While there, Mr. Spaulding, a mis- 
sionary living here, had an attack of raising blood, which caused con- 
siderable alarm to the family. He is soon to leave for America, for 
the restoration of his health. 

Sunday, May 21 1 h. — Yesterday, cold north-east wind, and rain in 
torrents all day. To-day I fully intended going to church, notwith- 
standing the rain again ; but, being engaged in reading, the hour for 
the service passed without my knowledge of it. Afterwards I called 
on Dr. H., with whom I spent a couple of hours, socially discussing 
different subjects. I read in the Scriptures ; and at evening spent 
the time with Mr. and Mrs. B., reading the Christian Registers, 
and talking over home friends and acquaintances. 

Monday, May 28th. — Dr. H., Mr. F. and myself, went on board the 
" Dart," and breakfasted with Captain Porter. After dinner, Dr. 
II. and I took a walk on the top of the wall around a part of the 
city, calling, on our return, at the house which he is building. 

The city wall is from twenty to twenty-five feet high, and five or six 
miles in extent, made of two parallel brick walls, each about a foot 
and a half thick, and ten or fifteen apart, the space between being 
filled with dirt and rubbish, broken bricks and stones. The bricks are 
merely sun-dried, and would offer little resistance to cannon-balls. 
There are two gates at each entrance, which are made of iron, and are 
the strongest part of the wall. I was surprised to see how much 
better disposed towards foreigners the Chinese people here appear to be 
than those in Canton. 

The weather cleared off this afternoon, for the first time since my 
arrival. Although it has rained all the time, and the land is very low 
and flat, the streets, by means of the little drains to the river, are 
rendered passable ; but this morning they were muddy enough. 



SHANGHAE. TEA-GARDENS. 229 

Tuesday, May 29/A. — To refresh ourselves with the morning air, 
we walked out before breakfast, — the streets being nearly dry, and 
the day warm and beautiful. After breakfast I walked for several 
hours about the city with Dr. H., and, returning, called at Mr. Fogg's, 
who is in business here from Boston. We visited a number of shops, 
which were much like those at Canton. I found a handsome Japanese 
case to send home. 

We went through the Tea-gardens ; so called because there are 
restaurants, in and about the premises, where the Chinese take tea and 
refreshments. These were full, as we passed by them. In some, I 
should think, there were a hundred persons, closely seated at little 
tables. They seemed to enjoy themselves, eating, drinking, laughing, 
scolding and disputing, one with another. The " Tea-gardens " appear 
to have been once the residence of some wealthy Chinaman, the 
grounds still retaining the trenches, pools of water, bridges, &c. ; but 
the buildings have been taken away, or so changed as not to be recog- 
nized as such. The trenches, filled with water, mark the boundary 
between this place and the rest of the city. It is a favorite public 
place for various kinds of amusements — sing-songs, show-cases, jug- 
glers, performers of gymnastics, fortune-tellers, pedlers, venders of 
knick-knacks, doctors with their herbs and roots spread on a bench to 
sell, dentists with their long necklaces of human teeth, and many other 
things. It is also a place of resort for loafers, and innumerable 
beggars, many of whom are sickening and revolting objects of poverty 
and disease. We could hardly make ten steps without meeting them, 
singly or in groups, with outstretched hands. I was disposed to 
bestow something on them, but they were so numerous 1 thought 
it would not be safe to begin. One, a boy, lay on a stone bridge, 
crying out as if from pain and suffering. He was covered with dirt 
and filthy sores, and had his body wrapped around with several broken 
pieces of matting. A few paces from him, on her knees and forehead, 
was an old woman with white hair, reeling and twisting her body, 
grinding her head into the gravel and stones, and moaning and crying 
in most piteous sobbings and broken bursts of anguish. On some 
stone steps near by were several others lying perfectly motionless in 
the scorching sun, their faces burnt and swollen, and patches of the 
blistered skin peeling off. I stopped to. see if they were dead ; but 
they quickly showed animation sufficient to. open their eyes and stretch 
out their hands. Others were walking about clothed only with a few 
dirty rags filled with creeping vermin ; and sometimes they would stop, 
20 



230 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

sit down, pull off a piece, and begin to pick them out. One man, 
enveloped in partially-decayed matting, which was kept on by its 
strands tied together and fastened around, presented a revolting 
instance of leprosy. There were a number of such cases of the most 
loathsome description. They were, literally, living masses of corrup- 
tion, rolled up in torn fragments of matting ; and all stretched out 
their hands as we passed, and implored us in touching tones to give 
them a few " cash." I involuntarily shrank from the touch of such 
degraded and disgusting specimens of the human species. 

Towards evening I accompanied Mrs. B. on board the " Duke of 
Portland," an English vessel lying in the river. Met the captain and 
wife, enjoying a pleasant conversation in the cabin, and afterwards a 
promenade on deck, and returned at nine. 

Friday, June '1st. — This afternoon Mrs. B. and myself called on 
several of the missionary families within the city walls. Foreigners 
are not prohibited from going inside at Shanghae, as at Canton, and 
can reside there as freely as outside. We went very comfortably, in 
two chairs ; I do not fancy or enjoy this mode of conveyance, but it 
answers the purpose very well. The coolies go along in a half trot or 
leap, and get over the ground quite fast, which is the principal object ; 
though the unsteady motion is disagreeable. The coolies accent each 
step with a grunt, first one, and then the other, answering to each 
other. Sometimes they alternate several notes of voice, not disagreea- 
ble to hear ; to which they keep time by the step, and remind one of 
the beats of four or five men in a blacksmith's shop, pounding a tune 
on the same piece of iron. 

It was not a little amusing to me (though probably annoying enough 
to some one else), to see, as we came into the thickly-crowded streets, 
many of the most curious of the Chinese run along by the side of Mrs. 
B.'s chair, endeavoring to get a sight of the foreign lady. They did 
not stop for ceremony or introduction, but, holding with one hand 
upon the chair, as opportunity would admit, they thrust their heads 
in front, gazing, within a few inches, into the face of the occupant ; at 
the same time keeping up their pace by sideway. movements. Some- 
times one would not be satisfied with a look as long as he could hold 
his breath, but would repeat it three or four times, taking a fresh 
breath after each, and then falling back for others to take their chance. 
I could but partake somewhat of their excitement, as I saw their 
inexpressive countenances suddenly become animated, and turn from 
the sight illuminated with a glow of enthusiastic delight and satisfac- 



SHANGHAE. BEGGARS. 231 

tion at the accomplishment, and to listen to their comments ejaculated 
rapidly to each other. Of me they hardly took the slightest notice, 
bestowing on me scarcely a glance. The missionaries' seemed to be 
comfortably situated, and appeared happy. Their houses are generally 
new and commodious, and very well furnished ; though some have 
Chinese houses, which are small, with contracted and badly-arranged 
rooms, inconvenient to foreign occupants. 

Sunday, June 3d. — I attended church at ten, accompanying Mr. 
and Mrs. B. to the Rev. Mr. Medhurst's missionary chapel, within the 
city. Mr. B. and I walked, and Mrs. B. rode in a chair. The dis- 
tance was considerable, and to keep up with the chair-bearers we had 
to walk at a rapid pace. Mr. M. preached a very good discourse, 
without notes, to an audience of forty or fifty persons, of whom 
seven or eight were Chinese. The building, outwardly, resembles a 
small Chinese temple. It has small windows, without glass, but 
with diamond-shaped sashes of small squares, nearly filled with 
Chinese carvings. The inside is plain, with a small, low pulpit, 
settees, and chairs. There is a large church, the English Episcopal, 
constructed like a European church, in the foreigners' quarter. 

After the service, Mrs. B. returning home, Mr. B. and I varied our 
course, passing through several of the principal streets. The shops 
were open, and the Chinese as busy as on any other day. At one 
place, in a kind of public thoroughfare, we noticed the beggars con- 
gregated much the same as at the "Tea-gardens" the day before 
yesterday. There was the old woman of white hair, upon her knees, 
with her head on the ground, and her face buried in her hands, 
crying and wailing in the same way, as if she had not moved from the 
place for a week. I think I must have seen the same one at several 
times, with the same lamentations, posture, &c. ; if not, they marvel- 
lously resemble twin-sisters. One man, with both feet severed at the 
ankle-joints, lay moaning on a piece of matting. The feet, black and 
shrivelled up, lay beside him ; and occasionally he would take them 
up and show them, to excite the sympathy of some passer-by. From 
his fat and full habit, he evidently had a plenty of rice to eat, and 
probably made a good living. Several were lying scantily covered 
with a matting made of bark. Some had on a species of sacking like 
a meal-bag, and appeared as if they had slept last in a bed of ashes, 
reminding us of " sackcloth and ashes ; " and some were obliged to 
hold their rags together, to keep them from falling off their bodies. 

Monday, June <ith. — Last night a mosquito came inside of my net, 



232 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

annoying me for a long time, and not permitting me to sleep. I spent 
the time in reading till two o'clock in the morn, when, after a long 
pursuit, I succeeded in killing the insignificant and troublesome insect. 
This evening they are really ferocious, making their attacks as if they 
had a perfect right to eat one up. It is the first time this season they 
have appeared so numerous and desperate. 

I have made the acquaintance of Miss M., a missionary from Boston. 
She is very zealous in the missionary cause, and is engaged in teaching 
the Chinese at Bishop Boone's. She has no support from any society, 
and enters the field dependent only on herself for her resources and 
course of operations. She dispenses many charities among the Chi- 
nese, is very ambitious to do good, and has quite a philosophic turn 
of mind, with a disposition to regard things in the best light they will 
bear. Satisfied with everything, she makes no complaints, and, con- 
sequently, is lively, sociable, full of good-humor, and strongly devoted 
to her mission. 

News came last night from "Woosung that the "Torrington" was 
ashore on the great bank. To-day the news is that she has gone to 
pieces, with a loss of the letters and papers of the mail, and four 
hundred chests of opium. Mr. B.'s overland letters were on board, 
and mine, if I had any ; all of which are gone. The crew were saved. 

Tuesday, June 5th. — This forenoon the " Island Queen " came in, 
and several houses were happily disappointed in finding letters for them, 
having supposed that they were all in the " Torrington." But 1 have 
discovered none for myself. Rev. Dr. Bridgeman called, and we had 
a very pleasant conversation. In the afternoon Dr. H. and I walked 
several miles into the country, among the farm-houses, and to the 
Souchong bridge. Some of the missionaries once had a very narrow 
escape at this bridge. They were passing underneath in their boat, 
while the Chinese were throwing down stones on them. The boat was 
smashed, but I believe all escaped serious injury. 

There are no streets or roads here in the country ; and only narrow 
paths to walk in, large enough for one, and in some places for two 
to walk abreast. The houses are generally built in villages, but they 
sometimes stand in groups of from two to a dozen together. If they 
stand alone, they are low, and surrounded by hedges and mud walls. 
A great proportion of those we saw were miserable, dark, and dirty 
abodes. The whole country, for sixty miles around Shanghae, is 
perfectly flat ; and as you approach a house, a village, or a cluster of 
houses, all that you at first observe is a clump of trees. A nearer 



SHANGHAE. CHINESE INHUMANITY. 233 

view shows the buildings through their trees. The people in this part 
of the country generally are very civil. The land is laid out in beds, 
as if intended for a garden, and we saw growing rice, cotton, wheat, 
vegetables, &c. Each man's grounds are separated from, his neigh- 
bors' by a raised foot-path. Ditches, into which the tide flows, 
intersect at short intervals, and serve to water or to drain the land, 
as may be required. Tombs, in raised mounds of earth, covered with 
green turf, and of varied sizes, are thickly interspersed over the whole 
country here, and are met with at short distances in every direction. 

LETTER TO SISTER S. 

Shanghai, June 6th. 

My dear Sister S. : You have expected that, long before this, I 
should have been in Shanghae, as you have directed your letters to this 
place. They came up here long before me, and returned again to 
Hong-Kong. But, as the name would indicate, it is difficult to say 
which way the Ball will roll, or where it will stop, when set in motion. 

I left Hong-Kong to come here just a year from the time I left 
the United States for China, or the day before the year expired. I 
came up in the " Dart," with Captain Porter, an American from 
Portland, Me., in twelve days, and I expect to return with him. He 
has now left for Hong-Kong, but will return, when I expect to be 
his passenger back. The price of passage up and down is from two 
hundred to two hundred and fifty dollars. 

. My latest dates from home were in October of last year, and 
received in March of this. I suppose that I am a sufferer by the 
ill-fated " Torrington," which recently got aground, and afterwards 
went to pieces. The sea swallowed nearly all the letters, papers, &c, 
and I presume that old Neptune is still busy at work reading them. 
You have no idea of the excitement and anxiety of people in China to 
receive letters, both business and family letters. The mail is all the 
talk when it comes and when it goes. I have written home almost 
every month since being in China. 

You ask if I attended church at a specified time in October last. 
I find, on reference to my diary, that I then attended Dr. Parker's 
church at his house, in Canton, and also the evening meeting. But 
church to me out here is not what" it is at home. The day is not 
recognized as Sunday, except by the foreign community. 

The Chinese seem totally devoid of all feelings of humanity, and 
manifest no love or kindness, as if they were incapable of amiable 
qualities. I speak this of the middling and lower classes. The higher 
class I cannot speak of as yet. But this condition of character is 
not so much to be wondered at, when we consider their ignorance of 
the Christian religion, — that which smooths down all the rougher 
parts of man's nature, and inclines him " to practise those things 
which are good, and to shun those which are evil." 

The comforts of living in China are very few compared with those 
20* 



234 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

in America. One may have servants innumerable, be dressed and 
washed, or put into bed by them, if he chooses ; but the less one has 
to do with them the better. They have very little idea of what per- 
sons out of their own country wish or require. They do everything 
backhanded, after their own way, which to a foreigner is generally 
the opposite of his wishes, and a person must endure much from 
them till they are taught ; and, by that time, they know how to steal, 
deceive, and take many advantages. Profound rogues are among those 
understanding both English and Chinese. 

M. asks how I like the Chinese ladies. Tell her that the Chinese 
ladies are very seldom to be seen at all. The small-footed celestials 
are very particular about exposing themselves out of doors, especially 
to the sight of foreigners, whom they regard as evil spirits. They 
keep themselves very secluded, and from the age of ten have no 
society with the other sex until they are married. In fact, they 
never see their* intended until the time of marriage. Some of them, 
I think, must be sadly disappointed when they come to look at 
each other for the first time. All that each knows of the other is 
through their fathers, mothers and aunts ; which I should regard as 
rather unsatisfactory. But I am inclined to think that some of them, 
by hook or by crook, contrive to catch a glimpse of each other's 
faces before marriage. If not, how could this little song, which I 
subjoin and send to you, have come into existence, especially the third 
line of the third verse ? It is said to be Chinese, though my opinion 
is to the contrary. 

*.* daughter of the great Ching-Chum, 

Whose eyes like Ivasian diamonds glow, 
And wilt thou love thy Fa-Fe-Fiim, 
My sweet, my lovely Ho-ang Ho ? 

" The swans their downy plumage lave 
Where Lano's wandering waters flow ; 
But can the swans of Lano's wave 
Compare with thee, my Ho-ang Ho ? 

" Six moons have travelled through the skies, 
And softly gleamed on Kifing-O, 
Since first thy beauty met my eyes, 
Light of my soul, my Ho-ang Ho ! 

" 0, when I clasp thee to my breast, 

Chang-fee, to whom the nations bow, 
Shall not be half so truly blest 
As Fa-Fe-Fum and Ho-ang Ho ! " 

A great many Chinese women may be seen, — boat-girls, and the 
poorer class, who are obliged to obtain their living by labor ; but the 
small feet you rarely see. In one or two instances I have caught a 
glimpse of them ; but, when they see a foreigner approaching their 
nouses, they run in with all possible speed, shut and fasten the outer 

E,tes, and then, retreating, close up and lock fast every door, until 
ey are securely barricaded inside of the house. This I have seen 



SHANGHAE. CAPTURE OF PIRATES. 235 

done in several instances. Last night I walked with a friend into 
the country a few miles, and, as we approached the dwellings, we 
heard the shutting of gates and slamming of doors, and for a moment 
we had a glimpse of one of the fair ones. As you pass their houses, 
the boys, men and old women, stand and stare bravely at you ; but 
the young ladies run in with all possible haste, and fasten the doors 
with a slam and the rattling of bars. If they are not very timid, 
they will then peep out at you through some crevice or hole ; but if 
they have received too severe a shock by the sight of the foreigners, 
they will hide away, — poor things ! — choking, no doubt, with pal- 
pitating hearts. Their horror of a foreigner is very great, — partly 
owing to prejudices cherished by the men and impressed on them, 
and partly to the excesses committed by intemperate soldiers during 
the English war. They fear us more than they do the devil ; and 
they have so much fear of his majesty, that their houses are fortified 
against him as ours are against lightning. On the tops of their 
houses are crooked and pointed rods of iron, fastened from various 
places, which they suppose to be a perfect protection, believing that 
he cannot enter where these are. 

I once went with Dr. B. to visit a village near Canton, when one of 
the girls, of fourteen or fifteen years of age, who was in a Josh-house, 
paying her devotions to the idols, saw us approaching. The moment 
she discovered us, her prayers were forgotten, the senseless idols were 
deserted, and, instead of imploring their aid for protection, she • 
screamed, ran out, and disappeared around the corner of the street. 
They think of little besides dress, ornaments, jewelry, and bright colors. 
Dr. B. informs me that their prejudices against foreigners are being 
gradually dispelled. But you need not be fearful of my bringing 
home a Chinese lady. If pretty faces were a sufficient recommenda- 
tion, I presume one could be suited ; but a mere doll would not make 
a very agreeable companion for life. 

Since I last wrote about Hong-Kong, the steamer has captured eight 
Chinese pirate-junks, with seventy men, and thirty pieces of cannon. 
They fired into the steamer all the way that they were being chased. 
Many articles found with them had belonged to Europeans who have 
been taken and killed. The pirates are likely, however, all to get clear, 
as the proof is not positive against them. They allege in defence that 
they were prisoners, and that those who jumped over and escaped 
ashore were the pirates. A great number escaped on shore, and, 
while they were clambering over the hills, the steamer poured in upon 
them several rounds of grapeshot, wounding many, and killing a num- 
ber. According to the Chinese law, those taken (guilty or not guilty) 
would have had their heads taken off immediately ; but, being brought 
into the English jurisdiction, there is not sufficient evidence to condemn 
them ; and they will be set free, and probably, in less than a week, be 
committing their depredations again. 

Many Chinese are very anxious to go to California. They believe 
that they can walk along and pick up the gold like pebbles as soon as 
they arrive. With regards to all, your brother, 

B. L, B. 



236 CHINA AND MANILLA. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

LETTER TO A BROTHER. THOUGHTS OF HOME. VISIT TO PAGODA. — - 

INTERVIEW WITH A MISSIONARY. DUCK-HATCHING FACTORY. VISIT 

TO MISSIONARY SCHOOL. 

LETTER TO A BROTHER. 

My dear Brother A. : * * * Many things here recall to my 
mind reminiscences of the past. Once, in visiting with Rev. Mr. Dean 
his Chinese school, my school-boy days were brought clearly before the 
mind, and a hundred other circumstances in connection with them also 
appeared, and for a few moments I felt almost sad that I was not a 
school-boy still, and at home, in the full enjoyment of those times. As 
IJooked upon the Chinese urchins at their books, I could fancy myself 
there again at the old red school-house ; then the rustling leaves of the 
books, the teacher, the committee, Rev. Mr. A., the examinations, — 
all were before me. How much enjoyment I have received myself, 
after a considerable absence, in visiting the old parental roof at home ; 
in meeting the family ; in seeing father, mother, brothers and sisters ; 
having a cordial shake of the hand, and exchanging congratulations 
with those who were dear by the natural ties of relationship ! Such 
pleasures are not now to be enjoyed. I can only think of them ; and I 
need not tell you how often the sentiment of " sweet home " forces 
itself into my mind. It can be truly felt and appreciated here. Sur- 
rounded by semi-barbarians in a foreign land, separated as one is from 
every consideration of sympathy, with so many chilling influences to 
encounter, one begins to feel himself alone in the wide world. It is 
then that " sweet home " comes up to the mind in its full power, and 
the reality of such a place is vividly and correctly estimated. That 
song is a favorite one with foreigners here. 

June 17th. — In the forenoon Dr. Hall and I took a boat, and made 
a visit to the pagoda, about eight miles up the river. We started 
with our boys at ten o'clock, and, as we did not require fire-arms, wo 
took only a spy-glass, a spare overcoat, a sheet of Mrs. B. 's gingerbread, 
and our umbrellas. Almost anything can be dispensed with better than 
umbrellas, without which there is no protection from the rain or sun. 

The junks in the river, opposite the city, were so numerous, crowded 
and packed in together, as to appear like a forest of masts as we 
passed. We had a pleasant sail up, it being cool enough, and there 
was but little rain. Mr. G., with Dr. K., on board his little cutter, 
and bound up the river, passed us, and hailed to know if we were 
well provided with food, &c, offering to spare us some if we were not. 

We landed, and walked to the pagoda, a distance of half a mile. 
The road was a little irregular raised pathway through the rice and 
cotton fields. Peach-trees grew in abundance on the little creeks and 
ditches which extend into the land. We passed through a part of the 
village, and the people exhibited no rudeness towards us ; but not so 
their dogs. These flew out at us, keeping up a continual barking as 



SHANGHAE. VISIT TO PAGODA. 237 

long as we were in sight. They are poor, thin, miserable, l^ena-look- 
ing animals, and, doubtless, half-starved ; for the Chinese themselves 
— the lower classes — eat what ought to be thrown to the dogs. 
About twenty rods from the pagoda we stopped and viewed it. It 
was octagonal in shape, seven stories, and, I should think, was less 
than two hundred feet high, and from fifty to seventy-five feet in cir- 
cumference. A long spire extended up from the top, on which were 
two gilt balls ; and bells were suspended at angles of each story 
from ends of arms that extend out and curve upwards, — fifty- 
six bells in all, — which, when the wind blew, rang constantly. We 
could now and then hear their soft and delicate tones, which, at times, 
were almost drowned by the singing and chattering of birds that were 
flying and circling over and about all parts of the pagoda, as if it was 
their hive, from which they were swarming. These varied noises, 
mingled with the sighing of the winds, sounded mournful and sad. 
We came to the fence which enclosed the pagoda, and sent a boy in 
quest of the keeper. A priest came, unlocked the doors, and per- 
mitted us to enter. We ascended to the seventh story, the stairs being 
in flights from story to story. Four doors of each story opened to 
little verandas, on which we could walk entirely around the building. 
We could now perceive little clay images of human figures fixed on 
the arms, and at their extreme ends the carving of a fish. The bells 
suspended from them were about the size of a large dinner-bell, 
vibrating sounds half-niusicai and half-solemn, like the strains of the 
iEolian harp. 

The view from the top of the pagoda was very beautiful. The 
country appeared flat and nearly level for thirty miles all around, and 
here and there interspersed were little groves of bamboo and other 
trees, which shaded their villages. The only " hills " (so called) that 
were to be seen were three or four blue, monumental-looking eminences, 
that lay in a group, some thirty or forty miles up the river. The 
river itself, crooked and winding, and dotted with small junks, stretched 
away to the northward, and disappeared in the horizon. And below 
us lay the town, a mass of black, rusty-colored buildings, with nar- 
row, ditch-like streets extending through it, and enlivened by a popu- 
lation of about two thousand inhabitants. The houses were one story 
high, mostly built of wood, and looking as if they had been run 
together in moulds. On the walls of the pagoda we saw inscribed 
hundreds of names of those who had visited it. Some were cut in 
the wood, some were scratched, some were written with a pencil, and 
some with a piece of charcoal, &c. I thought we might as well im- 
mortalize our names in this corner of the globe, and so I wrote " Dr. 
Hall and Dr. Ball, Boston." On our way down I made a search for 
the nests of the birds which were flying in and out. They are gen- 
erally concealed among the timbers, which cross each other in layers, 
one above the other, and form a central column of support to the 
structure; but were beyond the reach of my arm, the birds having 
taken care to provide against any disturbance of that kind. 

We next visited the Josh-temple, which was well provided with 
idolatrous images of all kinds and sizes. In the centre of a room 



238 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

stood three great human figures, about twenty feet high, and a row of 
smaller ones all around at the outside. We passed through this 
entrance to an inner set of buildings, and visited several rooms of their 
gods, where a number of priests were standing, sitting or loitering 
about, and one of them was drumming with a small mallet on a hol- 
low ball of wood. This drumming is kept up continually, night and 
day. When one priest tires, another takes his place, commencing 
before the other has left off, so that there shall be no cessation of 
sound ; and how many years this has been already kept up, although 
informed, I have forgotten. After we had left, I returned again, to 
test the attachment of the priests to their gods, and tried to purchase 
one of their little idols. At first, the answer was, " No." Afterwards 
he said that four dollars would purchase it. I offered him two dollars, 
which he would not take, but said I could have it for three. As I 
already had several, I did not purchase it. 

Monday, June 18th. — At four p. m. I took my boy, and walked to 
Dr. Bridgeman's, several miles distant. On entering what I supposed 
to be the house, the first person, I met was Rev. Mr. Jenkins, whom 
I first saw on board of the " Cleone," about a fortnight before 
leaving Boston. I had mistaken the house, and gone into his instead 
of Dr. B.'s, who lived just across the street, which was so narrow that 
I could cross it at a single step, although I believe it is somewhat nar- 
rower than the streets usually are. I spent a pleasant hour with Dr. 
and Mrs. B. They have two Chinese girls, six and eight years old, 
which they are bringing up, who speak English well, — even better 
than their own language. Mrs. B. played the piano, and they accom- 
panied her with their voices, singing prettily, though their voices are 
yet to be mod .lated to musical softness. They read in English and 
Chinese, — in English very well ; but the Chinese I could only judge 
of by the sounds, which, to my ear, were bad enough. I read a letter 
which the eldest girl had written to another Chinese girl, an acquaint- 
ance, living at Dr. B.'s, in Canton. It was in English, and showed 
good penmanship and very fair composition for one so young. She is 
only eight years of age, and is already betrothed. 

I was so much interested in witnessing the attainments of these 
children, that I stopped longer than I intended, and was induced 
finally to remain to tea. I had a nice cup of tea, — an article the 
missionaries seem always fortunate in procuring, — and some stewed 
peaches, which were quite a rarity here. The principal fruit to be 
had since I have been in Shanghae has been the peboos. These look 
much like a white plum, and are agreeable to the taste. The flavor 
is variable, being sometimes like roasted aprie, then like strawberry, 
and then like strawberry mixed with quince. Plums and peaches 
made their appearance about the middle of this month, but are not 
yet fully ripe. Fresh dates, oranges, raisins and English walnuts, 
were on the table at dinner yesterday at Mr. R.'s. 

Nothing particular occurred in my walk home, except that a large 
dog sprang at me as I was leaving a bamboo lumber-yard, which I had 
taken a fancy to look at. Had I not used my umbrella, he would 
have laid hold of me. 



SHANGHAE. DUCK-HATCHING. 239 

Saturday, June 2Zd. — I dined at Dr. Lockhart's, where I met 
three English gentlemen, strangers to me. After dinner Dr. L. 
took me to see the Duck-hatching Factory, where they hatch out 
ducks by the thousand, simply by the aid of a small furnace, in 
which is burnt a little straw. The room is the inside of a long, one- 
story Chinese building, battened on the sides with straw, and kept 
darkened — lanterns being necessary to see in it. The temperature 
is continued at about ninety-five degrees Fahrenheit, or from that to 
one hundred. The number of eggs undergoing the process of incu- 
bation at this time is about ten thousand. They are first placed in 
open baskets and left in the room for several days. These baskets of 
eggs are then set over furnaces of a gentle heat, after which they are 
transferred to broad platforms, or shelves, that extend the whole 
length of the room. The shelves are covered with cotton batting, on 
which the eggs are placed, close to each other, in a single layer, and 
turned over every day^ This is done by two or three Chinamen in 
constant attendance, who spread their hands over as many eggs as 
the fingers can reach, rolling them with both hands at the same time, 
and rattling them together so hard that I expected to see some of 
them break. They so arrange it as to turn out about a thousand 
ducks every few days, different lots of eggs passing through the dif- 
ferent stages of incubation at the same time. We saw several baskets 
full of ducklings which had just burst their prison-shells. Having 
been fed for a day or two, they are peddled about the streets, and 
sold to those who make a business of raising them in large flocks. 
The price of such is now about twelve or fifteen cash, or about a cent 
apiece Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 

Shanghae, Sunday, June2Aih. — I attended service, with friends, 
at Mr. Medhurst's church within the city, where Mr. Muirhead 
preached. 

After church I came home, with my boy, through a part of the 
city which I had not before seen, and glanced over the curious articles 
for sale. At every place I stopped a crowd of Chinese gathered 
about to gaze at me, but gave me no trouble. 

The " Coquette " has been several days in getting up from Woosung, 
and is still a mile below. Mrs. B. sent down and received her 
packages, which came to Hong-Kong by the " Illzade." I hardly 
dare to expect anything for myself, yet I can but hope. 

I came near having a conflagration in my room last night, having 
set on fire my mosquito-net ; but I extinguished the flame in season 
to prevent it. If I could burn up all the mosquitoes, I should not 
mind for once having a good fire. 

Monday, June 25th. — I went this morning, before eight o'clock, 
on board the " Coquette," with Mr. S., to see if I had any news from 



240 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Lome. I saw Captain Prescott, and obtained no letters ; but there 
may be some by the steamer to-morrow. 

This being the day when a lot of ducks were expected to be hatched, 
I went, after dinner, to the " Duck-hatching Factory," to see them 
come out of their shells. They had, however, already hatched, 
the most of them leaving their shells yesterday. The Mttle ducklings 
lay in baskets beneath the several platforms from which they were 
hatched ; and they were as lively and musical as ten hundred such 
motherless little creatures could be imagined. 

Tuesday, June 26th. — I read myself to sleep last night. The 
weather is rainy, as usual. The steamer came this afternoon with 
the overland mail from Hong-Kong, but there was nothing for me. 
I am doomed to disappointment. 

We went after dinner to the English consul's, and waited patiently 
till the mail was assorted. Mrs. B. received two letters, portions of 
which were interesting to me. I saw the deaths of several friends 
noticed in the papers. The young, as well as the old, are passing 
away at home. Since Mrs. B.'s package came, Sunday, I have been 
quite busy and interested in looking over the Boston papers. Mr. 
Huttleston received the news of his father's death, at Batavia, yester- 
day. His father was master of a vessel, bound home to New York. 
A spar fell on one of his arms, and partially paralyzed it. On 
the third day after the accident they reached Batavia, where he had 
his arm amputated ; and he died of lockjaw the next day. 

The moon has shone out to-night, and the stars have appeared, for 
the first time, I think, since I have been in Shanghae. 

Thursday, June 2Sth. — I called on some of the missionaries this 
p. m., and visited the missionary school under the direction of Bishop 
Boone. This is devoted entirely to the instruction of Chinese children, 
and is taught by two American ladies — Miss Morse and Miss Jones. 
I have forgotten the number of pupils, but think them about thirty. 
They study American or English school-books, translated into and 
printed in Chinese. They have no knowledge of the English language, 
it being thought advisable that they should not learn it. They occupy 
one room, and all study together, and aloud, after the manner of 
the Chinese. The variety of their voices and tones, which were high 
and low, quick and slow, abrupt and drawling, was to me a queer 
confusion of sounds, and I did not feel exactly myself till I got out 
again into the open air. The teachers, however, told me that their 
ears have become so accustomed to it that they do not now notice it. 



SHANGHAE. THE GOLD FEVER. 241 

The school is in full operation ; such a set of bald heads, with young 
bodies, their only hair a braided queue, hanging down the back ; such 
young faces in the dress of old men, in frocks, leggins, and large 
shoes, with boys' motions and actions, and the medley of voices ; such 
a variety of grotesque sounds and tones, was a very novel sight, and 
would make a laughable picture ; but it would be necessary to pro- 
duce the sounds to give a correct idea of a Chinese school. 

T 

LETTER TO A BROTHER. 

Shanghae, June 28th. 
My dear Brother J. : * * * * * * *# 
I have seen Boston papers, the Post, Traveller, Transcript, &c, which 
had date up to February last, and observe that a terrible disease has 
broken out among you, carrying off hundreds, and I know not but 
thousands. It has prevailed here to a greater or less extent. Many 
of the foreign population have been taken away, and the Chinese con- 
siderably subject to it. I was a little affected myself, but was soon 
able to arrest its progress. I know not how it is at home ; but here 
it indiscriminately affects all classes ; age, habits, or occupation, seem- 
ing to make very little difference, and requiring no particular altera- 
tion in the treatment. The brain is almost invariably the seat of the 
disease, and with many it runs into a species of monomania. Last 
week a whole ship's company were carried off, master, mate, pas- 
sengers, and all. There were between one and two hundred on board, 
upwards of a hundred Chinamen. A few, however, left the vessel 
several days before it sailed, and were the only ones who escaped. At 
present the disease, as an epidemic, has very much subsided. It has 
proved to be contagious, and has, from the constant craving of patients 
for gold, been denominated " the gold fever." The specific remedy 
has not been found among the medicinal agents of China, but I am 
informed that it exists in great abundance in California, and can be 
easily obtained there, by digging among the roots, herbs and rocks, of 
that region, and is familiarly known as the " root-oj "-all-evil." Many 
persons are already on the ground, seeking for the cure, and no doubt 
will find enough for themselves and some for others. Should any of 
you be seriously ill of this peculiar affection, of course the same treat- 
ment would have to be adopted, and you would have to emigrate 
southward to find the natural restorative ; and it is not impossible 
that we may meet there; for, should I become seriously affected, I 
might be obliged to go. However, I do not yet make any calculations 
of the kind. A proposal was made me, a short time since, to go as 
surgeon to a ship ; and had I been ready, with time to have made the 
necessary arrangements, and all things agreeable, I might have gone. 
I had half a mind to go, as it was ; but it seemed a kind of Avild-goose 
chase, though I should have gone without expense, and received a 
compensation for my services. I observe by the papers, through the 
friends of Mrs. B., that no small number of physicians have gone out 
21 



242 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

to California from the United States. My remembrances to the fam- 
ily, to friends, &c. B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

FOURTH OF JULY IN CHINA. DEPARTURE FOR NINGPOO. WOOSUNG ON 

BOARD PORTUGUESE LORCHA. EXCURSION "WITH MR. WEST. NU- 

WONG. MOUNTAIN ASCENT. FUNERAL OBSERVANCES. 

Friday, June 29th. — I took my boy, and went into the city. After 
calling at several places on business and friendship, I visited both of 
the large Ningpoo furniture shops, but bought nothing. I stopped 
here and there to see little curiosities, and at each halt had quite a 
crowd of speculators. One man, who spoke some English pretty well, 
thrust himself on me as interpreter, following me to each place, 
though I did not want him, and tried to get rid of him. I saw numer- 
ous beggars, and, as they looked sick and so miserable, I contrived, out 
of sight of each other, to throw them a few handfuls of copper cash. 
The Chinese around appeared pleased to have me notice their poor. I 
observed a funeral procession also. The priests went before the coffin, 
burning Josh-paper and scattering it along the way ; and two young 
females in white dresses walked behind. Their feet were compressed to 
about half the natural size, and their gait was a hobbling step. There 
was nothing very imposing about the procession. I bought some paint- 
ings at the gardens. I passed a place occupied by the chief magis- 
trate, which I recognized by a large screen before the entrance, painted 
with Chinese figures. I asked my boy to lead the way in ; he said, 
" No can go in." I then went into the court on my own responsibil- 
ity, and he remained outside, seeming much surprised at my daring to 
venture within the grounds of a mandarin. There was nothing in 
particular to be seen there, but several criminals who were chained in 
a large cage in the gateway. Next, after stopping at a sing-song 
(Chinese theatre), I passed a priest wallowing through the mud, and 
on the hard flat stones of the street, on his knees. He was repeating a 
prayer from some scrolls of paper, translated from the books of the 
Buddhists. At first I took him for a beggar, but could not exactly 
make out his mission. 

I met here the Rev. Mr. Muirhead, who explained to me some plac- 



SHANGHAE. CHINESE WASHERWOMEN. 243 

ards which were posted up about the city, and the instructions of Su, 
the governor of Canton. Mr. M. had just been preaching to an 
audience of Chinese, that he had collected in the streets. Home at 
six. In the evening I called on Dr. L., took tea, and conversed with 
him a couple of hours. 

A few days since, Mr. B. bought several hens, so as to have fresh 
eggs every day ; since then they have been dying off by degrees, and 
to-day another one of them has died. Mr. B. attributes their death 
to the cook, a Chinaman ; and thinks he kills them with poison or 
salt, because of the loss of his profits in supplying the family with 
eggs. In buying, the cook has it in his power to make one or two cash 
on each egg, and therefore it is an object with him to kill the hens, 
and oblige Mr. B. to send him to the shops for eggs. The cooks expect 
to make a profit on all the provisions they purchase for their employ- 
ers. The Chinese are up to all such modes of rascality. Last night a 
new white silk coat came from the washerman's entirely ruined by 
being burned or stained in the ironing. It was the first time that it 
had been washed : and there was but a small part of it which had not 
been colored brown or black, and some of the buttons showed bare 
the wood through the covering. 

Knowing that the washerman and tailors were in league with each 
other, and that I could get no redress of the former, I thought I 
would try the Chinese tailor, and sent for him to come to me. When 
he came in, I said a few words to him, and then, getting the coat, and 
pretending to be angry with him, threw it at him, saying, 

" There is your new silk coat that you made for me ; you can wear 
it, if you like." 

He took the coat, and, looking at it, said, 

" Yeas, tadt dam wash-a-man have makee spile-em tadt cote ; he 
have makee tadt iron too muchy fire. ' ' 

Then correcting himself, — fearing, I suppose, to implicate the wash- 
erman, — he said the stain from the buttons had caused the discol- 
oration of the coat ; and he offered to make me another instead of it, 
and took it away. I thought this very good proof that he considered 
himself somewhat to blame for it ; and that, fearing he should lose 
my patronage, he was ready to conciliate by making another. 

Clothing is often ruined, the first two or three times that it is washed, 
by the rough usage of the washermen, who beat it with stones. They 
do not care if they spoil twenty dollars' worth, if they only get the 
few cents due for their own labor. 



244 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Shanghae, Wed., July 4dh, — " the glorious 4ih." 

Dear Brother : Capt. W., of the " Antelope," a merchant ves- 
sel, and the only American vessel here, fired a salute of twenty-one 
guns at noon and at night. Mr. Griswold, the American consul, gave 
a dinner-party, at which every American in Shanghae was present, 
except the missionary families, who declined, probably because of their 
position. 

The company, numbering eighteen, made up a nice social table-full ; 
and among them were two American ladies — Mrs. B. and Mrs. W. 
We took our seats, at eight o'clock in the evening, to a table of good 
things, which, even in this celestial country, would reflect no discredit 
on the fourth of July in America. 

Much good-humor and hilarity prevailed among the company, while 
their knives and forks were performing duty to the evident satisfaction 
of those interested. The last courses of nuts, fruit, ice-creams, &c, 
came on about ten, after which were the usual compliments to each 
other, healths drank, &c. When the ladies had withdrawn, then 
came the toasts. 

Mr. Griswold arose, and, making a few remarks appropriate to the 
occasion, gave " The day we celebrate," followed with three cheers by 
all present, and by a response from the guns of the " Antelope," in 
the harbor. At each of the first thirteen toasts a cannon was fired 
from Capt. Watkins' vessel, the signals being given by a lantern sus- 
pended from the flag-staff. 

Mr. Cunningham gave, " The President of the United States." 
Hurra ! hurra ! hurra ! and boom went the cannon. Dr. Hall gave, 
" The heroes of '76 : may we not prove their unworthy descend- 
ants" with hurras and cannon. Capt. W. proposed, " The immortal 
Washington : first in the hearts of his country men." Mr. Spooner 
gave, " The signers of the declaration of independence ; " one of our 
company, " The navy and, merchant service." Mr. Fogg gave, " Our 
host" to which was replied, " The army." Dr. Ball gave, " Lafay- 
ette, the nobleman voho assisted America in achieving her independence : 
may his memory continue ever in the hearts of the American people." 
Mr. Graves proposed, " The reverend clergy." Mr. Williams, after a 
few remarks on the " glorious American revolution and Washington," 
gave, "His country is his independence — her independence his monu- 
ment." Captain W. gave, " Fourth of July to everybody." Dr. H., 
k< The smartest nation in all creation — America." Mr. Huttleston 
gave, " Health of Mr. Griswold; " Mr. Griswold, " The English na- 
tion." Mr. Crampton, the only Englishman present, replied with a 
beautiful sentiment : " The tree of liberty : may it flourish throughout 
the world, and every individual partake of its fruits." Mr. Baylies 
gave, " Health to Mr. Crampton." Mr. C. gave, " Commodore Gei- 
sinjer and the American Squadron." 

A few more toasts were given, and Dr. B. was called on for a 
song, which he declined on the plea of inability ; but this was of no 
use, no excuse being admissible, and he sang, " The Ode to Napoleon's 
Grave." Afterwards Mr. W., Capt. R., Dr. H. and Mr. B., followed 
with songs. Some scattering sentiments were given, and at twelve 



FROM SHANGHAE TO WOOSUNG. 245 

we rose from the table, repairing to the veranda, and witnessing an 
exhibition of fire-works in the yard in front of the house. These were 
very good, of Chinese manufacture, and lasted half an hour. We 
then returned to the room, and sang " America" and " Auld Lang 
Syne." We now separated to go home ; but a part remained, walked 
to the Bunn to enjoy the cool air of the evening, and then went down 
to Mr. F.'s, who set before us oysters and other refreshments, of which 
we partook, when the party, returning, separated for the night. 

By this you will see that the fourth of July is not forgotten, even 
in a country as far off as China ; and I should hope it would not be 
this side of the Arctic Ocean, if there were any Americans there. 

Yours, &c, B. L. B. 

Monday, July 9th. — I have been very busy all day making ready 
to move. I was informed that a Portuguese lorcha would sail to Ning- 
poo to-morrow morning, but that the captain could accommodate no 
passengers. The English war-steamer " Medea " leaves here on Satur- 
day for Hong-Kong, touching at Lewcong, near Ningpoo, and at 
Amoy, on the way. I learn that it is not probable she would take 
me, as she has two passengers already engaged, and rarely takes any. 
As she is engaged about the wrecks of four vessels, recently run ashore, 
I cannot see the captain to ascertain. I have seen the Portuguese 
captain, who said he did not wish to take a passenger, — that his 
cabin was very small, his cook sick, and he had no conveniences, &c. 

But as this was the only means of going that I could learn of, and 
as I had found a little perseverance to succeed on other occasions, I 
talked with him a considerable time, telling him that I would sleep on 
deck ; was not particular about the living, especially for the short 
space of two days, &c. He said his vessel was very small, and that 
he did not wish to treat a passenger as he should be obliged to treat 
me ; but I overruled every objection, he finally saying that if I chose 
to take up with the accommodations I could go ; and so I succeeded. I 
went speedily home, attended to several professional engagements, and 
went out after dinner to make several calls ; but the depth of the mud 
occasioned me to abandon that purpose, though I would have taken a 
chair had there been one at hand ; packed the remainder of my 
things, and engaged a boat to take me to Woosung at night. I set- 
tled with my tailor, who, after repeated messages to him, had got my 
work done ; called at Messrs. Walcott, Bates & Co.'s, to get letters to 
persons at Ningpoo. At Mr. R.'s met Dr. H., who gave me a mat- 
tress to take with me for a bed, and when nearly twelve at night I was 
ready to leave. The doctor went down to the boat with me. Find- 
21* 



246 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

ing iny baggage, boy and goods, all there and right, I bade adieu to 
Shanghae, when, crawling in under the low cover of the boat, I lay 
down on the mattress, and the boatman pushed off down the river. 

Woo swig, Tuesday, July 10th. — We came part way down the 
Woosung river last night, and anchored, waiting two or three hours 
for the tide to favor us. But, 0, the mosquitoes ! I lay kicking and 
twisting all night, not sleeping a moment ; and was heartily glad when 
it was day, and they had taken themselves off, for they commit their 
depredations only at night. Their bites feel as if their bills were made 
of red-hot iron, and burn like it for about fifteen minutes. 

I had, unknown to the boatmen, about one hundred and fifty dollars 
in my valise, and thirty in my pockets ; and, as the boatmen lay near 
me, I kept my hands in my pockets all the time ; but there was no 
attempt to rob me. A little after day we arrived alongside Capt. R.'s 
vessel at Woosung. Towards night Dr. Murray called, and we all went 
on board of Capt. E.'s vessel, and dined with him. I was a little reluct- 
ant to stop, as the Portuguese vessel had arrived, and I was afraid 
she would be off. Capt. E. assuring me that he would see that I was 
not left, I remained quiet. We had not, however, finished dinner, 
before a gun from the vessel a few miles below was fired for me, and 
the mainsail hoisted. Capt. Roundy (many thanks I owe him, as 
well as Capt. Endicott, for their kindnesses), with six men at the 
oars, put me on board in season to secure my passage, and in a few 
minutes we were off. 

The Portuguese lorcha I took to be a man-of-war, as she had on her 
deck a number of four-pounders, and two swivel six-pounders. We 
sailed down the Yantz-tze-kiang before a good breeze, but, the tide 
turning, it was so strong against us that we came to anchor in the 
night. 

Wednesday, July 11th. — It has been raining the most of the day. 
The cabin being so closely covered that I could not see to read or write, 
and the air being so close there, I preferred to be in the rain on deck 
a part of the time. 

We were under sail early in the morning, anchoring once during the 
day. The wind dying away, about ten at night we again came to 
anchor, where it seemed to be but a few miles from the mouth of the 
Ningpoo river. Rows of lights lined the shore on both sides of us, 
and there appeared one high in the air, which proved to be that of the 
pagoda on the top of the mountain which overlooks the entrance of 
the river. 



FROM SHANGHAE TO NINGPOO. 247 

I have had considerable conversation with my Portuguese friend. 
He is not the captain, but is commander of all the Portuguese naval 
forces on the coast of China, — a kind of commodore. He has nothing 
to do with the management of the vessel, but stays mostly in the 
cabin, very seldom making his appearance on deck. The lorcha is not 
a man-of-war, but a private vessel, belonging to himself and another 
individual. He leaves her at Ningpoo, and goes to another station at 
Amoy. He was educated in Portugal, and teaches a naval school at 
Macao. He is very gentlemanly, polite and social, though somewhat 
reserved ; and he says that he is inclined to melancholy, sitting some- 
times, for several hours, with his hands to his head, entirely absorbed 
in his thoughts. He read in a paper to-day a reference to a brother- 
in-law of his, a captain of the " Dos Hermanos," who was lost over- 
board in the Manilla Bay. He said it brought the circumstances 
so fresh to his mind that he should think of it all night, and get no 
sleep on account of it. This disposition of his led him at first to 
refuse to take me. I find that he knows a number of persons in 
Manilla with whom I also am well acquainted. He speaks little Eng- 
lish, and, when I first saw him, he wished to know if I could not speak 
Portuguese or Spanish, as he understands those languages. With the 
three languages, we continue to get along very well. On account of 
some disagreement between the English and Portuguese at Macao, he 
dislikes the former, and supposed at first that I was an Englishman. 

I think we must have passed the four wrecks at night, as we saw 
nothing of them. Last night there were very few mosquitoes. To- 
night they are so numerous that I have been walking the deck, with 
my umbrella spread over my head to ward off their attacks. 

We are at anchor this evening at the mouth of the Ningpoo river, 
opposite Tinghae, in the midst of numbers of junks, all swarming 
with Chinese. There is a row of lights on each side of the river, and, 
by the noise and voices of the Chinese sailors and boatmen around us, 
I should think that a hundred savages were celebrating some of their 
orgies. 

Ningpoo, July 12th. 
Dear Brother : At five this morning we were lying at anchor in 
the Ningpoo river, opposite Tinghae, and left for Ningpoo, with the 
aid of a breeze of two miles per hour. Part of the way the men were 
plying the long oars over the vessel's side, and a small boat, manned 
with rowers, was towing us ahead. The pagoda and other buildings 
at the top of the mountain, on one hand, and the tower on the other} 



248 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

look very pretty. Both are fortified, and batteries, at intervals, line 
both sides of the river a little higher up. Here, at Tinghae, a great 
battle was fought a few years since with the English ; or, rather, there 
was a great slaughter of the Chinese, thousands of whom, it is said, 
there perished. 

The country further up is very picturesque, — more so than I have 
seen anywhere before. Tinghae is very low, and is built on flat, 
marshy land, protected from the water by a high wall, and which 
extends about two miles along the river. I thought I had seen junks 
by thousands before at Shanghae and Canton, but here, at Ningpoo, 
they appear in ten-fold numbers. We passed several Portuguese 
lorchas," which were lying here, the Chinamen on board of which 
chin-chinned, or saluted, their countrymen on board of our vessel, wel- 
coming them on their safe arrival. As we neared each of the lorchas, 
a Chinaman, with a gong, stationed himself high up on the after part 
of the vessel, and another with a kind of drum, who commenced a 
requiem with a banging and rattling of their respective instruments. 
This was answered in the same way by the Chinamen on board of our 
vessel, and such an outrageous noise I hardly ever before heard. We 
could hear nothing else on board, and were deafened for some minutes 
after it ceased. If the Chinese can perceive any honor in such bar- 
barous noises as these, I believe they alone can enjoy them. The only 
foreign flag to be seen floating here at this time is the Portuguese, 
from the lorchas. 

The boy I have with me now is not the one I had in Shanghae. I 
only told him of going to Woosung, and, when he came to know that 
I was going to Ningpoo, he left me. Captain Roundy kindly lent 
me his boy for the trip, and I dismissed mine altogether, much to his 
surprise. The captain's boy is a native of this part of the country, 
and will be more useful to me than the other, though he speaks no 
English, and I find it difficult to make him understand ; still he is the 
most agreeable Chinese boy I have had. 

At five p. m., having been since morning getting up from Tinghae, a 
distance of fifteen miles, we came to anchor opposite the city of Ning- 
poo. I immediately took my boy and went on shore for a walk, and to 
get a view of the place. 

Landing on the bank opposite the city, I strolled past several mis- 
sionary houses, and met a gentleman whom I knew to be an American. 
I accosted him, and, after a little conversation, finding me to be a 
stranger, he took me to his house, introducing me to Dr. M'Cartee,a 
missionary-physician. Dr. M. invited me to call and take " pot-luck " 
with them at any time I should feel disposed. Almost every one 
gives the same general welcome. Continuing my walk, I next met 
Mr. West, whose acquaintance I made at Shanghae, and another 
American, with his wife. I spoke with Mr. W. a few minutes, and 
passed on. 

Pursuing my course by a narrow path, made of flat stones, — the 
only path I found, — I walked about a mile up the river. The Chinese 
buildings were all superior to any I had before seen. The grounds look 
green and flourishing, the trees are inviting for shades, and the tombs 



NINGPOO. INUNDATION OP CHAPOO. 249 

and coffins which lay exposed to the open air were as numerous aa 
ever, every few minutes coming on some of them. I next met a 
European lady, walking unconcernedly, at a very quick pace ; and 
behind followed another, with a spruce and rather pretty-looking 
Chinese girl by her side, some Chinese servants bringing up the rear. 
The Chinese girl, about sixteen years old, walked past us stiff and 
erect, like a moving statue, looking neither to the right nor the left. 
There was no expression on her face, no movement of her eyes, and no 
motion of ease to her body; and, if I had not seen one foot moving 
before the other, I could not easily have decided that she was not an 
inanimate statue. We then passed numbers of Chinese, and again 
fell in with missionaries, with whom I stopped and had a little chat. 
I found them all Americans, and happy to meet me, and I as much 
so to see some of my own countrymen to speak to. One of them 
gave me the usual invitation to call, &c. 

I continued my walk quite a distance beyond where I landed, and 
met with two Englishmen, who asked me if I had arrived in the lor- 
cha which came in this afternoon. After a little conversation, I went 
with them to their house to tea. My polite host I found to be Mr. 
Davidson, the only English merchant here beside the consul. 

My boy led the way back through the crooked streets to the lorcha, 
at nine p. m., passing, as usual, several shops where the Chinese were 
gambling. It was very warm, and, dreading to be eaten up by the 
mosquitoes, I remained on deck walking until late at night. Having 
no net, the mosquitoes nearly carried me out of my berth the night 
before ; and, fearing that they might quite do so now, as they had 
considerably increased their forces, I took my mattress and lay on deck, 
until a shower of rain drove me below. 

Ningpoo, from an outside view of it, is the handsomest city that I 
have yet seen in China. It is, in fact, the only one to which the term 
handsome can be at all applied ; for little is to be said of them. On 
telling Mr. D. that I intended to return by the way of Chapoo to 
Shanghae by land in a few days, he said that it would be very dan- 
gerous, as Chapoo was in a terrible state just now. He informed me 
that the country above was inundated, the rice-crops destroyed, that 
twenty thousand Chinese had come down to pillage, &c, to keep them- 
selves from starving ; also, that the Taouti (governor) of Ningpoo was 
expecting a similar attack here, and had called on the mandarins and 
wealthy Chinese to contribute money and men to prevent the city 
from being sacked. Another piece of news is the report that the 
emperor has issued an edict that all foreigners in the different ports 
must return to Hong-Kong and Canton by the 27th of this month, 
and that the original thirteen Hongs for foreigners are to be established 
at Canton, as formerly. If that is the case, my stay here among the 
Chinese I fear will not be very agreeable. 

Ningpoo, Friday, July \Zth. — In the morning the missionary whom 
I met in my walk last evening called, and I found him to be the Rev. 
Mr. Way, from Georgia. He very kindly invited me to stop with him 
while I remained here ; and, being assured that I should not incom- 



250 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

mode him, I took my things, and accompanied him on shore to his 
house. 

I found Mr. West staying at Mr. Way's. He is engaged in sketch- 
ing various scenes about Ningpoo, and he leaves this afternoon for an 
excursion into, the country. Learning as much as possible about 
places, people, &c, and as I wished to make a trip into the country, 
we concluded to go together ; to start a little before dark, and return 
on Tuesday or Wednesday of next week. He having made his neces- 
sary arrangements, I had only to make mine, sending, before I left, 
letters to my brothers in Boston. These Mr. Davidson forwards by a 
Chinese boat to the Chusan Islands, where they are taken by vessel to 
Hong-Kong ; and after that they are forwarded by a mercantile house, 
in the overland mail of the English steamer, via Singapore, Hindostan 
and Egypt, through Europe to London, thence to America. 

We waited till ten o'clock in the evening for the return of the boys 
who had been sent to prepare boats, during which time we enjoyed a 
pleasant conversation with Mr. and Mrs. Way. The boys came at 
last, evidently intending to make it late before we should leave, in 
order to avoid the too numerous eyes of the Chinese citizens of Ning- 
poo. Mr. Way seemed to hesitate whether to favor our leaving at 
this late hour of the night ; but we concluded, as we had our things 
on board the boat, all arrangements made, and the men waiting, that 
we had better go at once ; and Mr. W. saw us down to the boat. Here 
we were again detained for nearly an hour, the boys seeming deter- 
mined, by various pretexts for delay, that we should not start until it 
was so late that most of the people should have retired. 

My friend had provided a large bag of copper cash, with silver 
enough, as he said, for all our expenditures, and, at his suggestion, I 
left mine behind ; but, knowing its potency, especially among stran- 
gers, if difficulties or accidents should arise, I returned to the house, 
and privately secured some about my person. 

Yours, &c, B. L. B. 

Saturday, July \Mh. — At eleven last evening we pushed off; and, 
pulling for a mile or two up the river, we landed at some stone steps. 
There we unloaded our things, which were not a small quantity ; for 
we had mattresses, blankets, pillows, coats, mosquito-nets, charcoal for 
cooking, lanterns, kettles, crockery, provisions, and various other 
articles for our comfort. Two or three Chinese observed us here ; but, 
with three coolies, our two boys, our cook and ourselves, we managed 
affairs pretty expeditiously, and, shouldering our goods, took up our 
march across the city. We passed through the streets in a half-run, 
and reached the canal without any accident, though twice, in the nar- 
row, dark, intricate passages, we were near losing each other. The 
watchmen, beating their hollow bamboos, looked at us very sus- 
piciously ; and I do not know what or how many lies the boys told 



NUWONG. VISIT TO A TEMPLE. 251 

them as to what we were doing ; it was sufficient for us to know 
that they did not interfere with us. 

We found the two boats which the boys had engaged in waiting ; 
and, as considerable curiosity was manifested by the passing Chinese, 
our things were hurriedly thrown in, leaving the boys to arrange 
them afterwards, and the boatmen pulled away up the canal. The 
boys prepared the sleeping apparatus in one boat, while in the other, 
which was alongside, the utensils for cooking and other things were 
made ready ; so that we had one boat to sleep in at night, and one to 
live in during the day. We sat up an hour or two, enjoying the 
scenery and the cool air, though little besides the outlines of Chinese 
buildings and clustering bamboo-trees was to be seen at night. Our 
boats were covered with bamboo basket-work, and were very good and 
clean ; and, what was not to be wondered at, were well filled with 
mosquitoes ; but we made ourselves pretty comfortable, though it was 
close when within the nets the boys had contrived to fix up for us. 
The boatmen use no side oars, but propel the boat by sculling with a 
long oar behind. We retired to our beds at one o'clock, and con- 
cluded that we were pretty well off, — thanks to Mr. Way for the 
many comforts he had provided us. With our eyes closed, we lay and 
listened to the grunts of the two men at the oar, which continued 
alternating at each sway of the oar, until we fell asleep. 

Saturday, July 14/A. — We arrived at Nuwong early this morning, 
and arose soon after daylight, having passed a comfortable night in 
our narrow quarters. Several times in the night we were startled from 
our sleep by a loud crash and concussion, which we found to be caused 
by jamming against the stone sides of the arched bridges which we 
passed through. At first we knew not but something serious had 
happened, and aroused with some alarm ; but, after a little time, we 
found everything all right. All these boats have little furnaces to 
cook in, and we breakfasted on board at eight o'clock, the owners 
living in their boats. 

Concluding to visit a temple here, we took up our march for the 
mountains, leaving our boats to repair to the opposite side of the 
canal to avoid the Chinese gathering. 

Our boys leading the way, we passed through the principal street 
of the village, the people crowding on each side to see the "barba- 
rians." The walk continued for nearly two miles to a kind of valley, 
in which is situated the temple. The path was winding, up hill and 
down, and paved with flat stones. Tombs on either side, from the 



252 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

base of the hills half-way up their summits, and coffins covered with 
dried palm-leaves lay exposed in the open air, all along the sides of 
the valley. We went on the side of the mountain opposite the tem- 
ple, where Mr. West stopped and busied himself in taking a sketch. 
In the mean time I ascended to the top, where I had a beautiful view. 
The temple lay in the valley below, a pagoda towered up a little way 
to the left, and another pagoda stood on the top of a mountain on my 
right. The whole country, as far as it could be seen, looked like a 
huge meadow, divided into sections, by ditches intersecting every few 
feet, and dotted here and there with bunches of brownish-red cran- 
berry-bushes ; the ditches being in reality canals, and the bunches of 
bushes towns and villages that were in sight on the eminences. A 
heavy shower suddenly coming up, we ran down into the valley below, 
and sought shelter within the temple. 

This we found to be a cluster of buildings, in which are rooms for 
the idols and priests. After looking a while among the numerous gods, 
the priests, either wishing to show us some politeness or to get some 
money, I know not which, brought us cups of hot tea. I paid them 
a few cash, and lay down on one of the benches to rest, and surveyed 
the huge monster gods and goddesses that towered up in their bright 
and glittering colors twenty or thirty feet above me. Meantime 
beneath their benign influence I fell asleep, and slept soundly, three 
hours. When I awoke I found that my companion had been all the 
while engaged in sketching the figures, images, &c. 

The rain ceasing soon after, we visited both of the pagodas. The 
hill on which one of them stood was hard to climb ; we ascended to 
the top of the pagoda, but stones having fallen out far above, and 
others seeming just ready to make their descent, we hastened down. 
Near the base of the hill Mr. W. had a fall, which hurt him consider- 
ably, and I feared seriously. We made our way back to the boats, 
dined on boiled rice, eggs, and cold chicken, with a cup of tea, retired 
within our nets at dark, and, by the lantern, read till eleven. 

Monastery at Teen-Tung, Sunday, July 15th. — This morning we 
lay within our nets reading till seven. After partaking of a plain 
breakfast of rice, eggs and tea, we concluded to spend the day quietly 
in our boats. We slept very well during the night, though much 
cramped for room, our beds being across the boat, so that we could 
not lie at full length. 

While at breakfast, hearing a more than ordinary noise and 
clatter, we looked out, and found it to proceed from a funeral proces- 



A FUNERAL PROCESSION. HIRED MOURNERS. 253 

sion, just leaving the boat, in which they had come up the canal. The 
coffin was placed on the shore. Two females of the large-footed kind, 
in sedan-chairs, and dressed in white, were wailing, with great outcry. 
The gongs were beaten, pieces of paper were strewed in the path, and 
gilded paper-offerings burned in considerable heaps. 

The Josh-paper was fixed into forms intending to represent Chinese 
shoes, silvered over so as to resemble the sycee silver, for which it is 
substituted. These they carried in baskets before the coffin, stopping 
every few steps to put a little bunch of it on the ground, and burn it ; 
they frequently held and burnt single pieces in the hand. The pieces 
of paper strewed along the path represented their copper cash ; the 
paper being full of little circular cuts, each of which expresses one 
cash, a fraction of a cent. They believe that in the other world the 
departed spirit receives the value represented by the paper. A portion 
of the paper burnt was gilded, which is intended to represent gold. 

The two females, as is usually the case, were hired mourners, paid 
expressly for the occasion. When the procession moved they cried 
and wailed in loud and most doleful voices, distorting their faces and 
wringing their hands, as if their hearts were breaking ; then, they 
would writhe their bodies, shriek and scream, and, burying their faces 
in their hands, cry and sob as if they never, never could be again ■ 
reconciled to this world. When the procession halted a little, their 
lamentations ceased, their countenances relaxed, they laughed, talked 
and ogled, all with so much pleasantness that one could have supposed 
they had never known a moment of grief. When the procession again 
started, they again commenced their dismal wailings ; and, if their 
pay depended on the noise they made, I should think they intended to 
run up a large account against their employers. After seeing it thus 
enacted several times, the scene looked so foolishly ridiculous, and so 
hypocritically superstitious, that I felt like going and turning over 
their sedan-chairs, and pitching them out. 
22 



254 CHINA AND MANILLA. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

DEPARTURE FOR TEEN-TUNG. MOUNTAIN CHAIRS. — MONASTERY. FIRST 

BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE. OTHER BUILDINGS. FOURTH OR ANCES- 
TRAL TEMPLE. LADY AND PRIEST. PAGAN MONASTIC OBSERVANCES. 

After taking a little walk on shore, we decided to let the boatmen 
convey us to Teen-Tung, a place some twelve miles distant. As we 
lived in the boat, no preparations were necessary, and we started at 
once, leaving Nuwong behind. 

Our boats were sculled along, each by one man, though they had 
two others to relieve them at intervals, at the rate of about three miles 
an hour ; and we had plenty of time to read and observe the prospect 
about us. The day was very hot, but, keeping under the covers of our 
boats, we were screened from the sun. We occasionally passed Chi- 
nese boats, some laden with bamboo-poles, some with brush for fire- 
wood, rolled into fagots, and one had a freight of Chinese girls, who 
seemed to be horror-struck on discovering us " foreign devils," and 
' appeared as if they wished that they had some place to flee to ; but we 
were soon out of their sight. 

For many miles the country was flat, and intersected with canals, 
the only roads there are. The water in the canals was within a few 
inches of the surface of the ground. The mountains we are approach- 
ing look very pretty in the distance. In many places along the banks 
shady trees improve the prospect. Chinese peasants are here and 
there at work on the rice-fields ; rice being almost the only thing we 
saw growing, excepting a kind of flag, in two or three marshy spots. An 
hour brought us to the confluence of several canals that led in different 
directions like the spokes of a wheel, forming a basin at their junc- 
tion, in extent, perhaps, an acre of water. Two arched bridges 
crossed two of the canals, and I noticed, with considerable interest, 
three Chinese women wind around by a little path in the banks, mount 
up and cross over the bridge, passing along out of sight, on the oppo- 
site side. They each carried a burden, and, I presume, from their 
gait, were more or less small-footed, for they appeared to be walking 
on little rolling stones. k 

At the base of a single high hill that stood alone on our right were 
several tombs, nearly hid among the shrubbery. Characters and 



MOUNTAIN CHAIRS. 255 

figures of the Chinese were carved into the stones ; and in front of one 
tomb stood, sculptured in stone, a horse with its saddle and bridle on, 
and so perfectly done, that had it been painted a natural color, I might 
have taken it for a living one. And a little further on stood a small 
temple, or Josh-house. 

We passed under one of the bridges, and came to a line of large 
stones, which gave evidence of once having resisted the action of the 
ocean. The whole country appeared as if at one time it had been a 
part of the sea, — a kind of bay, extending into the land here, — and 
had been filled up by washings from the hills. 

We arrived at a village about one p. m., which was the end of our 
travel by water, the remainder of the way being over the mountains. 
We dined in our boat. Learning that it was six miles to the monas- 
tery, and the weather being very hot, we sent for a couple of sedan- 
chairs, and five coolies, to convey us there. For these we were to pay 
two hundred cash, about twenty cents to each man. Packing up our 
beds, provisions, &c, in half an hour all was ready. The boatmen 
were paid something to buy their rice with, and were to await our 
return, and we mounted into our chairs. These were a skeleton chair, 
called mountain chairs. Each consisted simply of two horizontal poles, 
between which, suspended by cords, were two pieces of boards, one to 
sit on, and the other to rest the feet on, while swinging in the air. 

As our train started, it was most amusing to look at, and caused 
us no little merriment while the novelty lasted. Mr. West, in his 
chair, supported on the shoulders of two coolies, one before and the 
other behind him, went ahead, and I followed in the same manner. 
Then came a cooly with the bulky baggage hanging by a pole, carried 
on one shoulder like a pair of scales ; then came the two boys and one 
boatman, each with bundles in their hands ; and, lastly, followed a 
rabble of men and boys, shouting and laughing, the noise of which 
brought others to look at us from the houses lining the street on each 
side. We left the village and continued up the mountain, occasionally 
getting down and walking, to relieve the coolies, as well as to relieve 
ourselves from the sickening motion of swinging. This kind of labor 
seemed hard for the coolies, though they are accustomed to it, and 
carry burthens over the mountains of several times our weight. 

Our path was about five feet wide, paved with flat stones ; and, at 
the distance of three miles, we arrived on the summit of the pass be- 
tween two mountains. Here, in a " rest-house," we stopped and sat 
down, for a short time, on the stone benches. These " rest-houses" 



256 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

are provided by government, or "by benevolent individuals ; being 
placed along the way, at convenient intervals, for the comfort of the 
travelling public, and free to all. This one was nearly full of coolies, 
with their burthens, sitting on stone slab benches, around the outside 
of the room. The " rest-houses" are built of wood, supported by 
eight stone posts, and placed directly over the path, somewhat resem- 
bling a small railroad station-house. Three sides are open, and the 
other is walled up with hewn stone, leaving a free passage-way 
through, continuous with the road. The roof is curved concavedly at 
its angles, and covered with red earthen tiles. On a sign-board inside 
is written in Chinese characters, " A house for travellers to rest in;" 
and on a stone tablet are inscribed the names of those who contributed 
to its erection. A pagoda was standing a little way off on one side, 
crooked, out of shape, and evidently very old. We postponed visiting 
it until our return. 

Descending the mountain on the opposite side, we stopped in another 
" rest-house " at its base. Here we saw the tea-plant growing in the 
adjoining fields. It was planted in hills, like potatoes, and at a little 
distance much resembles them. We went over and examined the 
plants, and found them like bunches of hawthorn-bushes, about a foot 
and a half high. The tops had been cropped, and the tender leaves 
were sprouting out luxuriantly from all sides. They had been recently 
hoed and hilled up like corn. In another field of moist soil the lotus- 
plant was being cultivated. Its tops resemble our wild lily-pads, It 
has a large bulbous root, like the potato, though much coarser, and 
is much esteemed by the Chinese as a kind of substitute. 

Our way now led along by a small river, through a rich valley, the 
scenery of which was very interesting. Villages were interspersed, 
and the mountains, four or five miles distant, ranged on each side like 
two great barriers. They were very high, and down their green slopes 
rivulets were coursing, curving from ledge to ledge, and reflecting in 
the sun a silvery brightness, as if they were frozen cascades. Now and 
then we had to cross, on small, narrow bridges, a deep abyss, over 
which we found, sometimes, ourselves suspended. At these times the 
forward cooly, in stepping off the opposite side, would turn at an 
angle, while the hinder man was still on the bridge, which would 
bring us hanging diagonally immediately over the depth below ; and, 
as we cast our eyes down and thought of a single misstep, it would 
cause our flesh to thrill. 

We passed through several villages, with, at times, a considerable 



APPROACH TO THE TEMPLE. 257 

crowd of Chinese following in our rear. The younger children, on 
seeing us two " evil spirits," would run, screaming, and hide their 
faces in their mothers' laps. The elder ones, and those who had suffi- 
cient courage, with countenances of amazement, would stand, grin 
and gaze at us, until we had passed. 

At two or three places by the roadside, men were grinding grain in 
a mill of primitive construction. A bed, consisting of several pieces 
of oblong stone, grooved out like a trough, and laid down in a circle, 
held the grain. A heavy stone slab wheel, placed upright in the 
trough, was connected by a shaft to a post in the centre of the circle. 
At the end of the shaft, outside the wheel, was an ox or buflalo, but 
oftener a cow, attached after the fashion of a horse in a bark-mill, 
with its nose fastened by cords to the machinery ahead, walking 
around and dragging the wheel, which crushed the grain as it rolled 
over it. A boy followed behind with a whip, to keep the animal 
moving. "When the wheel has revolved around the circle a sufficient 
number of times, the grain is ground. The meal is then taken out, 
about a peck of grain again is poured in, and the same operation is 
repeated. We could not approach very near the mill, as the buffalo 
manifested more fear of us than its master did. 

Along the way we met many coolies, toiling under heavy burdens 
of rice, tea, and various other things, in large packages, transporting 
them towards Ningpoo. The tea was carried in large baskets of the 
size of half a hogshead, hanging at each end of a pole, balanced on 
the coolies' shoulders. • 

Within a quarter of a mile of another resting-house, we entered a 
beautifully shaded walk, which, after a few windings, brought us to 
the open ground in front of the temple, or what is more properly 
called Teen-Tung Monastery. The walk was three feet wide, and 
paved with flag-stones ; and on each side of it were rows of large, tall 
pines, intermingled with which was a tree resembling the elm — the 
camphor-tree, if I recollect aright. Here and there, on each side, 
were beautiful groves of the delicate bamboo, and sometimes of the 
black bamboo, which was exceedingly pretty. The rice-fields extended 
back on to the sides of the mountains, rising terrace after terrace, 
till they seemed but a few feet in width. They were supplied with 
water by rivulets from the mountains, and had to be made level, so as 
to be easily and regularly flooded. The same water is conducted from 
the higher to each lower terrace, running from one to another. In 
several of the trees along the walk, near the monastery, idols were 
22* 



258 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

placed, the trees being hollowed out, about fifteen feet from the 
ground, for their reception. These reminded me of so many owls 
looking out from their hiding-places, some of them even looking as 
sage. We passed around a little lake in the open ground, directly in 
front, and, ascending a flight of steps, landed at four p. m. in the first 
or front building of the monastery. 

The coolies set down the baggage in the house of and in the very 
midst of Chinese gods, our chair-bearers not stopping till they had 
set us down inside, and before their great idols, though great only in 
size. We seated ourselves on benches, and as the priests gathered 
around us we momentarily expected that they would indignantly order 
us out ; but they did not seem at all disaffected, and only manifested 
great curiosity to look at us. It was anything but agreeable to be 
thus gazed at by such an open-mouthed, idiotic set ; but we felt that 
it would not answer to show any resentment, and endured them with 
the best grace we were able. 

After a quarter of an hour's rest, our boys mentioned our wishes to 
remain here a few days, and that we might take up our quarters in 
the monastery during the time. This was readily granted, and one 
of the priests took on himself the office of guide, and led the way. We 
followed, with the boys, coolies and baggage, past several buildings, 
and up several terraces, — some of the priests taking particular pains 
to bow to us as we passed, which we returned, — and pursued our 
course to the rear part of the buildings. There another squalid-looking 
priest showed us up stairs to a room for our accommodation. We 
gave a hasty glance around, but did not dare to scrutinize too closely, 
for fear we should become disgusted with it. We saw that it was 
very dirty, the walls decaying and crumbling, holes in the roofs, and 
two bedsteads the only articles of furniture. 

We thought, if it did not rain, as it was warm weather, that it 
would answer to stay in at night ; and as we should not want it in 
the day-time, we concluded to make it answer. As soon as we entered, 
a third priest, or rather monk, — for it is a monastery, and its devotees 
are monks, of whom there seem to be a considerable number belonging 
to the establishment, — came in with his broom and dirt-pan, and 
carried off the filth and old rubbish that was in it. Cleaning up the 
floor had really made such a change that we dared to look at the room 
more particularly. The windows were open spaces, without panes of 
glass or frame- work, and enclosed only with dark blinds. Large cob- 
webs covered the walls and roofs ; and for curiosity I commenced 



■ NINGPOO. TEEN-TUNG MONASTERY. 259 

counting the big venomous spiders which occupied them, lazily waiting 
for their prey. I counted over a hundred, and then gave it up ; but 
they were all suffered to remain there without disturbance. 

The boys spread the mosquito-nets ; arranged the beds near to each 
other, so that, with a lantern hung between, we could lie and read 
within the nets at night ; they prepared our supper of tea, boiled rice 
and eggs, of which we partook lightly, — both of us being unwell, — 
and repaired at an early hour to our respective couches. It was 
particularly pleasant to lie there within our nets, to read or to watch 
the mosquitoes as they flew against and protruded their bills through 
the interstices, and to listen to their whine of disappointment as they 
tried unsuccessfully to force their bodies through. 

As I lay there, I thought over the long, crooked, and intricate 
passage I had traversed to get from the front of the monastery to this 
obscure loft, and wondered if I should ever be able to find my way 
back and forth. I could recall to mind that we passed through the 
first building ; then ascended a flight of steps up a terrace, and then 
another smaller flight ; then through a door, along a narrow passage, 
turning short to the left, and then around to the right ; after this, 
that we went entirely through a building full of gods, up a flight of 
stone steps, through another building, up other steps, and then through 
other buildings, I could not tell how many. I could remember dark 
cells with monks' heads at the windows, a terrace, a kind of open 
court, a turn, a high wall, an entry-room, a dark and long entry, and 
descending steps somewhere ; but it was all confusion. 

We arose this morning at seven, somewhat refreshed with sleep. 
Mr. W. was pretty well, but I was not much improved. I had an 
intolerable thirst, and no appetite. My boy brought me in a cup of 
tea, which I drank ; before he could get out of the room, I called him 
back and sent him for another ; and then for a third, a fourth, a 
fifth ; and when I said another, he stopped and looked puzzled, as if he 
thought I must have disposed of the tea some other way than by 
drinking it ; but finally he went out and brought it, and with it the 
tea-pot itself, which he sat down on the floor. Somewhat renovated 
with the tea, I descended the stairs to the little court below, and 
sallied out to try my wits in the direction of the front building, where 
Mr. "W. had gone. I spent about half an hour in tracing and retrac- 
ing my steps, trying to open doors, following out blind passages, &c. ; 
and when I would ascend higher up the mountain, in order to obtain 
a view of the premises, I found my course obstructed by a high wall, 



260 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

encompassing the grounds, and heading me off in every direction. At 
last, by some way or other — I know not how, but after a number 
of trials — I came out at the front building. 

I found Mr. W., and asked him if he had any difficulty in finding 
his way. He said, 

" no, not at all — my boy showed me." 

" Well," said I, " I think I will take my boy to show me, the next 
time." 

Mr. W. had his portfolio in his lap, sketching the monastery, and 
five monks looking over him, with mouths wide open, as if struck with 
marvellousness to see their buildings caused to appear on paper by such 
little scratches. I was loth to believe the existence of such stupidity 
when I saw it. 

I looked about by myself for an hour, when, feeling quite unwell, 1 
directed my steps towards our room. Finding much to interest me on 
the way, I wandered from building to building, and from room to 
room, keeping in mind bearings as nearly as possible, until, when I 
wished to go directly to our room, I could not hit on the right way at 
all. I was thus groping through courts and covered passages, almost 
tired out, when my boy came in search of me to call me to breakfast. 
I was quite ready to have a guide, and followed him most willingly. 
We had breakfast of tea, rice, eggs and chicken, of which I partook 
very sparingly, and then went to bed. 

Towards night, hearing a strange humming sound, as if of many 
voices in the distance, and my boy not at hand to go with me, I started 
out alone in quest of it. Following in the direction of the sounds, I 
traced it to one of the buildings, and, entering, was surprised to see 
a concourse of monks assembled. There were sixty or seventy of them ; 
and I did not before know that there were so many on the whole prem- 
ises. They stood like so many idiots, chanting their me-tde-fah-le, 
mc-tde-fah-le, over and over, and going through senseless ceremonies 
before their idols. As I saw only a part, I shall endeavor to take 
another opportunity to witness the whole proceeding, foolish as it 
may be, and give a little account of it. 

I continued my stroll while the priests were engaged, to take a 
hasty glance about, and see what I could discover. I wandered in 
various directions — now, up a long flight of steps, through a long 
passage — then at a right angle, and came into a court, passing by 
rows of small rooms belonging to the monks, through an archway, 
into another court, and still another and another, till there appeared 



TEEN-TUNG MONASTERY. INSECTS. TEA. LlGl 

to be no end of them. Each of the different buildings seemed to have 
one room set apart for public worship, and had three or four, or more, 
large idols placed in a line to be adored. I looked into the rooms of 
some of the monks, which presented a dark and dirty appearance, and 
contained no comforts but a greasy bed and a dingy mosquito-net. 
There was no table, glass or chair — no plastered ceiling or papered 
walls — nothing but a miserable black cell to live in. Some had no 
opening to them but the door, and others one window with a shutter. 
This evening, while reading within my mosquito-net, I counted 
eight different kinds of insects crawling upon the outside of it, and 
several others which, being of a smaller size, contrived to get inside. 
Among those actively engaged in crawling over me, and giving an 
occasional bite, were the flea, the bed-bug, round bug, and black bug. 
Sleeping with such a variety of the insect tribe was not particu- 
larly agreeable, but, as there was no avoiding them, they had to be 
endured with the best philosophy possible. The windows, without 
glass, all darkness or all light, let in several large species of winged 
insects, which were buzzing, floundering and crawling, on the decay- 
ing rafters ; but the stifling air obliged us to keep them open. On 
the beams were cut or written a number of names, — those of persons, 
I suppose, who had occupied the room before. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

EXCURSION TO TEEN-TUNG MONASTERY, CONTINUED. DESCRIPTION OF 

TEMPLES, MONKS, RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCES, ETC. 

Tuesday, July YJth. — I arose at seven, feeling very badly in my 
head, and with considerable heat and fever ; but I try to throw it off 
by diet and exercise. What I care for is drink — cold water and acid 
of some kind ; but I cannot get either here. All that seems to be 
drinkable is tea — tea — tea ; and that we have the whole day long. 
The Chinese keep water continually hot to make tea for themselves, 
and drink it all hours of the day ; and through them we have a con- 
stant supply. 

I went out to see what I could see. Hearing again a humming 
noise, such as I heard before, when the priests were chanting, but 



262 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

coming from another direction, I followed the sounds for some time, 
but could not ascertain from what room they proceeded. After going 
back and forth several times, again and again coming into the same 
court, I cast my eyes up to the roof of the building, and discovered 
that it was the humming of a hive of bees. I then made my way to 
the same building in which I saw the monks performing yesterday, 
and again found them in their forms of worship. I stopped a few 
minutes, but thought I was receiving about as much benefit by observ- 
ing these idiotic ceremonies as in the wild-bee chase. 

A word respecting the situation and general appearance of the 
place. The monastery is a group of buildings, of a variety of forms 
and sizes, occupying an area of more than a million of square feet. 
Its depth, as I paced it one evening in the dark, is three hundred and 
fifty paces, or more than one thousand feet ; and it appears to be about 
the same in width. The buildings are enclosed by a high wall on all 
sides except the front, and are connected with each other by flights 
of stone steps and terraces. The principal buildings are the five 
temples, containing the largest idols. They stand on five terraces, 
rising one above and behind the other, in rows like files of soldiers. 
The other buildings are arranged like a square, so as to surround the 
temples, and are divided into almost innumerable rooms for sleeping, 
lodges for small idols, and for all the various purposes contingent to 
a large family, or community, of between one and two hundred indi- 
viduals. It is situated, with the extensive grounds attached, in a kind 
of nook, at the extreme end of a long, deep, pretty and fertile valley ; 
and large mountains rise up behind, nearly encircling it. On the 
inclined base of these mountains are erected the buildings, on one 
side of which, and extending back, are the cultivated grounds, while 
directly behind are a thick brushwood and small trees. The incli- 
nation of the mountain gives rise to the series of terraces spoken of 
before. 

In approaching the monastery, when within about a third of a mile 
we entered a beautiful winding walk, quite narrow, but shaded on 
each side with a row of tall trees. It leads on the right into an open 
semi-circular space, fronting the buildings. In the middle of this open 
space is an artificial lake, with a nicely-paved walk all around it. On 
arriving here, one seems to be entirely secluded from the world, and 
can see nothing but the mountains, the tall trees, the buildings of the 
monastery, and the sky overhead. In front of the lake, by the side 
of the high brick wall, is a small pagoda and six vases, each about 



TEEN-TUNG MONASTERY. CURIOSITY OF PRIESTS. 263 

fifteen feet high. In the vases are apertures, in which ashes are 
deposited, I suppose from the urns inside the temples. They look 
antique, appear somewhat classical, and are quite ornamental to the 
place. The monastery is endowed, and supports itself from its own 
resources. 

It is said that one of the former emperors of China lived here as a 
monk in disguise. He had become wearied with the troubles and 
anxieties of public life, and secretly resorted to this place, and joined 
the fraternity. He continued to live here for some years, when, being 
discovered, he was obliged to return to his throne. While here, he 
built the pretty walk, planted the fine trees leading to the monastery, 
and made other improvements with his money. 

To reach the first temple from the space in front, an ascent of twenty 
stone steps is necessary ; advancing thirty feet, there is an ascent of 
four steps more, when the entrance is attained. In the middle of the 
room a large god, some twenty or thirty feet in height, is the first 
object that meets the eye. While sitting here I made a few notes on 
the blank leaves of a yellow-covered book which I had brought to 
read. Yellow is the imperial color, and as soon as the monks observed 
it they collected around me with the greatest curiosity, evidently 
thinking that it emanated from the emperor. One commenced pulling 
up the leaves, little by little, stooping, with his head lower than the 
book, to see what was inside ; another caught sight of a map, and was 
trying to feel it with his fingers, looking at it as if it were some large 
hieroglyphic ; one was making remarks on the curious English letters ; 
another saw two or three Chinese characters interspersed among the 
printings, and began trying to pronounce them aloud, and others, 
hearing him, gathered around, and, not agreeing in the view he took 
of them, joined in with their voices, pronouncing for themselves, till 
finally numbers of them were pronouncing on their own account, and 
others were arguing and discussing. It was a confusion of Hoe-hee- 
ehing-larr, fow-lee-yung-tze, chow-ts-de-shing-kwo, or some other 
indescribable sounds, as if one was in the midst of a flock of geese. 
While this was going on, one of the monks was examining my coat, 
and another my handkerchief, pulling it partly from my pocket ; one, 
whose curiosity urged him a little further, feeling something outside 
the coat-pocket, thrust his hand inside, exploring the recesses, pulling 
out articles, and examining them, with many expressions of wonder at 
his discovery. One handled my whiskers, running his fingers through 
them with evident pleasure ; and another gently pulled off and "examined 



264 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

my cap, turning it over and over, with a face full of astonishment. 
One stooped down and felt of my shoes, as if he thought them made 
of polished iron, and then pulled up the pantaloons to look at my 
stockings ; and another took hold of a button, looking at it as we 
would examine a diamond. In many other things they were equally 
curious, and it seemed as if they would pick me to pieces ; yet I did 
not interfere much with them, in order the better to observe their 
operations. 

They asked me many questions, which I could only answer by shak- 
ing my head ; and they continued until my head was dizzy. They 
seemed to think that I should be able to answer something, and perse- 
vered till the ceaseless motion of my head — first to one and then to 
another — became altogether too tedious. Up to the hundredth time 
they were not able to understand that I could not converse with them ; 
and yet, when they asked me a question, holding their head so still 
and peering into my face so inquisitively, I could not refrain from 
either giving a shake of the head, or saying boo to them. At last I 
turned on them, asking them questions in English ; and they began 
to perceive that it was as difficult for them to converse with me, as 
it was for me to answer them ; and I was less annoyed. As one 
thing led to another, they caught sight of a picture, which I en- 
deavored to explain by signs, and succeeded pretty well. I sought 
also to render our alphabet intelligible to them, and, to show them 
the simplicity of our language in comparison with theirs, that with 
only twenty-six characters I could select four or five, and spell any 
of their words. Only two or three of them, who appeared more 
intelligent than the others, took any interest in the letters ; but 
when these saw how they could be managed, and seemed to under- 
stand the principle, they burst out with a ha-a-a-ar-a-ar, and were 
much pleased. I would get them to pronounce one of their great 
intricate characters, and then I would select two, three or four letters 
from the alphabet, and, showing them singly, place them together 
beside their character, and pronounce them as they had done it ; and 
when I had gathered a considerable number of their characters, and 
could, with the aid of our letters alongside, speak them correctly, 
they appeared to be delighted and astonished, and looked upon me as 
if I was a conjurer, or something as singular. As some of them went 
away, others were constantly coming ; and I began to find myself too 
much occupied, especially as I was obliged to go through with the 
same explanations, over again and again, to each new comer. There- 



DESCRIPTION OF THE IDOLS. 265 

fore, at the first convenient opportunity, I left them rather abruptly, 
much to my relief, though without having accomplished my notings 
of the place. 

I waited till the middle of the forenoon, when they had all dispersed 
to their rooms, and then went in and resumed my writing. Near the 
centre of the hall stands, or rather sits, cross-legged, a great, dis- 
agreeable-looking bronze idol. It is from twenty to thirty feet high, 
is represented as very fat, with an immense belly, and laughing as if 
very happy. Before him is suspended a lantern, and in it a dim red 
light is burning, which, I believe, is never permitted to go out. On a 
table-like altar in front Josh-sticks have been lighted and are smoking. 
In front of this table is a large metallic urn, for containing the ashes 
of the Josh-sticks and offerings. Before the altar, in a line, are three 
stools, covered with little mats, for the worshipper to kneel on. Above, 
near the roof, is an inscription of Chinese in gilt letters ; and each 
side of a post, extending from the roof to the floor, is lined with the 
same kind of characters. 

On the right of the hall were two other gods, facing towards the 
left, also in a sitting posture, the legs being turned out, and the right 
foot of each resting on the back of a tortoise. They were about 
twenty-five or thirty feet high, and eighteen feet in circumference 
around their middle. They were ornamented with bright and various 
colors, and gilded and decorated in a profuse manner, appearing more 
like theatrical characters than gods. Many smaller figures of the 
human form are about the feet of the larger ones, as if paying them 
homage. These also are richly and handsomely painted, moulded, and 
fashioned in a similar manner. All the gods have shrines, and kneel- 
ing-stools and incense-sticks placed before them. The first of these 
larger gods is represented as a black man, with a huge beard, holding 
a sword in one hand, and wearing a crown. I think he is called the 
god of war. The other is the god of music, with a complexion light 
and delicate, animated features, and regularly-trimmed moustaches. 
This one is playing on a guitar, and smaller Chinese figures are play- 
ing at its feet. 

On the left of the hall, facing towards and corresponding with those 
on the right, were two other gods of the same size and style, and seated 
in the same manner as those on the opposite side of the hall. One of 
them had in one hand a dragon's egg, with the young dragon just 
presenting itself; while in its other hand was held, writhing about the 
arm, a serpent, which he was crushing. The other god held a flag, 
23 



266 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

and had a self- conceited expression of countenance, as if it were a very 
great character in its own estimation. These were the gods of ven- 
geance and justice. 

Behind the first-named idol is a goddess, which is consulted and 
worshipped by women who are desirous of offspring. She faces the 
opposite door, and has all sorts of vases, candle-sticks, urns, Josh- 
sticks, &c, around her. 

The hall is high, and supported by pillars ; the floor is paved with 
stone, and there is a little room on one side for a monk to sleep in, 
the timbers and wood-work being unpainted. 

We now came to the second building of the monastery, which is 
about fifty feet from and behind the other. This hall contains the 
greatest number of idols, and is where the ceremonies of the monks 
are performed. Idols are arranged all around the room, and there 
are several in the centre. 

As you enter the door, three huge gods, twenty-five feet high, ap- 
pear, looking very demurely, with eyes cast downwards. Two god- 
desses, one on each side, stand facing at right angles. They are all 
very richly dressed, — the goddesses particularly so, having crowns on 
their heads. The others have nothing on their heads except a simple 
cap, without a front-piece. A large polished brazen vase stands before 
them, full of ashes, burning incense-sticks, &c. There were many other 
things, of various shapes and sizes, belonging to the altar furniture, 
which I knew not how to name. 

On the left of the altar was a large iron kettle, used for a drum ; 
and there was also a hollow instrument made from a kind of resonant 
wood, and in the shape of a large sleigh-bell, for drumming purposes. 
Its noise is dull, and to me disagreeable. Back of all these idols is a 
goddess, mounted on an ass, the head of the animal being turned up 
towards her, with his mouth wide open, as if braying. The gods 
around the outside of this hall were in two rows, one on each side of 
the room. They were about the size of men, and of various designs — 
one god having a great many arms and hands sticking out from its 
sides. 

The third building is another temple, about thirty feet back from 
the second one, and is merely a large hall. A kind of rough stage 
was built up in the centre, on which were placed a chair and table. 
A few characters were inscribed on its posts. In the upper part 
of this building, and flying about, were a large number of birds, 
which appeared to be its sole occupants, making their nests on the 



TEEN-TUNG MONASTERY. A CHINESE LADY WORSHIPPING. 267 

sills and beams, which in Chinese buildings extend across in every 
direction. 

The fourth building is the Ancestral Temple. This was a smaller 
hall, and containing nothing but the tablets with the names of the 
departed whom they wish to worship. 

The other buildings form the fifth and last range, and branch off on 
both sides, containing a great number of rooms. In many of these 
are a variety of idols, of a small size ; but the rooms are mostly inhab- 
ited by the monks as their own private cells. In one of these buildings, 
which is two stories high, is suspended an enormous bell, from ten to 
fourteen feet long, and eighteen or twenty feet in its greatest circum- 
ference. A monk lives in the lower story, surrounded by his idols, and 
remains, with one associate, in constant attendance on the bell, which 
they strike at intervals of about five minutes, day and night. Its low 
tones and prolonged vibration break on the ear like a death-knell ; and 
its solemn notes, in the stillness of the night, have kept me awake for 
hours. 

All the buildings comprising the temple have existed a long time, 
— for eight hundred years, I am told, — and they are at this time 
much out of repair. 

Under other circumstances I should not have considered myself 
well enough, this morning, to have appeared outside my room ; but, 
knowing that this was the only opportunity I should have to further 
observe this strange fraternity, I made extra exertions, and arose at an 
early hour of the morning. 

Soon after my interview with the priests of yesterday, I observed a 
Chinese lady in a mountain chair, followed by a priest in another 
ohair, approaching the monastery, and they soon alighted inside of the 
first temple. She was not very handsome, but had small feet, though 
not diminished to the smallest size, which was sufficient to entitle her 
to some consideration. Her hair was done up in a large mass on the 
back of her head, and was oiled, smoothed, and ornamented with 
white flowers ; and she had a very consequential air, as if she thought 
herself of considerable importance. I only wondered that, like all others, 
she was not afraid of me ; but she seemed only to regard me with some 
suspicion. She advanced, gave me a scrutinizing look, as did also the 
priest, and then kneeled several times before the god, each time strik- 
ing her head against the stool on which her knees rested. Her attend- 
ant priest went through the same ceremony, generally leading the way 
and setting the example. They then went round to the goddess on the 



268 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

other side, and, with heads bowed, presented incense-sticks. Having 
consulted her a while, they went through many forms, advancing and 
receding, holding the burning sticks in their hands, bowing, kneeling, 
striking the head, and addressing imploring words to the goddess, 
making known their petitions, requests, &c. 

She then passed, with the priest, out of the first building, and en- 
tered the second, where she chin-chinned for a time ; and then return- 
ing with a number of priests, they broke into a chant before the god- 
dess. The priests in a row chanted and kept time to a little bell, amid 
the wafting smoke of incense-sticks, while the lady bowed and knelt 
over and over again, till I was tired of observing her. She did not 
appear in the least fatigued, nor did she appear to strike her head 
over and above hard against the paved stones of the floor. 

One little simpleton of a monk, whom I pushed from me for his 
excessive familiarity, handed her incense-sticks, presenting them on 
one side and then on the other, a whole bundle at a time, as if this 
was of great importance. After this, one of the leading monks — I 
recognized him as the one who explained to the other monks this morn- 
ing — led her through some doors that fastened behind them, and I 
pursued my way to my own room, to breakfast. 

Passing up by the dining-hall of the monks, I observed many of 
them at their morning meal. There were about eighty together. 
Dishes filled and heaped with rice stood before them, and by the side 
of each was a bowl of greens. They were mumbling over to them- 
selves, when I first saw them, something that I imagined to be a kind 
of " grace ; " and then they all commenced in good earnest with their 
chopsticks, stuffing their cheeks to the size of small bladders. Having 
their bowls replenished several times with rice, they gobbled it down 
like turkeys. I looked in at the open windows during the whole meal, 
on which they were so intent that no one looked up to notice me. The 
meal consisted only of rice and boiled greens, each pinching up with 
his chopsticks one morsel of the greens to about six mouthfuls of rice. 
When they had concluded their meal, one leading monk walked down 
through the middle and came out ; and then all the others arose, 
struck into a chant, bowing towards and from their idol, and marched 
out in single file. 

I soon returned from my breakfast of a single boiled egg, and, hear- 
ing a queer, buzzing noise, I followed the sound to the second build- 
ing, where I found candles burning, and a great parade of monks. I 
thought the worship of the lady had been concluded ; but here she 



CEREMONIES. THE ABBOT. 269 

was, in the midst of eighty or ninety priests, marching in single file 
before the gods. They passed back and forth between the kneeling- 
stools, doubling their lines, until there were eight or ten moving in 
opposite directions, but in one continuous line, stepping to the time 
of their chanting, and the drumming of the hollow wood, the whole 
looking to me inexpressibly foolish. 

Each person has a kneeling-stool, like a little desk about six inches 
high, which are all arranged, like men on a checker-board, before the 
shrine. On a table, before the idols, were offerings, such as bowls of 
various kinds of food, and one or two hundred packages containing 
twenty cash each. These offerings, I suppose, were made by the lady, 
and go as a perquisite to the monks, who assist her devotions. The 
whole amount would not be two dollars, which would allow each 
monk about two cents. Four little boys, who were learning to become 
priests, were with the monks, taking part with the lady at their 
devotions. 

As I stood at the door, looking in on them, the monk who was con- 
ducting the ceremony came and asked me inside, politely giving me 
a seat. He was tall, and I recognized him as the one who was the 
most intelligent and interested in my explanations of our alphabet. 
He appeared to have the most sense of any of them, though none to 
spare. Through the servants I learned that he was the head of the 
whole tribe here — the abbot. 

He had a cup of tea brought me, and occasionally came himself and 
took a seat beside me, looking over, with much interest and profound 
curiosity, to see me taking notes in the book with yellow covers. 
Sometimes a leaf would open a little, disclosing a Chinese character, 
when he would spring at it with his fingers to examine it. I then had 
to make signs, as if in explanation of it, to afford an excuse for clos- 
ing the page, so as to go on with my notes. He appeared to under- 
stand my signs, — though I did not myself, — and answered with 
gutturals of approbation. 

The lady, seeing him with me, a foreigner, became somewhat dis- 
concerted, and too agitated to proceed ; so that the abbot was obliged 
to leave me and go to her, with which arrangement I was quite 
pleased. He whispered a few words to her by which she was pacified, 
when, giving me a searching glance, she resumed her observances. The 
abbot directed her when and where to kneel, and gave her the burning 
incense-sticks to offer to the idols. Several of the kneeling-stools 
seemed to be particularly applicable to her case, and necessary for her 
23* 



270 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

to kneel on. She would kneel on one, knock her head over it on the 
pavements, usually three times, but often more than twenty ; and then 
go to another stool, repeat the same ceremony, — and so on to the 
others. She never looked up at the idols, but kept her eyes cast down 
before them. The chanting of the monks continued, and she con tin- 
vied her round for a half-hour after the monks had all stopped beside 
their stools. They now all bowed together, all clasped their hands in 
a particular way, raised them, and let them fall again. Then those on 
one side would bow, go down, kneel, and bump their heads ; and then 
those on the other side, in see-saw fashion ; and while one half of the 
company were going down, the other half were coming up, making 
the scene a little theatrical. After a while the priest led her away to 
the first building, where they concluded their ceremonies by kneeling, 
by offerings of incense-sticks in bunches of two or three hundred, and 
burning large quantities of silver and gold paper. 

At last she shook a bamboo box of tablets till one fell out, with 
some motto in Chinese on it, which the priest interpreted, giving her 
a corresponding slip of paper, which, I suppose, after being burnt, 
entitles her to some thousands of cash, or admits her to some privi- 
leges or spiritual honors in the next world. Any person, by paying a 
few cash, can shake the box and obtain a similar receipt. The lady 
now chin-chinned the principal god, and with her companion, the 
priest, departed in their sedan-chairs. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

TEEN-TUNG MOUNTAINS. ASCENT. DECEPTIVE PEAKS. VIEW FROM 

THE SUMMIT. DESCENT. MONASTIC MUMMERY, ETC. 

Wednesday, July 18th. — I rose quite early this morning, and walked 
with Mr. West out behind the monastery, and up the mountain-side. 
As the country beyond appeared interesting, and we had ascended 
half-way, we decided to send the boy back for our breakfast, and 
meanwhile to continue our stroll to the top of the mountain, and 
return to this place for refreshments. 

For a part of the way our path was the dry bed of a former rivulet, 
and in other places we could see no path to guide us ; but, pushing 



ASCENT OF TEEN-TUNG MOUNTAINS. 271 

through the bushes, which were about our own height and densely 
thick, they opened on the path. 

As I was passing ahead of my companion, I heard a hacking sound 
in the bushes, some little distance in advance of me. I stopped to 
listen, but could not satisfy myself as to its nature, and went on. 
Coming nearer, I discovered that it was a Chinaman with a cleaver, 
cutting brush. I came up unperceived, gave the bushes at his side a 
knock with my stick, and the poor fellow jumped and gave a long and 
deep inspiration, with an earnest stare at me. He looked so astonished 
and frightened that I could not refrain from laughing. Perceiving 
that he was in no danger, he laughed himself, and showed me, by pat- 
ting on his breast, the momentary agitation of his heart. I chin- 
chinned him, and went on, expecting to get frightened myself before 
reaching the top of the mountain. The day was very hot, and the way 
long ; and it appeared to me to be just the place for snakes and 
venomous reptiles. 

The ascent was very steep, and we were obliged, at short intervals, 
to stop and rest, from fatigue and the great heat of the sun. Our 
umbrellas, when we could use them, were of little protection, the sun 
beating through them as if they were made of gauze. The latter part 
of the way was through high grass or flags, which grew very long and 
thick. The path on this part of the mountain, as it wound around 
on the very edge of the steep sides, was almost obliterated ; and it was 
necessary to use some care, lest we should step off and tumble down 
the declivity, in which case it would be impossible to say where we 
should bring up. As we pushed along, the grass generally parted over 
the path, and showed us where to make the next step. After consid- 
erable toil we reached the summit, and were not a little surprised to 
find the top of the mountain, which, below, looked perfectly smooth, 
covered with rich, thick grass, about two feet high, which we tram- 
pled down so as to mark where to find the path again. We ascended 
to the highest point, and took a view of the group of buildings we bad 
left, the monastery appearing like little play-houses made by boys 
with old shingles. 

It was exceedingly beautiful to look over the tops of the thick foli- 
age, so dense that it seemed as if one might walk on it, and down the 
huge ravine into the little cultivated spot below. It was also pretty 
to look across the ravine on to the opposite side of the mountain, 
which half shut out the rest of the world. Our view in that direc- 
tion extended many miles inland, but only to the successive ranges of 



272 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

mountains, which rose one above the other, until the last range met 
and mixed with the clouds in the horizon ; while those on the other 
side of the valley, through which we came in our chairs to the 
monastery, appeared like chains of diminutive hills. 

I watched with much interest a large body of white vapor, floating 
past, nearly on a level with, and but a few feet below us. It came 
over the top of the mountain we were on, and just grazed the tops of 
others in the vicinity, while over other mountains it floated without 
touching, leaving some of them far beneath. When below us it 
looked like a body of white cotton, and seemed almost compact enough 
for me to jump on and be floated by it over to the other mountains. 
Towards the south the horizon in the distance rested on the blue 
ocean, studding which, like jewels, lay the Chusan Islands. Nearer to 
us the sea was full of junks, sailing ; then came the coast, and then 
the flat and low lands up to the mountains just below us. The moun- 
tains looked like large sugar-loafs, being so situated that we could 
look over and around them, and to the lowest depths of the valleys 
between. Some of these valleys were fearfully deep, and it made us 
almost giddy to look into them. Each mountain seemed to be of a 
conical shape, with numbers of ravines coursing down its sides ; 
and all together looked as much like a painting as reality. 

I was unwilling to withdraw my eyes from the scene ; but we con- 
cluded to ascend another still higher peak, a short distance on our left, 
and set out towards it. This appeared so smooth on the top that we 
thought we should be free of the long wet grass. We found it a diffi- 
cult process to ascend, the way being very steep, over rocks, bushes 
and briers ; and the grass, if anything, higher than where we had 
before passed. However, we did ascend, and there had the satisfaction, 
or dissatisfaction, of observing another peak, that was still higher. 
Beino- determined to reach the most elevated summit, we set off again, 
runnino- and jumping over such rocks as we could, making the descent 
of the declivitous peak without any great difficulty ; and then, after 
a good climb, we reached the top of the other. But what was our 
surprise to see another peak, still higher, beyond! Again we 
descended, but content to take it a little slower than the last. After a 
tedious climb over cragged ledges and through prickly brambles, we 
came to the summit. Taking a single glance to see that we were all 
right, that there was nothing beyond, we sat down and rested, and 
congratulated each other on our good fortune, though we were not 
forgetful that we should have it all to go over again on our return ; 



ASCENT OF TEEN-TUNG MOUNTAINS. 273 

and that our frail shoes were giving out, — a kind of Chinese shoes, 
made of rushes twisted and woven, soft to the feet, but not calculated 
for rough service. 

On rising to our feet to take a last view before descending home- 
ward, what was our disappointment to discover, a little on one side, a 
large oval mound, evidently higher by a hundred feet than the one we 
were on ! It was so much to the left, out of the range of the others, 
that we had not before noticed it. We glanced a moment at each 
other, and then over the intervening ground. There was a consider- 
able descent, and we must go round quite a distance in order to 
gain its top ; but each saw that the face of the other expressed 
" no backing out." It was decided, without a word being spoken, and 
away we started for that eminence. Our feet had begun to be 
sore, but we pushed on till we came to its top. This peak also was 
covered with thick, rich grass, and the ascent differed little from the 
others. After a little rest on the ground, we arose and found ourselves 
repaid for our prolonged fatigue ; for this eminence commanded a full 
view entirely around us. We could overlook everything else, which 
fully convinced us that we were now at the highest point, and that we 
were realizing the attainment of our wishes. 

It was a magnificent sight. We had a complete bird's eye view of 
everything below us. The tops of mountains on which we looked 
down seemed like large sugar-loaves in size ; and the valleys, which 
we had thought very wide, now appeared like a succession of trenches 
dug deep into the earth, the sides seeming nearly perpendicular, and 
extending as far as the eye could reach in that direction. As we faced 
the east, looking over the heights, there was beneath us an immense 
tract of country, as level as a body of water. It appeared like a vast 
meadow, the canals like ditches, the rusty-looking villages like bunches 
of red water brush , and the winding Ningpoo river shone like a piece 
of white satin ribbon. We could see distinctly the high fortifications 
on the mountains that guard the entrance to the river, the Chusan 
group of islands like pincushions dotting the silvery expanse, and 
junks floating along the channel like bits of shavings. Nearer was 
the pagoda at Nuwong, which we had left a few days ago. In the dis- 
tance, towards the west, was a group of lakes, reflecting the rays of 
the sun like mirrors ; and near them a great stone, standing conspic- 
uously alone. What this was we could not make out. It looked like 
a rough monument of some kind, with the base turned upwards. We 
determined to visit it, and so know all about it. 



274 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

We could have enjoyed the scene for hours, and it was very reluct- 
antly that we commenced our return. Being very thirsty, and there 
being no water to be had, we picked a few red berries by the way, 
which moistened our mouths a little. An old wall, long since fallen 
down, ran over the tops of the heights and down the mountain's sides 
beyond us. We could not imagine, for a time, its possible design in 
such a high place, but at length concluded that it was built to bound 
the lands belonging to the monastery. We made our way back 
through the disagreeable grass, which was full of all kinds of insects 
(we did not knoAV what else might be lurking there, to surprise us) ; 
and our frail rush shoes we could hardly keep on our feet, and had 
frequently to stop to bind them on with strings. 

We succeeded in getting back, finding with some difficulty the old 
place, where we beat down the grass, but we were very much fatigued. 
After resting a while, and taking another look at the rare scenery, we 
continued our descent, and met the boy with the breakfast. Mr. 
W.'s boy had given out, and mine had brought it alone. Seating 
ourselves in the path, we partook with little ceremony. There were 
rice, eo^gs, a fowl, and hot tea. Being refreshed, I felt better able to 
go on than before. My boy went down again to bring up Mr. West's 
materials for sketching, while I pursued my way loiteringly down the 
mountain, hardly keeping my shoes together till I could arrive at 
the bottom. Proceeding to my room, tired, and my feet sore, I lay 
down on my bed, and did not awake till near night. 

On rising, I walked out, in and about the dhTerent buildings, for 
new discoveries. In the second row of buildings I found the monks 
about to perform their devotions, took a stand at the door, and 
watched them till they were through. They were summoned together 
by three beats of the large bell, and a few strokes on the large wooden 
fish which hangs before the dining-hall door. They all passed in, and 
stood beside their respective kneeling-desks. Their heads were shaved 
close, and their feet bare — only three or four of them having on even 
rush sandals. They were dressed in long robes of a material resem- 
bling sacking, of a dirty yellow color, and so dirty were they themselves 
in their own persons that I doubt their ever having seen a piece of 
soap. The robes were loose under the right shoulder, and fastened by 
a hook over the left. They stood in lines — one half of their number 
on one side of the aisle, facing the other half, who stood on the other 
side. Their heads were inclined forward, the palms of their hands 
placed together in front of the body, their eyes looking into vacancy, 



TEEN-TUNG MONASTERY. PRIESTS' CEREMONIES. 275 

and with an expression of countenance as if the fate of many souls 
really depended on their interpositions. Two or three of their number 
were constantly moving about among them, with large fans, which 
they used with both hands — fanning first one, then another, as they 
saw the symptoms of heat predominating. The others stood motion- 
less for a few minutes, when the abbot gave a blow on a large coarse 
drum, and continued this slowly and regularly for a certain number 
of times, when they all turned half round and faced the idols. Three 
blows were then made on a hollow piece of wood, worked out in the 
form of a shell, and emitting a lonely, forsaken kind of sound, and 
they all bowed together to the idols. At three tinkles of a little bell, 
they all knelt on their desks, touching their foreheads three times in 
succession on the floor. Rising, they placed "their hands together, 
turned and bowed to the idols, and then turned back to their places. 
The abbot then struck on the large kettle, and commenced to chant 
something like " fah-tee-lah-me," in which they all joined, — repeat- 
ing the same over and over together, keeping time with the iron kettle, 
the hollow wood, and the little bell, together. They drum on these 
instruments with little mallets, giving a rap at each syllable, which 
are all spoken at equal intervals, as if they were the syllables of one 
long word, the end of which is only reached when the sounds stop. 
The instruments first came in singly, then, one by one, all together, 
and with their low, gruff, unmusical voices pitched at different 
keys, but each one continuing on his own key, and all articulating at 
the same time, with now and then an expressive response from the big 
drum, the sounds were discordant enough, and not very unlike the 
music of a corn-cracking-mill. They chanted very slowly for a while, 
increasing gradually till they got into very quick time. Finally, it 
was as much as they could do to speak fast enough to keep up with 
the mallets. 

After half an hour, as they all were standing, chanting away, and 
looking like statuary idiots (for they made no movement except with 
their lips) , at the tinkle of the bell they raised their hands, with closed 
palms in front of the chest ; at another tinkle, they dropped them a 
few inches, all together, like machines ; a tinkle again, and they laid 
them over each other on the waist, — all the time continuing the 
" fah-tee-lah-me-fah-tee-lah-me-fah-tee-lah-me," with the beating of 
the drums and kettles. 

With their burning lights, their arrangement of vases, urns, &c, 
they remind one of the Roman Catholic service. In truth, I should 



276 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

be inclined to think that their mixed religion originated with the 
Catholics, or that the Catholics had copied from them. 

During these ceremonies I stood leaning against a stone pedestal 
outside the door, when one of the monks brought out a little pewter 
cup, which he had just presented to the idols by holding it up to them 
and mumbling something. In the cup was some water, with four or 
five rice-kernels, which he poured on the top of the pedestal — placing 
the kernels in a certain position, then snapping the middle one off 
with his finger-nail, and then arranging the others, and in like man- 
ner snapping them all off but one. Having snapped at this several 
times, and not succeeding in his object, he let it remain. He then 
turned the top of the cup outward from him, and bowed three times 
at something or nothing, — it might be at the air, though he went 
through the action with a good deal of gesticulation, as if to some 
distinguished personage. Perhaps he was chin-chinning Josh for 
fruitful crops of rice. They had now commenced their march, walk- 
ing in single file, and doubling, back and forth, between the kneeling- 
stools and before the idols. They continued to march, the horrid 
chanting and drumming still going on , for about twenty minutes. Then 
one half of their number marched off one way, and one half in the 
other direction, and, passing around before the other idols at the out- 
side of the room, returned again to their places. Continuing here, 
and back and forth, a little longer, they again came to a stand. They 
now bow facing each other, all kneel together, and turn and bow to 
the idols. Now one half of them, all those on one side of the aisle, 
stand and mumble away, while those on the other side bow, kneel, 
and bump their heads on the floor, for a few minutes retaining that 
position ; and then, while these are coming up, those on the other 
side go down, and perform in like manner. Forty or fifty monks come 
up, and forty or fifty go down ; forty or fifty go down, and forty or fifty 
come up ; and thus, up and down, down and up, they continue in a 
regular see-saw motion. After these performances, and a few bows to 
the right and to the left, they come out in two lines, one from each 
side, and go directly to the dining-hall, where they take their rice and 
vegetables. 

While their services were going on, an old blind monk came up, 
guiding himself with his cane along the side of the building, with his 
basket of dishes on his arm, going after his supper. I avoided him, 
but was amused to see him go directly towards Mr. West, who was 
busily sketching the scenes inside, and bluntly strike against him. 



DEPARTURE FROM THE MONASTERY. 277 

Mr. W. started, and looked quickly up, somewhat angrily, to see 
who was so bold and impudent ; and the old man, on his part, stood 
aghast, astonished that any person who could see could not avoid 
him. Muttering a few words to himself, the old man put his cane 
in motion again, and passed on. 

The day being over, I was glad to ensconce myself inside of my 
mosquito-curtain, and consign myself to rest. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

DEPARTURE FROM THE MONASTERY. INCIDENTS BY THE WAY. CHINESE 

CITY OF MACHTZEIEN. 

Thursday, July 19th. — We arose at five, and, having collected our 
train and mounted our chairs, we started for our boats, to make a trip 
to the lakes. We paid our hosts a few hundred cash for the privilege 
of using their fire to cook by, and a dollar for the use of the room, 
for which they seemed well satisfied. We made a halt at the resting- 
house, while Mr. W. sketched a view of the avenue leading to the 
monastery, after which we went on again. 

The valley was beautiful, and we enjoyed it much, it being made 
up of such a variety. We passed monuments in the shape of gate- 
ways hewn of stone, erected to the memory of some benevolent individ- 
ual ; and one with carved figures and characters raised and dedicated 
to chaste women stood on the edge of the path, and tombs on both 
sides extended some distance up the mountain's side. Arriving at the 
outskirts of a little village, our coolies set us down, and ran off and 
left us. On inquiring of our boys the meaning of this, we were told 
that they had gone to their "chow-chow" (their eating). We 
thought them rather independent, not asking our permission ; but we 
sat down by a wall, and partook also, not having yet been to break- 
fast. We had a kettle of hot water brought, had some tea made, 
which, with our cold rice, fowl and eggs, made a very passable 
breakfast. 

• We soon had a large collection of the poor peasants about us ; for 
the inmates of the houses, old and young, with their children, and 
their infants in their arms, came out, and gazed at us while we ate. 
24 



278 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

As they crowded about quite near, if our attention was directed to any 
one, the small-footed girls would quickly hobble backwards, as if they 
feared being kidnapped. One old woman brought out a couple of live 
chickens, which we bought, paying eighteen or twenty cents for both. 
Our salt being left behind, a few cash procured a little, but it was 
coarse, rusty, and full of dirt. The children here were covered with 
sores from their excessive filthiness. 

Our coolies having returned, we gave the people a few cash, with 
which they seemed satisfied, and we left them. 

The only tree that I recognized as common with us in America is 
the pitch-pine. These grow in clusters on the mountain side, enclos- 
ing tombs. Coffins, all the way along, were left out on the ground 
and exposed, being merely covered with palm-leaves. These coffins, 
with their thick, slab-like sides, are very clumsy and large ; and 
appear, with their coverings, like shocks of wheat in the fields, fallen 
clown. We passed through the rich, deep valley, walled in on both 
sides by the high mountains, and stopped at the resting-house at the 
foot of a small mountain which has a pagoda standing on its top. 
Here was the tea-growing, which has been before described. 

At this place Mr. West, at my suggestion, took a sketch of our little 
train, just as we were. Numbers of coolies were constantly stopping, 
passing and repassing. I presume that a hundred in an hour stop here to 
rest. They were heavily laden with rice, tea, and other articles, and 
had to rest every quarter or half a mile. There were from eight to 
twelve here all the time ; and they manifested a good deal of curiosity 
about us, but offered no insult. 

The path the entire way is paved with flat stones. We ascended 
the eminence, and proceeded to take a view of the pagoda. It stands 
in a little open space, surrounded with a handsome grove of black 
bamboo-trees. It is in part covered with vines and shrubs, growing on 
all its sides from the interstices. It is built of brick, stone, and almost 
anything that could be obtained to fill up ; and, crooked by time, it 
looked as if it would tumble down before we could get out of its reach. 
I did not like to stand near it for many minutes at a time, and, as the 
wind was blowing, did not attempt its ascent. Another resting-house 
stands a little way from it, just within the gap of the two mountains, 
which was also filled with weary foot-passengers. 

We took our chairs and descended on the other side, where Mr. W. 
took another sketch, and I wrote up my notes, which I had not been 
able to do while travelling. I have attempted to do this many times, 



TRAVELLING BY CANAL. 279 

but afterwards not being able to tell one mark from another, have 
given it up. The coolies passing us would stop, cast off their burdens, 
and with the greatest curiosity go to Mr. W. or myself, and back and 
forth from one to the other, to see what we were doing. No one could 
pass without laying down his load and taking a look at us, so that 
we constantly had a crowd about us. Their countenances indicated 
that the little marks we were making on paper seemed to them like a 
species of witchery ; and they examined them very intently for some 
time. Mr. W. was so besieged that I had to laugh to see him, in a 
good-natured manner, push them away ; for, in their eagerness to 
see him draw, they inserted their heads directly between him and the 
view that he wished to sketch, and did not give him room to work. 

We arrived at our boat at four p. m., and unwillingly left the 
beautiful scenery — the green slopes of the mountains, with their 
gushing fountains, those beautiful bamboo groves, and the sparkling 
rivulets. 

Our boys paid our four coolies, for both chairs, a hundred cash — 
about half a dollar for the day's work ; bought some Chinese sandals 
to wear in travelling among the hills, for which we paid about two 
cents a pair ; and we continued our way for the lakes, which we saw 
from Monastery mountain. We took the same route by which we 
came, as far as the hill of tombs that stood alone in the midst of tho 
great plain, where we branched to the left. 

We travelled all the way by canal, passing under many bridges, to 
accomplish which, in some instances, we had to take down the tops 
of the boats. It was delightful sailing, so still and quiet, on such a 
fine evening, while the moon diffused her silvery light through the 
clear atmosphere. 

I sat up after Mr. W. had retired, and mused alone, except that 
the men were sculling away at their oars, and the mosquitoes were 
always at hand, till we came, towards morning, to a village or town 
where many boats were huddled together, ours fastened among them, 
when I retired to rest. 

Friday, July 20th. — I arose at daylight, took a look to see where 
we were, and then urged the boatmen to expedite matters for the lakes. 
We found a dam here about twelve feet high, which kept the waters 
of the lakes in their place above ; and the boats, in their turn, had 
to be drawn up and launched on the other side. About fifty boats 
had precedence of ours, before our turn came ; and, while waiting, wo 
took a short walk about the place. Its name is one of the worst to bo 



280 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

pronounced or to be remembered. I wrote it down as soon as I 
heard ifc, or I should not have been able to recall it again. It is Mach- 
tzeien. For a quarter of a mile on our left, as we passed up, was the 
Chinese town. The houses were all open in front, looking like rough 
sheds more than anything else. They were one story high, and made 
the principal street, which faced on the canal, and included many lit- 
tle shops, containing a great variety of articles for sale. There was a 
grain shop, then a butcher's shop, then a provision shop, and then a 
tin shop, &c. At intervals were eating-rooms, with tables full of 
Chinese at their meal ; but they were all men. The women I have 
not seen eat at all, though no doubt they indulge occasionally. Just 
behind the mass of buildings rises up, in the background, a beautiful 
hill, covered with green foliage, trees, and tombs. Before us is the 
dam, at this end of which is the place to enter the lake, and at the 
other the place to come out. Boats are continually being drawn up 
into the lake at this end, and being let down out of it at the other. 
On our right is a pretty hill, covered with young pines. 

This hour of the day was a very busy time. Crowds of people, with 
their baskets, boxes of vegetables, &c, were pushing along the streets. 
Three or four girls saw us landing, and ran with all speed, not daring 
to look back till they were at a considerable distance from us. Fright- 
ened things ! they might have known that with their little feet, had 
we been disposed for a chase, we could soon have overtaken them. 
Several others ran in the same way, and I do not know but they may 
be running still, as they were doing so the last we saw of them. They 
ran as if two wild animals had just escaped from cages, and were after 
them. With their short, hobbling step, I expected to see them tumble, 
but I believe they kept on their feet. They reminded me of boys try- 
ing to run on stilts. I stopped in the street to explain something to 
my boy, which did not occupy more than three minutes ; but when I 
looked up we were completely surrounded by the crowd, that had 
gathered about us from curiosity. We walked up and down the street 
to observe the curiosity of the people, and found those within the 
houses as curious to see us as those without. With mouths and 
eyes wide open, especially the girls of from eight to fourteen, they 
stared at us, and looked as if they would jump out of their wits at 
our appearance ; and the timid ones, to see us, would peep from behind 
the doors and posts, and, when we were past, would venture out a 
little. One little girl, of about twelve, ran as she saw us approach- 
ing, not daring to look back till she had got one foot over the door- 



CHINESE GIBL AT HER TOILET. 281 

sill ; when she gave one glance over her shoulder, and, pulling the 
door after her, disappeared. No doubt she thought she had a narrow 
escape from the Fanquies. 

The small-footed wife of the tinman was seated in front of his|hop, 
dressing her hair, with a glass set up before her, very unconcernedly. 
I was amused to notice how particular she was, and the pains she took 
in its arrangement. She hardly appeared to notice us, and had, per- 
haps, seen foreigners before. A little way down the street, on the 
side of the canal, were a group of Chinamen disputing with each 
other. They gesticulated with great warmth, and each one, screaming 
at the top of his voice, made noise enough for ten. In one house 
we passed there was a pretty-looking girl sitting alone at a table, taking 
her " chow-chow." As she fixed a wild stare on us, her chopsticks 
were suspended about half-way to her mouth, which was left wide 
open, and as if in doubt whether to scream or run. At one place a 
Chinaman and his family were sitting at a table outside their house, 
taking their breakfast together. They gobbled down their rice and 
vegetables with wonderful celerity, -raising their bowls near to their 
mouth, and poking it in with a continuous stream. As they per- 
ceived vis, their heads and bodies all turned toward us, as if on pivots ; 
and, suspending their eating operations, they gazed at us till we were 
out of sight. 

A girl of about eighteen years, who did not perceive us, was seated 
on a high stool, under a tree, arranging her hair before a dressing-case 
placed upon a table. She inclined her head one side, and then the 
other, fixing this part and then that-, placing and replacing her hair- 
pins. She did not seem in a hurry, but took it very leisurely, as if she 
had the whole day at her disposal. She tried it over and over ; put up 
one part well greased, stuck in a pin, fixed in an artificial flower, took 
a look in the glass; then combed and fixed up another part, and 
looked again, and then pulled it all down, to rearrange it more to her 
mind. She put it up and took it down several times. There was quite 
an array of toilet articles about her bench, cups and combs, hair-pins 
of silver, and others of a kind of green stone, paints, white gypsum- 
powder, artificial flowers, a basin, and a kind of thick grease that 
looked like tar. She was so absorbed in her toilet that she did not per- 
ceive us ; and I was almost afraid to look at her, for fear she would 
scream, tip over her establishment, and run away. 

One man stood before his house mixing something like dough. We 
walked towards him, and, suddenly raising his head, he stopped, with 
24* 



282 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

the material in his hands, staring at us as if he was confronting two 
walking spirits. His dog, lying near, seeing us, sprang up with its ears 
back and its tail down, gave one bound, and, with a despairing 
yelp, vanished at the other end of the room. When we were suffi- 
ciently near to bow and speak, he seemed most happy to hear our 
voices, and relieved of conflicting doubts, as spirits never speak. He 
went on with his work, mixing and working molasses-candy, and 
kneading into it as much rice-flour as it would bear, rather pleased 
with the notice we paid to his avocation. He cut the candy into 
square pieces, about half as large as boys at home sell for a cent. I put 
down twelve copper cash, amounting to a cent, to see how much it 
would buy. He wrapped up in a paper twelve of the squares and 
gave me. I had observed his hands, and, presuming that he was gov- 
erned by the principle that anything escaping from them only 
increased the quantity to be sold, I felt no inclination to eat it, and 
handed it over to the boys, who swallowed it very quickly. As we 
moved off, the Chinaman chin-chinned us very politely. We next 
approached a young girl, about fourteen years old, who was spinning 
in front of a house, astride the seat of her spinning-wheel, with her 
back towards us, and her hair decorated with orange-blossoms, and 
hanging in a braid down her back. Hearing undue Chinese sounds, 
she raised her head, looking forward ; then stopped and held her 
head still to listen ; and then, as quick as thought, her head whirled on 
its axis towards us for a moment, her body rocked backward, and one 
of her small, half-sized feet passed over the wheel, and away she went, 
in hobbling leaps, as fast as her stiffened ankles would carry her. She 
did not attempt to gain the nearest house, but made for one several 
buildings beyond. As she entered the door, she ventured to look over 
her shoulder, and, forgetting the high threshold, she tumbled head- 
long into the house, but quickly regained her feet, which, with her 
arms, were flying in all directions. 

Many other little amusing incidents took place, but hardly of 
sufficient importance to be here mentioned. The crowd that gathered 
about us becoming too dense to be comfortable, we turned and walked 
slowly back to our boat, entering to escape the gaze of the populace. 
Through the crevices of the boat we could see them on the bank watch- 
ing the place where we had disappeared, as if expecting another view 
of us ; but we thought proper to disappoint them, as they become top 
bold after a short acquaintance. 

The boatmen here came on us for cash and rice, as they were out of 



JOURNEY CONTINUED. CROSSING THE DAMS. Zt56 

both. From the way ours had disappeared, we concluded tney must 
have been out for two or three days ; and that, perhaps, they had dis- 
posed of some of it in other ways besides eating it, for a large stock 
had been laid in. Our funds were nearly spent ; and here the few 
dollars which I had gone back to get at Ningpoo became very 
convenient, and more provisions were added to our stores. 

Between eight and nine it came our boat's turn to be taken into the 
lake, which was managed in this way : The head of the boat is 
brought up to a place where there is an inclined plane on both sides of 
the dam, kept constantly covered with black, slimy mud. A large 
cable, made of grass, is thrown by a slip-noose over the stern of the 
boat, and its two ends connected with two capstans, one on each side, 
at the top of the dam. It seems a rude contrivance, but there are 
no locks that I ever heard of in China. It is the only way ; and, per- 
haps, it is more expeditious than locks. Small vessels can be taken 
over in this way. The capstans are each turned by thirty or forty 
men, and the cables wound up, until the boat is drawn to the top. The 
men insert handspikes into the capstans, radiating like the spokes of 
a large wheel laid horizontally, and commence running and crying 
out Yar-ar-ar-ar-a-a-a-a-r-r-r*-r ! Yar-ar-ar-ar-ar-a-a-a-a-r-r-r-r ! in 
most outrageous tones. They run around a few times, and then grad- 
ually relapse into a slow walk, after which they break out again 
all together with the Yar~ar, etc., and run again. The cable, although 
five or six inches through, broke twice with us, but was quickly tied 
again, it taking some yards to make the knot. It was so full of knots 
that there was hardly room for another, should it break again. The 
delay occasioned is but a few moments, and with the savage-like Yar, 
etc., of all their voices, they start again. They did not discover us 
foreigners until we were nearly drawn up, when they evinced much 
curiosity, peeping through the interstices of the boat to see us. The 
boat, by its own weight, easily glided down the opposite side, and was 
launched into the lake. We endeavored to cross the lake to the oppo- 
site side, but the boisterous state of the weather made it unsafe, and 
we kept in near the shore, passing several villages. Atone we stopped, 
and debated whether to wait for better weather until to-morrow, or 
to return homeward to-day. Deciding to remain, we went ashore, 
ascending a pretty, mound-like hill, the sides of which were covered 
with tombs and patches of trees. At the summit we had a fine view, 
made up of mountains, a chain of pretty lakes, and many villages and 
cities on their borders. Leaving my companion to sketch the scene. 



284 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

I descended with my boy and went in search of some vegetables, so as 
^to vary our monotonous meal of chickens,, rice and eggs, on which we 
had lived so constantly. 

"We saw the egg-plant in considerable quantities, but we did not like 
it. We thought some cucumbers sliced in vinegar would be grateful 
to us ; and, after a time, I made my boy understand what they were, 
though, in describing them, I had to go through all the motions of 
paring, slicing, etc. He inquired for them often, and said at last there 
were none to be obtained. I had seen one man pointing over the hills, 
and understanding by him that they were to be found in that direction , 
I told the boy to go, and I accompanied him. "We passed along the 
edge of the lake a considerable distance, and then crossed over a couple 
of hills, scattering the frightened children in all directions, and came 
to a farmer's house which stood alone. My boy made inquiries, and 
the man went into the garden and brought two or three little shrivelled- 
up cucumbers. While paying for these, an aged man with white hair, 
though scarcely enough to form a queue of a few inches on his neck, 
who seemed to be a kind of patriarch here, and had the pleasant- 
est Chinese countenance I had met, came out and led us to the further 
part of the garden, where we found as many fine ones as we wished. 
The old man gathered and put handfuls of them into the apron of 
my boy's frock, and refused payment ; but I insisted that he should be 
paid, and my boy gave him thirty or forty cash, which he received and 
put in his pocket without counting. 

The women and all the inmates crowded to the door of the house, 
and looked at me with a mixture of fear and astonishment, hiding 
themselves behind each other whenever I turned my eyes towards them. 
I chin-chinned the old man, and he chin-chinned heartily in return. 
He seemed to be a very good man ; though I think, from his actions, he 
was glad to see me leaving, for the whole neighborhood was gathering 
on his premises, with some symptoms of excitement. 

Returning to the boat, and pushing out a few rods from the shore, 
having now a plenty of cucumbers and vinegar, with our rice, chick- 
en and eggs, we made our dinner. The people on shore loitered near, 
looking with curiosity to see us eat. After our meal I again went on 
shore, leaving Mr. West in the boat to complete his drawings, and 
gradually advanced through the town as curiosity might dictate, and 
as I might find it safe. 

Knowing the groat interest of the people to look at our books, I put 
in my pocket one with some plates in it, thinking it might be of ser- 



CURIOSITY OE CHINESE MULTITUDE. 285 

vice to me. The Chinese flocked around, following me in great 
numbers. Occasionally, as they began to be too boisterous, which I 
knew, if continued, would end in a mob, I stopped and showed them 
some of the pictures in the book, with which they seemed much 
pleased, though I thought as many appeared to look at me as at the 
book. The bolder ones annoyed me exceedingly by asking innumer- 
able questions, all of which I could not have answered had I known 
the Chinese language, the dialects are so different ; and the only way 
in which I could get along with them was to silence them as I did the 
monks, by talking to them English as fast as I could, to which they 
assented, apparently well satisfied, though they could not understand a 
word. As the crowd pressed me closely, I moved on ; and in this way 
I wandered about in sight of the lake, though I found nothing remark- 
able. All the houses were old and built like sheds, the streets narrow 
and dirty, etc.; but the population was more numerous than I had 
anticipated, so that it might be called a city instead of a village. 

I could not help feeling somewhat amused, when displaying the 
plates in the book, to see such a multitude of people around. They 
completely encompassed me upon every side, — old men, old women, 
middle-aged people, young girls and boys, — all gaping, with wonder- 
stricken countenances. They displayed as much marvellousness as we 
might have done at the appearance of an inhabitant from another 
planet. At first they approached very cautiously, but, perceiving that 
I did not hurt or frighten them, they advanced with more freedom and 
confidence ; and after they had scrutinized the pictures they scruti- 
nized me, and then they scrutinized the pictures again, and so on. 
Gradually they nearcd their gaze, till their faces were within a foot or 
six inches of mine ; when, gratifying themselves with a profound look, 
their mouths stretching into an inexpressive grin, they would break 
out with a half-grunting, half-laughing exclamation of " hurngh," 
drawling it out as if they felt it from the bottom of their feet. Then, as 
if amazed with what they had experienced, and absorbed in their own 
thoughts, they would get pushed back a step, and others would crowd 
in and take a look. After a while, one man stretched out his hand, 
slowly, but timidly, towards me, keeping his eyes steadfastly fixed on 
my face, and at length touched my knee. Emboldened by this, he 
touched my arm, and then my shoulder. He seemed to wonder if the 
flesh of my body was like theirs, and felt of my hand and my face, 
smoothing the skin a little, and pinching it up. Others, observing his 
success, thought they would like also to touch the strange being, the 



286 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

"foreign spirit," — and joined in. One man drew his hand upon 
my face and forehead, though doubtfully, as if he was not quite sure 
it was safe to do so, examining his fingers afterwards to see if the 
white color came off. One man felt of my hair, another of my nose 
and whiskers ; one took off my cap, and examined that ; another 
was looking at the nails of my fingers ; one at my coat, examining the 
material ; one was down on the ground, feeling of my shoes ; and one 
was trying to look on their under side, examining carefully the smooth 
leather, the bottoms and the seams, and appeared to think it all very 
singular in comparison with their cloth shoes. One examined my 
dickey, one felt of the smoothness and hardness of the bosom, and 
another turned his attention to my vest ; one was smoothing up and 
down my pants, examining minutely the texture of the cloth, till it 
seemed as if as many had their hands on me as there was room for 
them ; and all this time others were squeezing and crowding through 
to get at me. These things became very annoying ; but I could not 
prevent it without showing some resentment, or pushing them off, 
which I did not like to do. Whenever I found them becoming too 
well acquainted, or too bold, or coarse in their actions, I moved on, 
changed my course, or turned a corner. Sometimes they crowded so 
hard as to push each other over, tumbling over a stone down a bank, 
or into the gutter ; but, to avoid any tumult, I passed along as quietly 
and quickly as possible. 

Once I found myself rather too closely besieged. The concourse 
had so swelled as to be quite a sea of Chinese heads and shoulders, 
mostly of men, naked to the waist, whose yellow skins, of the color 
of books " bound in calf," shaved heads, and long, braided queues, 
presented a very unique appearance. I was so completely hemmed in 
that I found it difficult to get out. The crowd had become noisy and 
boisterous, and were swaying back and forth, like a wheat-field in the 
wind. I did not feel at ease in the midst of such a crowd, and studied 
for some way of escape that should not excite their suspicions of my 
desire to avoid them. I had tried to crowd through them, but found 
that I could not do so without using more violence than I was willing 
to, and I became convinced that I must resort to some artifice. I 
therefore raised my book, and so held it open that the pictures might 
be seen only by those in front. As the back of the book was towards 
those behind me, in order to get a sight of the pictures they had to 
crowd around to the other side, which gradually left the way open for 
me, as they vacated the ground behind me, to step back. This I con- 



. CAUSEWAY. QUARRIES. 287 

tinued till the opening in the rear was sufficient, when I glided out, 
thankful to make my escape. As I accomplished my object, they 
evidently perceived the design of my artifice ; for they burst into a 
loud hurra, and pressed on behind. I was careful not to let them 
encircle me again ; and, with the many turns and crooks in the streets, 
there was always a place for retreat. I returned to the boat at dark ; 
and, in order to avoid the Chinese during the night, we pushed off, 
and anchored a little way from the shore, and at an early hour retired 
to rest. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

CROSSING THE LAKE. CAUSEWAY. QUARRIES. CHINESE WORKMEN. 

RETURN TO NINGPOO. SMALL FEET. — NINGPOO PAGODA. HOUSE 

OP CHINESE DOCTOR. TRIP INTO THE CITY. EXCURSION TO CHUSAN. 

ENGLISH CEMETERY. RETURN TO NINGPOO. TEA-DRINKING. 

INFANTICIDE. 

Saturday, July 21st. — We were up at light ; and, finding that 
the violence of the wind had ceased, we set off across the lake. 
Coming near an island, I directed the boatmen to pull to it ; and, 
leaving my companion asleep in the boat, I went ashore, and had a 
ramble alone. There was one Josh-house and a small pagoda on the 
island, and the ground was cultivated, the crop being mostly a kind 
of squash ; but no one was living there. The pagoda was about 
thirty feet high. Climbing up part way on the outside (for there 
were no stairs to it) , I took a view of the surrounding country, and 
returned to the boat. 

"We continued on, taking breakfast by the way, and passing under 
the bridge of a very fine causeway. This causeway is built of stone, 
and stretches quite across the lake. Near the shore we passed a 
Chinaman in a boat,' who was calling after him some hundreds of 
young ducks and goslings, swimming, which he was raising. We 
next came to the stone quarries, and to the singular-looking monu- 
ment, or pedestal stone, which we saw from the mountains at Teen- 
Tung. Landing, and climbing the hill, down which men were roll- 
ing wheelbarrow-loads of stone, we saw the quarries. Numbers of 
men were engaged in hammering and splitting out the stone. It was 



288 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

from these quarries that stone had been taken to build the causeway, 
and over which the stones are now transported to other places. It 
seems odd not to see horses or oxen used to draw the stone, which is 
all done by Chinese coolies. The monument we saw was simply a 
pedestal of rock, about two hundred feet high, with rough sides full 
of angles, and larger at the top than at the base. It was formed by 
quarrying around it, and leaving the centre stone standing. Hun- 
dreds of birds were flying around the top, where they had made 
their nests. It may be intended for a future pagoda ; but it is an 
interesting object, as it shows the height of the original hill. 

While Mr. W. was taking a sketch of this queer place, I went off 
to ascend some of the elevations on different sides. It soon began to 
rain ; and, as I was seeking a place of shelter, I saw one of the work- 
men beckoning to me. Curiosity led me to follow him, and he took 
me into his house at the foot of the hill, and gave me a stool to sit on. 
The house had no windows, and appeared more like a small black- 
smith's shop, having a rude kind of bellows, some hammers, &c. ; 
it was probably used for repairing the tools. Here he lived, and had 
his workshop. The ground was the floor ; a heap of old blankets on 
a place raised a little from the ground represented the bed ; and tho 
walls of the house were hung with bits of trash, — odds and ends. 

There was no other one present but his wife, who did not allow 
her suspicious eyes to stray from me long at a time. He offered me 
his pipe, and gave me warm tea from a large earthen pan, which he 
kept well filled, and dipped out from it as he wished. It was more 
like an infusion of senna than tea, but I thought I must drink it. I 
remained here near an hour, talking by signs with the man, and 
finally with the woman, who at last did not seem to consider me an 
evil spirit. When the rain had ceased, I left them, they both respond- 
ing to me their chin-chins, as I thanked them for their hospitality. 

We crossed the lake to the other end of the causeway, and, seeing 
nothing more of particular interest, took another route back to 
Ningpoo. We passed through one town on foot, the boat sailing 
along the shore, and the Chinese forming together in lines on the 
sides of the street to look at us. A crowd of Chinese boys followed 
us in and out, as we called at various .places where inclination 
prompted us. One of the places where we stopped was a Josh-house, 
where were various idols ; and another was at a house where some 
women were weaving cloth in looms that looked as if they were con- 
structed before the Christian era. Reaching the end of the lake, we 



NTNGPOO. VISIT TO A PAGODA. 289 

had our boat drawn up and launched again into the canal below ; 
when, hoisting sail, we sped along at a rapid rate. Occasionally we 
landed and walked through a village, and at one place I had my 
handkerchief stolen. Having completed a distance of forty or fifty 
miles to-day, we arrived at Ningpoo about dark. 

Ningpoo, Sunday, July 22d. — I attended church services in Mr. 
Way's chapel, though I felt quite unwell all day. There were six- 
teen foreigners present, and four Chinese. Rev. Mr. White preached. 
After this, I went to hear Dr. McCarty discourse to the Chinese in 
their language. Here the private schools of the missionaries unite 
on Sundays, and have religious services together. There were about 
eighty scholars, girls and boys, present, of from six to eighteen 
years of age. They were a singular-looking set of beings, — the 
girls having their hair dressed variously, to correspond to their 
particular ages, after the Chinese custom. Several of them were 
pretty ; but when they hobbled along on their little feet to pass out, 
I could not help thinking they were very foolish to allow their feet 
to be made the cause of rendering them so uncomfortable. One would 
suppose that the pain they undergo while subjected to the bandages, 
and the discomfort they endure ever afterwards, would deter them 
from this unnatural practice. But the Chinese gentlemen are very par- 
tial to this mincing, hitching, uncertain gait in their females, which, 
I suppose, is the principal incentive towards perpetuating the custom. 

Rev. Mr. Way afterwards preached to a Chinese congregation ; and 
at evening Dr. McC. came in, and, with Mr. W., we had a long talk 
on Chinese matters. 

Monday, July 23d. — I arose at six, and felt miserably all day, but 
forced myself to move about. Mr. W. offering to accompany me 
this forenoon on a visit into the city, we took a couple of chairs, 
crossed the river, and entered the city. We first called at a Chinese 
shop where the most of the foreigners trade, and procured material 
for a mosquito-net, being determined not to suffer unnecessarily from 
these insects. 

We then visited the Ningpoo pagoda, ascending to the top by stairs 
inside. This has seven stories, has twenty-eight windows, is hex- 
agonal in form, and one hundred and sixty feet high, with a spiral 
course on the top. The view is commanding and extensive, consist- 
ing of the entire city with its suburbs, the Ningpoo river, Ningpoo 
hills and valleys, a distant chain of mountains, and the sea with its 
islands. This pagoda has been once burnt, once struck by lightning, 
25 



290 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

and once blown down in a hurricane. As to the design of pagodas, 
the Chinese say ' ' that the presence of such an edifice not only 
secures to the site the favor and protection of Heaven, if it already 
bears evidences of enjoying it, but represses any evil influences that 
may be native to the spot, and imparts to it the most salutary and 
felicitous omens." 

The great " Porcelain Pagoda," at Nankin, has nine stories, and 
is two hundred and sixty-one feet high, and near a hundred feet in 
diameter at the base. It has one hundred and fifty-two bells ; one 
hundred and twenty-eight lamps outside, and twelve porcelain lamps 
inside, requiring to fill them ten gallons of oil. It is encased upon 
the outside with green porcelain in slates, and has on its front an 
inscription in Chinese of First Pagoda, and cost in building between 
three and four millions of dollars. Its object, according to the com- 
mands of an emperor, was to commemorate " the virtues of his 
august empress mother." 

In the top of the pagoda, for warding off evil influences, were 
deposited several pearls, one hundred and thirty-three and a half 
pounds of tea, one hundred and thirty-three and a half pounds of 
silver, one ingot of gold, fifty-three and a half pounds of medicine, 
one hundred and thirty-three and a half pounds of sacred books, &c. 
A Chinese account says, " The god Thunder, while expelling a 
strange monster, chased him to this place, when instantly three parts 
of the nine stories were demolished ; but the influence of the Budd- 
histic doctrines was so boundless, that the whole building was not 
destroyed." 

As we walked through the city, we called at a " sing-song." This 
is the Chinese theatre. It was held in a square court, the stage 
being erected on the opposite side, so as to front a large temple full 
of gods, and, I presume, so as to be within the scope of their benign 
influence. There were no ladies present, and no objection was offered 
to our entering the gate and passing inside the court, where we 
walked around freely ; but ten minutes satisfied me here. One view 
of the assemblage, one of the harlequin actors, in silk costume of 
bright colors, a little of their squalling voices, and one blast from 
their orchestra, was all that I felt it necessary to see or hear of their 
performances. The musicians blow their instruments as if they 
would splinter them, producing most nervous, spasmodic, unmusical 
Bounds, not unlike what would be made by a number of cats in a fit. 

We next visited an old Chinese gentleman, a retired physician. 



NINGPOO. TEMPLE OE CONFUCIUS. 291 

He met us with much politeness and evident good feeling. With 
many bows and motions of the hands, he pointed to chairs, and 
insisted on our being seated before he would sit himself. The chairs 
of solid black wood, and uncomfortable, compared with ours, were 
placed against the walls of the room, with a tea-poy of the same 
material separating them by pairs, so that, in taking tea, one of the 
little tables answers for two persons. Everything about the house, 
of course, was purely Chinese. The old gentleman sat and chatted 
very sociably and pleasantly, without any Chinese bombast, and 
apparently without any feeling of superiority over the foreigners, 
which is so general with the Chinese. He had many inquiries to 
make about me, such as my age, birthplace, family, wife, &c. ; and 
he seemed much interested to learn that my father was a doctor, and 
so aged. When he inquired about my brothers, and learned that 
there were so many doctors in the family, he laughed, and seemed 
much amused ; and, as if to bring the number more home to himself, 
he touched the fingers of one hand several times over, and stopped 
with an accent on the little finger of the other. As it is considered 
disreputable to the females to be seen by strangers, they all keep out 
of the way, though we saw a pair of eyes looking out through an 
opening in a paper window which were much too soft and pretty for 
a man's. 

After tea the Chinese doctor led us through the apartments to his 
garden in the rear of the building. This was a curious place, full 
of flowers and plants, serpentine paths, subterranean passages, grot- 
toes, pools, imitations of sea-rocks, covered with sea-shells, weeds, 
moss, &c, made to imitate places on the sea-shore, and only wanting 
the sea to complete them. The works were all artificial, and in one 
of the grottoes was kept a large bird of the crane species, which 
stood higher than a man, and was more than a hundred years old. 
The agreeable old man followed us back to the street-door, and wo 
took leave of him. He put one hand closed into the other, and shook 
his own hands at us, according to their custom ; and we shook ours at 
him, and departed. „ 

We next came to the Temple of Confucius. We found no idols 
here, the followers of this sage not admitting them in their tenets. 
They use instead tablets inscribed with the names of their ancestral 
objects of worship. The building was large and open, and the ceil- 
ing highly ornamented with carvings and gildings. One of the large 
gates is kept closed, and only to be opened when the emperor from 



292 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Pekin makes a visit, which, I believe, he has not yet done. During 
our walk we saw many of the " small feet," but no ladies of the 
higher classes. "We returned at one p. m. ; and, though we rode in 
the chairs the most of the way, I suffered much from weakness and 
prostration, and was obliged to lie down most of the afternoon. 
Towards night I went on board the Portuguese vessel to pay my pas- 
sage from Shanghae. I did not see the admiral, but settled with the 
captain for thirty-seven dollars. In the evening, with Rev. Mr. W., 
I had a pleasant call at Mr. S., the British consul's. Mr. S. was 
unwell, but Mrs. S. and daughter appeared, and gave us an agree- 
able entertainment. I took tea at Dr. McC.'s, meeting some 
acquaintances there. 

Tuesday, July 2±th. — I arose very early, to see what the morning 
air would do towards renovating my strength ; but I believe it made 
very little difference, feeling an extreme lassitude all day. In the 
evening, with Rev. Mr. Q., I called on Rev. Mr. and Mrs. G. They 
were formerly of the Siam mission. Mrs. G. was originally from 
Holden, Mass. 

Wednesday, July 25th. — Mr. Q. walked with me into the city, 
where we called in at an embroidery-shop, and saw some beautiful 
specimens of that kind of work, — aprons, dresses, bags, slippers, 
vests, shawls, &c. We also went into some large furniture-shops ; 
visited temples, a Mahometan mosque ; passed the Chinese brigadier- 
general's place, and called at a Chinese druggist's, where we were 
regaled with fine tea. This man was an acquaintance of Mr. Q. 
The Chinese proprietors here were very attentive, and showed us 
some things which I was too miserable to observe or remember. I 
had determined to-day to walk and exercise to the extent of my 
strength, hoping to throw off my ill feelings, although the weather 
was very hot. My thirst seemed almost unquenchable, and I drank 
water or tea at every opportunity, the Chinese setting before us cups 
of tea at all their shops. I took tea with Mr. Q. at Dr. McGowan's. 
The doctor has had much success in curing the Chinese opium-smokers 
of their habit of smoking this drug, and presented me with several 
pipes which his patients had given up. 

Thursday, July 26th. — I arose at seven, and took a bath, but with 
no diminution of my bad feelings. Have had very little appetite for 
the last week. I made calls with Mr. Q., and spent most of the day 
at Mr. S., the British consul's. They are extremely polite and pleas- 
ant people. There is hardly any luxury of the country that their 



CHUSAN. PIRATES. 293 

house does not afford. The English consuls of China are allowed 
eight thousand dollars a year, — a handsome salary, compared with 
American. 

At sundown we were getting on board the boat for Chusan. Rev. 
Mr. Quarterman, Mr. West, Rev. Mr. Johnson, and myself, consti- 
tute a sufficient company to be some protection against the pirates. 
At nine in the evening we were under sail, and directly after we had 
tea. The boys set the little table we brought with us, and, the Rev. 
Mr. J. asking a blessing, we partook of an humble repast of bread, 
cake, &c, from our stores. Feeling quite unwell, I afterwards sat 
outside for several hours, and enjoyed the refreshing breeze. This 
crazy Chinese boat, though very old, sails well. On going inside, I 
found that my companions had spread their simple beds on the floor, 
had arranged their mosquito-nets, and were fast asleep ; and I very 
quickly followed their example. 

Chusan Islands, Friday, July 27th. — I arose this morning at 
sunrise, and found that we were down the river, opposite Chinhae, 
and where we had stopped, and were just under way again. There 
are on board a number of Chinamen passengers ; but they have their 
places fore and aft, the boat being hired for our party, with the 
privilege of taking a few Chinese passengers. We had the centre, 
under cover, entirely to ourselves. I am told that the Chinese take 
advantage of opportunities to go in boats Avith foreigners, as they 
consider themselves safer from the attacks of pirates when with them 
than when only with their own people. The boatmen are very glad 
to get foreigners for passengers, as they get double pay for them, 
secure more Chinese passengers, consider themselves and boat much 
safer, and have a better chance for smuggling goods ; there being a 
duty on many things that are carried to the islands, and the authori- 
ties not liking to interfere, by examining, when there are foreigners 
on board. 

We arrived at Chusan about noon. This is the island the English 
held during the war with the Chinese. We passed hundreds of 
Chinese junks and boats, and were unmolested by pirates, a whole 
fleet of whom lately arrived in the neighborhood of the Chusan Islands, 
much to the terror of the inhabitants and others visiting the vicinity. 
The Chinese naval commandant here has sent to one of the neighbor- 
ing provinces for a reinforcement of men and war-junks to operate 
against them ; but this is of little use, as the war-junks are often 
captured by the piratical junks, and do not like to venture very near. 
25* 



294 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

We passed a little rocky island, on which were congregated quite 
an array of pelicans, looking in the distance like an army of soldiers. 
Soon we came into a snug little harbor, in which were many vessels of 
all sizes belonging to the Chinese, and also two Portuguese lorchas, 
the only foreign vessels here. Landing, we walked to a house where 
two missionary families are stopping, and were made acquainted with 
Miss Elmer, Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Loomis, Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Lord, and 
Rev. Mr. Russell. Miss E. is a Swede, and the others are all Amer- 
icans. We had our baggage brought in, and our party of four 
took possession of an empty room in the back part of the house. 
Our beds were located on the floor. No foreign family is suffered to 
reside on any of the islands in the Chusan group, but now and then 
some of the missionary families make visits there, for short periods at 
a time, for their health, to which no objection has yet been made by 
the Chinese. 

I was obliged to take to my bed as soon as we arrived, with cold 
shiverings, pain in my head, back, and limbs. I covered myself with 
clothes, and in a short time was in a violent heat and perspiration. 
With much pressure of blood to the head, and throbbing of the tem- 
poral arteries, I found my pulse up to near a hundred. After a dose 
of medicine, and a hot foot-bath, I bound a wet napkin about my 
head, and, although unable to lie five minutes in one position, com- 
posed myself as well as I could. My companions, and the other 
families, were very kind, offering freely their services, and tendering 
many little niceties for my comfort. 

Saturday, July 28th. — I was quite sick all night, vomiting and 
retching, &c. Rev. Mr. Quarterman was assiduously attentive, hold- 
ing my head, and acting the part of the good Samaritan. I kept my 
bed most of the day, but towards night rode in a chair, in company 
with Mr. Q. and others, to the hills. There I had a draught of pure 
water from a rivulet, which I had much desired all day, having been 
suffering much from thirst ; and, thinking of a nice cold spring in 
" cold harbor " meadow, at Northboro', which I used to frequent 
when a boy, it seemed to me that if I ever went to America again, I 
should go to that spring and drink to my heart's content. 

An old Chinaman on board of our boat being questioned yesterday 
by Rev. Mr. Quarterman respecting a future existence, gave it as bis 
belief that if he was good in this life he would be born into the next 
world a man, and in connection with a family of honor and distinc- 



CHUSAN. STORY OF THE LATE WAR. 295 

tion ; but if he was bad here, he would there exist as a cow or a 
woman. 

Sunday, July 29th. — I sat up part of the day, my whole desire 
being for drink, having considerable fever. 

Relijrious services were held in Mr. Loomis' room at ten a. m. Mr. 
Johnson officiated, and the service being short, we all attended. 

Towards night Mr. W. and I walked to the English burial-ground, 
situated on the side of the hill, a few steps from our quarters. On 
the top of the hill stands a Chinese temple. There are here about 
thirty grave-stones, " sacred to the memory " of several hundreds of 
those who had belonged to the English army while stationed here. 

The Chinese had here one small open tomb, containing about twenty 
pails, in which were deposited the heads of pirates who had been 
decapitated. I suppose they thought the "barbarian" burial-place 
the most fitting for such a tomb. 

The top of the hill and the temple are surrounded by a heavy, thick 
wall, with embrasures, capable of being fortified. The Bunn is a 
walk, built and walled up on the edge of the water, for about a mile 
in extent. A bank of clay and turf about five feet high is raised on 
this, intended as a breastwork defence to the harbor. 

Monday, July ?>0lh. — I kept my bed most of the day. Towards 
evening I took a chair and accompanied the missionary ladies and 
gentlemen to the country-seat of a wealthy Chinaman, where I pro- 
cured a cooling draught of water from the rivulet ; and then we con- 
tinued on to a pass in the mountains. This our party understood to 
be the pass the English troops came through when they took this 
island. There is a story that when the British fleet was advancing up 
the coast the Chinese fortified the harbor of Chusan, and awaited the 
coming of the enemy. The fleet approached the island, and the Chinese 
stood at their guns, along the fortifications, with the brave intention 
of blowing up the English vessels as soon as they should appear ; but 
what was their surprise and mortification, while watching for the 
vessels, to see the English appear on land, marching through this pass 
of the mountains ! They had landed on the other side, and were 
marching directly on the city, which lay between them and the Chinese 
fortifications. The Chinese are said to have exclaimed, 

" Hai-yar ! Hai-yar ! how can so fashion, that Englishman he too 
muchy fraid ; hai-yar, he come back-side, that no fair fightee ! " 

The city easily fell, and the Chinese had another lesson to learn in 
the art of war from their Eno;lish teachers. 



296 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Tuesday, July Zlst. — I thought I would persevere in going out, 
although I was so unwell that it seemed as if I could not make the 
effort. Deciding that it was all nonsense to be sick here, Mr. W. 
made the arrangements, and all I had to do was to descend the stairs 
and take my seat in the sedan-chair. After a comfortable ride, we 
were set down at a house at the distance of a couple of miles. ^Ye 
learned that the proprietor was dead, and that a poor man now was 
living here and taking care of the estate for a minor son, who was 
living at present elsewhere. 

The man was well-disposed, and brought us tea as soon as we 
arrived. I had some cool water brought from the rivulet, and, with 
my mat spread on the stone floor, and a pillow, I laid down and felt 
comfortable while I saw the water-jar within reach. TVe are now in 
the summer-house, adjoining the garden. It is furnished in real 
Chinese style, so that, if we choose, we can recline on the broad seats, 
and sip our tea after the Chinese fashion. 

The garden was ornamented with many trees, flowers, artificial 
grottoes, and little walks. The walks were paved with small pebbles 
from the beach, representing, in their arrangement and different 
colors, various figures and characters. Other passages around, over, 
and through the grottoes and artificial rocks, were so arranged with 
a small pond as to convey the idea that they might have been formed 
by the dashing of the water. Plants are springing from different 
portions, and vines and flowers give a romantic wildness to the 
whole. 

Small porticoes project over the wall on the left side, and on the 
right is a beautiful little dark grove of bamboos. Tombs of various 
shapes cover the hill-side, just above the house, and on our return 
we remarked their great numbers. Hill after hill, almost to their 
summits, with others in the background, which could be seen, was 
covered with them, so that at a little distance they appeared like cities 
of tombs. TTe arrived home at six p.m. 

Wednesday, August 1st. — TTe were all up soon after daylight this 
morning, expecting an excursion to " Puto," a neighboring island 
of the group ; but, as Mr. L. was absent with the boat we wished to 
go in, and as the other boatmen said there was danger from pirates, 
typhoons, &c, we concluded not to go at this time. That island is 
remarkable for the great number of Chinese temples with which it 
abounds, almost to the exclusion of everything else. 

Mr West and Mr. Loomis went off to the hills, and Mr. Johnson, 



CHINHAE. A CHINESE TEA-SHOP. 297 

Mr. Quarterman and myself, took a boat and had a sail, circumnavi- 
gating two of the islands near by. The breeze was fresh and reviving 
to us all, though the odor from the boat, it having once been a fishing- 
boat, was sickeningly disagreeable, and neutralized the renovating 
effects we might have received from the air. "While out we sang the 
' ' Missionary Hymn, ' ' and the Chant, all joining. It sounded prettily, 
and was peculiarly impressive in our isolation, as it seemed to be, 
from the civilized world. I passed the remainder of the day on my 
couch. 

Thursday, August 2d. — Mr. Q. left us and returned to Ningpoo. 
I was hoping that Mr. L. would return to-day, so that we might go 
to the island of Puto ; but, as he has not returned, and Mr. Q. is gone, 
we shall give up that project. Several of us, however, walked to see 
the building formerly used for the English hospital. It has since 
remained empty. Every pane of glass had been broken out by the 
Chinese, everything about the building of a foreign character 
removed, and one of their gods placed inside. The large temple on 
the top of the hill, in which the English officers were quartered, has 
been remodelled, and whole lines of gods reinstated ; and the priests, 
very polite, are in attendance as before. 

Friday, August Zd. — Mr. Johnson and myself took a boat to return 
to Ningpoo soon after sunrise this morning. The wind was very 
light, and the men were obliged to row all the way, which made it 
rather tedious for us. "We came into the river about one p. m. and 
anchored opposite Chinhae, waiting for the tide. 

While here we took a small boat and went on shore to promenade 
through the city of Chinhae. After walking a while, hot, tired and 
thirsty, we stepped into a Chinese tea (drinking) shop, where numer- 
ous Chinese were sitting at little tables drinking hot tea. "We were, 
of course, the objects of their staring eyes, and attracted a crowd 
about the door. We took seats at a little table, and a Chinese waiter 
brought two cups with lids and placed them before us. Another 
followed, and dropped into the cups half a dozen tea-leaves. A third 
came with a tea-kettle, and poured boiling water on the leaves, and 
covered the cups with the lid. The heat and steam being thus kept 
in, the tea directly diffused itself through the water, and in a few 
moments it was ready to be drank. Depressing one edge of the lid, 
we sipped it off, when the man with the tea-kettle came and again 
filled the cups with water. This he does to all, going around among 
the tea-drinkers, and filling their cups as often as emptied, if to the 



298 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

fiftieth time, and without any change of the leaves. We had our 
cups filled the fifth or sixth time, and left them full at last : and our 
last cup seemed nearly as strong as the first. We paid for our tea five 
cash apiece, — in all about a cent. 

We visited the market, some temples, shops, &c, meeting with 
nothing particularly interesting. I bought some peaches and ate, 
which is about all I have taken to-day. On our way I noticed an 
infant, rolled up in a mat, and floating in the river, borne down by 
the current, which would soon carry it out to sea. Reaching home 
(at Mr. Way's) about ten o'clock in the evening, we called up Mr. Q., 
who let us in. 

Saturday, August 4th. — Had some appetite for breakfast, for the 
first time lately ; took a bath, and at two p. m. retired to my couch. 

I observed to-day more infants floating in the river. I am told that 
infanticide here prevails to a great extent. They destroy only the 
female infants. They say the males are able to work and support 
themselves, but the females, with their small feet, are comparatively 
helpless ; and, if their parents are not affluent, they remain an en- 
cumbrance through life ; or, if cast on the world without support, 
they will lead a life of profligacy and misery. And therefore, severe 
as it may seem to us, they regard it as a virtuous act, and a kindness 
to the world, to themselves and to the infants, to strangle them, and 
consign them to the water which floats them to the sea. The manner 
of strangling usually is by a piece of paper, wet in vinegar, and laid 
over the mouth and nose of the infant. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

CHINESE OPIUM-SMOKING. DEMANDS OF RANSOM-MONEY OF PIRATES. 

WORMS IN TEETH. IMPOSITIONS OF AN OLD WOMAN. VISIT TO LU- 

CONG. LEAVE FOR SHANGHAE BY THE WAY OF CHAPOO, AND ACROSS 

THE COUNTRY. 

Sunday, August 5th. — It was very warm this morning. I attended 
church at the new missionary chapel. Rev. Mr. Way conducted the 
services. 

Monday, August Oth. — This evening, in company with Mr. and 
Mrs. W. and Mr. J., I dined at the English consul's. We met there 
some officers from an English man-of-war. I was so miserable in health 



NINGPOO. PIRATES AGAIN. 290 

that it was as much as I could do to keep up a respectable appearance 
on the occasion. 

I called, with a friend, at the house of Dr. McG., to see some 
Chinese opium patients — victims of opium-smoking. They were 
most pitiful-looking objects, emaciated almost to skeletons, their 
faculties obtused, with long, sorrowful countenances. The doctor 
requires them to give up their pipes as the first preliminary to 
their becoming his patients ; and, after a few months of medical treat- 
ment, they are generally cured. It costs them a severe struggle to 
contend against the fascinating effects of the drug, when it has kept 
them for years under its influence. They require more or less of nar- 
cotics in their treatment, or they would go crazy from the abruptness 
of the change. 

We then called at several temples, and visited the foundling hos- 
pital, in the city ; but, on account of my ill feelings, I cannot recol- 
lect much about them. I remember seeing a range of low, dirty build- 
ings, called the hospital, in which were seated numbers of dirty 
Chinese women, and in whose arms, and on the floor, scattered about, 
were sundry bundles of rags ; and I remember seeing, on closer obser- 
vation, projecting from the end of each bundle, something resembling 
the head of an infant, spotted with sores and stained with dirt. 

Ningpoo, Tuesday, August 7th. — We have just received news that 
the pirates have captured two junks in the neighborhood of Chusan, 
mangling those on board in a horrible manner. I think it fortunate 
that we did not leave Chusan for Puto. The pirates have a singular 
way of extracting money from the mandarins. They hold the prison- 
ers which they have taken, while one of their number goes to the man- 
darin in whose jurisdiction they belong, and demands a large sum, 
sometimes as high as eight hundred dollars, for the release of each one. 
If this is not complied with, then the pirates at once take off the heads 
of their prisoners. The mandarins, knowing the consequence of a 
denial, do not generally dare to refuse them ; and the pirate who 
goes to negotiate fears no harm to himself, for he knows that the 
lives of the captives depend on his safe and speedy return. Sometimes 
the pirates send their messenger to the families or friends of the cap- 
tives, stating that if their terms are not acceded to, and the ransom- 
money coming by a particular time, they will kill them forthwith. 
The amount of ransom-money is generally regulated by the importance 
of the person, and the wealth of the relatives. 

To-morrow a fleet of war-junks will be sent by the government 



300 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

against them, several mandarins accompanying them ; but they have 
so little courage in a fight that they are almost sure to succumb and 
be taken prisoners themselves. 

I had a considerable conversation, two or three weeks since, with 

Mrs. , about an old Chinese woman who pretends to extract 

worms from the teeth. She has had the old woman at her house many 
times, and lately once or twice a week regularly, to look at her teeth. 
As often as the old woman came she succeeded in extracting several 
worms, of the size of half an oat-seed, from her mouth. The lady 
thought strange that her teeth should be so infested with worms ; but, 
as the woman could find them in almost every one's mouth which she 
looked into, she thought it natural, and, with a number of others, 
became strongly enlisted in the old woman's favor. A few days 
since, however, the old woman was at her house, and extracting worms 

as successfully as ever, when the young daughter of Mrs. , who 

was looking on and closely watching the movements of the old woman, 
saw the worms concealed under one of her long finger-nails, and in 
that way conducted into the mouth, from which it was directly after 

brought out on the chopstick. The belief of Mrs. was thus 

suddenly changed to unbelief ; and she sent the old woman out of the 
house, forbidding her ever again to enter it. She was much provoked 
at having allowed herself to be so much imposed on. Notwithstand- 
ing this, I am told there are a number of others who continue to have 
firm faith in the ability of the old woman to remove worms from their 
teeth. 

This afternoon the same old Chinawoman, through Mr. W.'s invi- 
tation, for my particular edification, made her appearance. She took 
worms out of the mouths of several Chinese boys, and we could not 
detect her putting them in. By watching her quite closely, however, 
she was troubled, and did not succeed readily in finding them, and said 
there were no more to remove. Relaxing our vigilance, to enable her to 
proceed, she quickly discovered one in another boy's mouth, showing 
it to us as it was writhing on the end of her chopstick. We now 
watched her again, but, after poking about a while, she declared 
that no more were to be found. She used a long, blunt hair-pin, made 
of silver, and a common chopstick. She looked into the mouths of 
each one of us, and immediately decided whether we had any worms 
there or not. One little boy with sound teeth she said had them ; but 
they had not yet come out. She would give a kind of vacant stare when 
she pretended to examine, and it made no difference if the mouth was 



NINGPOO. LEAYE-TAKING. 301 

only in part unclosed : she could see to pronounce on the worms the 
same. She told me that there were some in my mouth, also that Mrs. 
W. and Mr. Q. had them, but that Mr. W. had none. Mr. Q.'a 
teeth I had myself thoroughly examined yesterday and Saturday. Our 
belief, from her appearance and actions, was, that she had them con- 
cealed in her own mouth. There was hardly any motion to her lips, 
and she held them in a stiff and constrained way when she spoke. She 
had frequently to put up her hand to her mouth, quit$ covering it, 
when there was no call for doing so. Having kept her a considerable 
time, closely questioning and laughing at her, she commenced chok- 
ing, and was obliged to go to the window to vomit, probably from the 
worms getting into her throat. Before this Mr. "W. requested her to 
allow him to look into her mouth, to see if she had worms in her 
teeth, but could not prevail on her to let him do so. He persisted, and 
^finally offered her cash, which will tempt the Chinese when everything 
else fails ; but she would not consent, and begged that he would let 
her go about her business. He at last told her that he believed she 
had the worms in her mouth. She shook her head, and said "No." 
She said, in her answers to Mr. W.'s questions, that she could not 
teach any person how to remove them — that she had learned the art 
when a little girl. Being asked why she could not inform others of 
the mystery, she said that " every one must live by their trade." The 
kind of worms the old woman dealt in I have often observed in the 
cess-pools along the streets, a moving mass of them, but very conve- 
nient to be procured. There are few here now who credit her asser- 
tions. 

Wednesday, August 15th. — Some Chinese boys in the school here 
have been pawning their clothing, and taken away some money. In- 
vestigations are being made by some of the missionary teachers. Mr. 
Q. went with me into the city to some shops, where I purchased some 
handsome picture-frames, inlaid with ivory and bamboo. 

I have prepared, this p. m., for leaving Ningpoo, and made my last 
calls at nine in the evening. I was inclined to stop longer at Ningpoo, 
as there were many things which sickness had prevented me from 
accomplishing. But, as my boat was hired, and the boatmen waiting 
for me, with other reasons, I concluded to leave and try to reach 
Shanghae by Saturday night. 

I remained to family worship at Mr. W.'s, and, having had a pleas- 
ant conversation till eleven, I bade them adieu, with regrets at leaving 
so many kind and agreeable friends. 
26 



302 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

Mr. W. and Dr. McC. saw me safely off from the shore, and Mr. 
Q. accompanied me to see that everything was right on board the 
Chinese craft which lay out in the stream. All in order, mos* 
quito-net, mattress, &c, properly arranged, my very good friend 
returned ashore, and the boat spread its wings to a fine breeze, and 
shot ahead. It was past midnight when I retired to my snug little 
quarters within the net. With my pistols, loaded and capped, under 
my head, and my boy reclining outside, I gave myself up to rest till 
morning. 

Thursday, August lQth. — At daylight we were outside the mouth 
of the river, and I thought that two hours would take us to Lucong ; 
but, the wind failing, I was disappointed in being detained the whole 
day. 

Almost every day I find myself foiled in something that I wish to 
accomplish, or interrupted in some cherished plan. Often this is the 
result of very little things, which is more annoying when they might 
be avoided, as when the boatmen, in a small breeze and I in a hurry, 
have no sail on, or when they come to anchor while I wish to be 
moving. Again, when I wish them to go on vigorously, they are so 
slow in their movements ; and my endeavors to hasten them are una- 
vailing, and entirely disregarded, as long as they can make an excuse 
of wanting to eat and drink, of " bad wind," &c. However, I suc- 
ceed in arousing them earlier in the morning than they like, by 
stamping around among them, banging away at everything that will 
make a noise, or crying out as if hailing a boat near at hand. 

When we came up to Captain G.'s vessel at Lucong, the boatmen 
did not seem to know what to do. They went around to the other side, 
and then back again, apparently without any object. I sat and 
looked on, thinking, if they did not know enough to go alongside, they 
might continue in their own way till they had learned. Finally one 
of the men on board the vessel called out to them, and they went 
alongside. I have been disposed to be charitable in my feelings 
towards them, but I am now getting a little callous. They always 
demand more than was agreed on with them, or a larger remuneration 
than is usual, on the most trivial pretence, as a slight variation, 
detention, &c. 

Took tea on board of Captain Gutzle's vessel. He is a pleasant man, 
and, on my desire to sleep on deck, he had a hammock swung, and a 
bed prepared in it. My mosquito-curtain, hanging over this, made 
it a most comfortable resting-place for the night. 



LUCONG. POISONED PIGS. CHIN-CHINNING JOSH. 803 

Lucong, Chusan Islands, Friday, August 17th. — I had a fine 
night's rest, and was up at daylight, with an appetite for a morning 
meal. In the afternoon, with Captain G., we dined on board Captain 
Hall's vessel, meeting Mrs. H. and sister. Towards night I went 
on shore with Captain G., and took a ride with his ponies, — coursing 
back among the hills and valleys, over a path of flat stones, only wide 
enough for one horse. The little headstrong animals would gallop 
at full speed around the curves and windings of the path, and then 
trot recklessly along on the edge of a ditch or bank, much to my 
annoyance. In crossing a bridge of a single plank, of less than a foot 
wide, they would, in spite of all efforts to restrain them, rush on like 
mad creatures, entering on it at one angle, and passing off at another. 
Sometimes they leaped, clearing ditch, bridge and all, and I often 
found myself seated on the back part of the saddle. 

During our ride I saw the tree from which varnish is made. "We 
had tea on board of Captain Hall's ship, and all spent the evening in 
conversation on deck. The Lascars (sailors from Ceylon) are having 
a national celebration. They have both ships illuminated with 
lanterns, and are making great preparations to feast during the night, 
and to fast in the day-time. They presented both the captains (as is 
customary with them) each with a piece of cooked beef. They fired 
squibs, crackers and rockets, for a few hours, and Captain H. allowed 
them a round or two from his guns. At ten p. m. we took our boat, 
and returned to Captain G.'s vessel. 

Saturday, August 18th. — I found myself disappointed to-day in not 
being able to leave for Shanghae. In the latter part of the day I 
went out on horseback with Captain G., although not quite recovered 
from the effects of the ride of yesterday. The captains here raise hogs 
on shore, which the Chinese, who have pork to sell, don't like. Con- 
sequently several of the pigs belonging to them have become sick, and 
some have died. They inquired of the servant on shore what could 
be done to prevent their dying. He answered that " the captain must 
pay some money to the priests to chin-chin Josh, or they would all 
die." The captains, regarding it as better to pay the priests something 
and save their pigs, consented ; for they know the Chinese will con- 
tinue to poison them if they do not. And so yesterday, when we went 
on shore, we found a table set before the pen, and covered with a 
white cloth, and dishes of food placed on it, as an offering to Josh, to 
appease his wrath, and to chin-chin his favor towards the pigs. Three 
cups were placed in a row, with a few dry tea-leaves in them ; and 



304 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

then a row of six cups, with tea made ready to drink ; six bowls of 
rice, greens, and vegetables ; six bowls of various kinds of meats, and 
six of other mixtures, with cakes sufficient to make them quite a feast 
after Josh had done with it. They say that Josh comes down and 
eats the spiritual part, and leaves the rest ; and so I conclude that 
six priests are to finish the repast. To-day the boy said that the pigs 
were much better, and they thought no more of them would die, the 
captain also being of that same opinion. 

Sunday, August 19th. — We have a beautiful sunrise, pleasant 
weather, good wind, and full tide, our boat ready, and go we must. 
I had my baggage placed on board, and, taking breakfast hastily, we 
were off. Captain G.'s boat was the largest and most comfortable 
one that I had yet seen. I could stand and walk about in the cabin. 
With a crew of three or four Chinamen, and as many Lascars, John, 
a Spaniard, and chief officer, and my boy, — in all ten or twelve men, 
— I thought we were strong enough to make a little resistance 
against an enemy, if necessary. The boat was well armed, guns loaded 
and capped, and cutlasses, pistols and spears, covered the walls of the 
cabin. Captain G. had generously supplied us with a good quantity 
of food and drink. After we had proceeded a couple of miles, we 
were startled by the report of a cannon. We stopped and observed 
that the smoke came from Captain G.'s vessel, and that directly a 
boat put off; We concluded that this was intended for us, and turned 
about, meeting the boat, with Captain Hall in it, who brought letters 
for me to take to Shanghae. 

Crossing the "piratical Chapoo bay" of forty miles, we reached 
Chapoo about three p. m. The city looked pretty as we approached it, 
mountains rising up on the right, on the base of which were some 
decent-looking fortifications. I did not wish to stop long, nor to be 
seen by the Chinese ; for lately Chapoo had become worse than ever. 
The floods had destroyed the crops of rice, and the people had come 
in from the country by thousands, to get something to prevent them 
from starving. They had broken open the public granaries and 
helped themselves to rice, and affairs were in rather a disorderly state. 
Knowing that I should have to pay an exorbitant price for a boat if 
they knew it was for a foreigner, and as I could not avoid taking one 
or two hundred dollars in silver, I thought it best to keep every one in 
ignorance of my presence. Consequently I remained in the boat out 
of sight, while my boy went on shore to hire another for Shanghae. I 
cautioned him, telling him, 



ON THE CANAL. SLOW PROGRESS. 305 

" No casion talkee Meriky-man wanchee that boat, you talkee one 
fashion, you makee hire, massa-que (no matter) who wanchee." 

"0!" said he, laughing, "I sarvy that thing too muchy. No 
casion talkee any man wanchee inakey hire that boat — that boatman 
wanchee more cash." 

About three quarters of an hour elapsed, and the boy returned with, 
" All ready." The price for the boat to Shanghae is less than three 
dollars, while Mr. P. paid, a few days since, ten dollars for the same 
trip. 

We landed at a large and handsome stone bridge, and, sending the 
baggage ahead, followed a little distance behind ; and, walking about 
half a mile, through the crowded city, to the canal, took the boat. A 
crowd began to collect about us, and I hurried the boatmen to push 
off. By and by a man among the crowd demanded a dollar from me 
before starting. I did not know who he was, and, considering this one 
of the many impositions of the Chinese, refused, saying that I would 
pay no one but the boatmen ; but, finding it likely to occasion a delay 
and trouble, — for there was much talk, and a clamor arising about it, 
— and being assured by my boy that it was all right, I paid it, and we 
could then start. A large gathering of Chinese on the banks of the 
canal gazed after us till we were out of sight. This was about five 
p. m., and the remainder of the day I spent in taking a survey of our 
course, looking at the various styles of boats, comparing their advan- 
tages one with another — at the houses and inhabitants, trees, crops, 
gateways, and tombs. The weather was very pleasant, but the evening 
was dark, and I retired early to my couch, and laid awake till twelve. 

On the canal between Chapoo and Shanghae, Monday, August 20th. — 
I found the boat motionless when I awoke this morning, which was 
about daylight, and that we had been at anchor since one o'clock at 
night. After rising and starting up the boatmen, we were again 
under way. It seemed to me that they would have lain till mid-day, 
had I not roused them. Time seems of no moment with them. We 
had to wait at one place in the afternoon five hours for the tide to 
turn, and I went ashore and bought some water-melons for a few 
cents apiece. I had to start the boatmen off again, or we might have 
remained here till to-morrow. With all that I could do I could not 
get up a sail. We had a good wind yesterday, and came out of 
Chapoo last night without a sail. Most of the other boats had sails 
up, and, passing right ahead of us, were soon out of sight. But, for 
some reason, they said that the sail would not answer with this boat. 
26* 



306 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

The boatmen suffered for this ; for when they do not go by sails, they 
have to scull the boat by their own labor. I gave my boy a lecture 
for getting a boat that would not sail, and I think he understood the 
substance, though probably not the words. I presume that the 
boat is so flat-bottomed she runs off to the leeward if the wind is 
not fair. 

I now found that we were in the broad river of WoosuDg ; but 
when we came into this from the canal I cannot tell. The canal itself 
was sufficiently broad for a river, and may be continuous with the 
river. It is probable that we lost sight ofthe canal in the night. I 
was quite rejoiced, towards evening, when we came in sight of the 
pagoda ; for I recognized it, and knew it to be within ten miles of 
Shanghae. 

Yesterday I noticed, all the way through the country, irrigating 
machines in operation. These were placed along the banks of canals 
and rivers at short intervals, drawing the water up a long inclined 
trough, and pouring it, by an almost constant stream, into the land, 
where it circulated through the adjoining rice-flats. An endless chain 
of little partitions is made to revolve over a horizontal cog-wheel at 
the head of the trough, and, dipping into the water at the other end, 
is drawn through the trough, bringing them full of water to the top. 
The wheel is worked by a bullock or a cow, driven in a circular path 
around the machine ; or as often by a line of men or women standing 
and stepping on it, turning it by the weight of their own bodies. 

In the part of the country passed through to-day, instead of irri- 
gating machines were sets of fishing apparatus. These stand in the 
water along both shores of the river, and, with the fishermen tending 
them, remind me of spiders looking out from their webs, waiting for 
prey. A long box, somewhat resembling their coffins, and thatched 
with straw, is raised on long legs, like a saw-horse, ten or twelve feet 
above the water. This is of a height sufficient to allow the man to sit 
in at one end and observe what is passing without ; and, I presume, 
is his resting-place at night. In front, a few feet distant, is an upright 
post, considerably higher than his head, on the top of which is bal- 
anced a long and large bamboo lever, like a well-sweep. At the fur- 
ther end of this is suspended the net, ten to twenty feet square, by its 
four corners, after the manner of an inverted umbrella. At the end 
nearest to the man is attached a rope hanging within the reach of his 
hand, which, by pulling, raises the net, or, by relaxing, lets it back 
into the water. Every few minutes the man pulls the rope and raises 



SHAXGHAE. A FAITHFUL BOY. 307 

the net ; and, finding nothing in it, he lets it gradually back again. 
Hundreds of times during the day did I watch the fishermen going 
through this operation, and not once, did I observe a fish caught. I 
observed large fish sometimes jump from the water, and I saw a shoal 
of porpoises gambolling, by which I knew that there was communica- 
tion with the sea not far off. 

I noticed places on the way where the water had not yet drained 
from the land which it had flooded. The country, however, looks 
green and flourishing. Clumps of trees are interspersed here and there 
as far as can be seen, and houses and small villages are nearly hid in 
their midst. Hundreds of boats are passing and repassing on the 
canals and rivers. 

Arriving about nine o'clock at Shanghae, I went on shore, calling 
to see Mr. and Mrs. B. and Dr. H. Having some engagements at 
Woosung, I concluded to do all under one, and continue on down the 
river to-night. It was twelve o'clock before my things were all 
changed to the other boat for Woosung. My boatman wanted to be 
paid in Chinese cash instead of dollars, and I had to wait an hour to 
get the change with which to accommodate him. The other boatmen 
then said that the tide would not admit of our starting till four in the 
morning, which, I suppose, was what the boatmen wished and had 
contrived ; and I had my bed spread, and retired to rest. 

Woosung, Tuesday, 21st. — I was awoke this morning by a sliding 
kind of motion from one side of the boat to the other. Hastening up, 
I found we were under way, the wind blowing strongly, and the water 
rough, causing the violent movement of the boat. I came up to the 
" Wm. Hews," at Woosung, and met on board a welcome from Cap- 
tain Roundy. I delivered up to the captain, with many thanks, his 
boy which he had lent me, paying the boy, and adding a small present 
for his faithfulness. I should like to have taken him to Hong-Kong 
with me, and kept him until I left this part of the world, or even taken 
him to America ; but his present master appreciated him quite as 
much as myself, and was unwilling to spare him. I have not before 
seen a Chinese servant in whom I felt such confidence. I had no 
cause to distrust his honesty or devotedness, had no fault to find, and 
part with him as from a friend. 

Friday, 24th. — Yesterday I went ashore, with Captain R. and 
others, towards night, and took a long walk, for pleasure and the exer- 
cise, along the old and . neglected fortifications. Many large Chinese 



308 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

guns were lying scattered about rusting on the ground, and some half- 
buried in the earth, as if there was no further use for them. 

It rains hard every morning lately. This afternoon we dined with 
Captain Endicott, meeting Dr. Murray and Captain Bush. All the 
foreigners here live on board of vessels, as at Whampoa. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

LETTER TO A SISTER. ENGAGE PASSAGE BY THE " COQUETTE " EOR 

HONG-KONG. WALK ABOUT THE CITY. GREAT WALL OF CHINA. 

LETTER TO A SISTER. 

LETTER TO SISTER H. 

Shanghae, August 26th. 

My dear Sister : I will send you a few leaves from my journal, 
that you may know how time is passing with me. Yesterday I re- 
turned from Woosung with Captains R. and E. in their boat, and am 
now again enjoying the hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Baylies. To-day 
I attended the missionaries' chapel within the walls. On the way I 
saw a beggar lying dead at the side of the street. All the Chinese, as 
they came in sight, held their hands to their faces, and hurried by, 
half-running ; and, when far enough passed, dropped them, giving a 
long expiration. Why they should hold their breath I could see no 
reason, as there was no odor arising from the body. Afternoon, I 
heard service at the English Episcopal church. At Mr. G.'s I had a 
treat, looking over the late American papers, of which I had seen 
none for some weeks. You in America can hardly conceive the real 
pleasure there is to be derived from newspapers. Plant yourself 
eighteen thousand miles away, and you will be able to form an idea 
of it. 

Monday , August 27th. — I have obtained another boy, whose cun- 
ning, sinister, foxy face contrasts strongly and disagreeably with 
the full and open countenance of the last one I had. In making 
some visits to-day, the chair-bearers had an altercation with each 
other, which I was afraid would end in a fight, and subject me to dis- 
agreeable consequences. They had set me down at a house in a wrong 
part of the city; and their dispute ran high, with excited words and 
furious gesticulations, evidently charging each other with the blame. 
After some delay, they went on, and at last brought me to the right 
place. 

I have been engaged to-day in making various preparations for leav- 
ing in a few days. It is my intention to take passage with Captain 
Prescott, of the " Coquette," for Hong-Kong, the last of the week. 



SHANGHAE. CHINESE PROCESSION. 309 

I met Captain Prescott at Mr. G.'s, where I had been to dine, and 
made arrangements for the voyage. 

Dr. L., the surgeon of the English missionary hospital, has called, 
and I have had an hour of interesting conversation respecting the 
Chinese patieuts, the difficulty of treating them, &c. 

Thursday, August ZQth. — I have made a pleasant call at Rev. Mr. 
Shunk's, with Mr. and Mrs. B. As I was quite weak and sick, with 
nausea, Mrs. B. preferring to walk, I took her chair a part of the dis- 
tance in going, but walked home. I met Rev. Mr. Taylor there. I 
went on board the " Coquette " before breakfast, and there met Mr. 
Cunningham, Bishop Boone, Mrs. Syle, and Rev. Mr. Spaulding, who 
is going to Hong-Kong to take passage for America. He is much 
pleased that I am going in the same vessel with him, as he is very 
much out of health. As the captain is to drop down the river to 
Woosung to-day, he desired me to take a boat early this eve, and meet 
him on board, saying that if I was not there in season he could not 
wait long for me. 

At evening I had my trunks packed and set out, ready to start at 
eleven o'clock, but concluded, when the time came, not to go, but to 
remain here a few days longer, and then go by the way of Amoy, and 
see another Chinese city. I shall send an apology to Captain P. at 
Hong-Kong for my non-compliance, though I should much prefer to 
keep my word. 

Friday, August ?>\st. — This morning I went into the city, and con- 
cluded on some purchases at the Chinese shops ; but, after travelling 
about till past ten, I came home without obtaining a single article. 
I would have taken them, had they not raised the price to me, but 
thought I would not be imposed on by them. 

Saturday, September 1st. — In the afternoon I called at Dr. L.'s hos- 
pital, and had a little chat with him, but saw nothing interesting 
among the patients. I called upon Rev. Mr. Milne, who was very 
agreeable and polite to me. We had quite a pleasant conversation. 
Mr. M. afterwards called with me on Rev. Mr. Medhurst, where I 
became interested in conversation with him and Mrs. M., and my call 
was prolonged till a late hour of the day. One of the subjects of 
most interest to me was Java, where they had been missionaries for 
twelve years, and which country I intend visiting during the year. 
Afterwards I made several other visits with Mr. and Mrs. B., and at 
evening called on Dr. Kirk, where I met a gentleman who was at 
Ningpoo just before me, and who fully believes in the Chinese woman 
with her worms, he having had them taken from his own mouth while 
there. I remarked to him that iuo;";lers could take a live rabbit out of 
his hat, and do many other things equally wonderful. 

At ten in the evening, not being able to find my boy, I walked alone 
up to the Yanking-pang (a little river) to see a Chinese procession, — 
gome religious ceremonies. I arrived at a temple, where I saw a great 
number of candles burning, lanterns hung around, and a number of 
Chinamen dressed in scarlet robes, and various fantastic dresses, carry- 
ing variegated lanterns on poles, &c. I walked about, looking at the 
preparations going on, and observing the band and instruments. They 



310 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

were forming and re-forming, walking and standing about, till I was 
tired ; and, after two hours, I left them to march when they might get 
ready. 

This is the day set apart for worshipping and sacrificing to the de- 
parted spirits of their friends, and occurs once a year. On this occasion 
they burn great quantities of sycee paper (made to represent silver) , 
and make various offerings of food. 

Sunday, September 2d. — I attended the missionaries' church in the 
city, Mr. B. lending me his chair. Rev. Mr. Taylor preached. After 
the service, taking my boy, I walked about the Tea-gardens. There 
were many pictures, shows, gambling- tables, and jugglers performing. 
I stopped and looked at a quack-doctor's stand, and also that of 
a dentist. Such a collection of pieces of stick, chips, barks, bones, 
horns, pieces of old skins with the hair on, pieces of leather, rusty 
iron, and teeth, the bones of monkeys, cats and other animals, and 
queer charms of snake-skins, &c, covering their tables, indicated 
what the materia medica of the lower class of Chinese was composed 
of. Beggars, — pitiful looking objects, — in great numbers, stretched 
out their hands to me as they lay on the ground. At one place I pur- 
chased, for a few cash, a paper of Chinese candy, which was hardly 
anything but hardened sugar. 

Dined with Mr. Dallas, an English merchant, where I met an 
agreeable party of English gentlemen, passing a portion of the evening 
with them very pleasantly. While there, a Chinese runner came up 
with the overland mail. He presented an odd appearance coming into 
the yard, running at full speed. I believe that runners are only em- 
ployed when there is no vessel to take the mail. At such times, if 
there is anything important, the different houses can send by Chinese 
runners from Hong-Kong through to Shanghae by land. 

Tuesday, 4-th. — At half-past seven I dined with Dr. K. He is a 
single man, but living in a house large enough for a palace. I there 
met Messrs. Strong and McKenny, and after dinner we had music. 
These two gentlemen both played the flute ; and, sending for ours, we 
joined them, and continued in an agreeable quartet till past twelve. 

Thursday, Qth. — I dined with Mr. Robertson, the English vice-con- 
sul, at five p. m., where I met Mr. D., and had a social time till eight. 
I then called at the house of Rev. Mr. Louder, knocking at the gate 
for a considerable time without finding any one. I afterwards learned 
that he had gone to make a trip to the Chusan Islands, and the next 
I heard of him was the sad news that he was drowned while bathing 
at the island Puto, one of that group. Mr. L. was a minister of the 
English Episcopal church at Shanghae, and was much respected. 

Yours, &c, B. L. B. 

I am told that a large portion of the " Great Wall " of China is 
now in ruins, and hardly deserves the name of a wall. It is partially 
fallen and crumbled into a mound-like ridge, covered with grass, plants, 
and shrubs. It was built along the northern frontier of China, for 
the purpose of keeping out the Tartars, and was fifteen hundred miles 



SHANGHaJE. MURDER OF PORTUGUESE GOVERNOR. 311 

long, extending over mountains, rivers, and through valleys. It was 
from thirty to fifty feet high, about fifteen feet broad at the top, and 
could be travelled on by sis horses abreast. It was made of two par- 
allel walls of brick or stone, and filled up between with earth and 
rubbish of every kind. Towers, for guard-stations, with a passage-way 
through them, were erected on it every few hundred feet. The wall 
occupied several years in building, and the labor was forced from the 
people, who were only allowed their food for their services. 

LETTER TO A SISTER-IN-LAW. 

Shanghae, China, Sept. 7th. 

My dear Sister E. 0. B. : It is quite a warm day, and, as the 
mail closes this afternoon, I have commenced this epistle to you ; but 
whether I shall have the fortitude to finish in season, or whether I 
shall be prevented so doing by other circumstances, remains to be 
seen. Mrs. B., with railroad speed, is writing a number of letters to 
her friends at home, and I do not know but my own motive-power is 
thus stimulated into action. Your remark is very true. It is not 
unfrequent that I am reminded of the uncertainty of life by the num- 
bers of accidents occurring around me. One person is taken away by 
a sun-stroke ; another is capsized in a boat, and drowned ; another falls 
overboard at sea, and is lost ; another has a sudden attack of chol- 
era, and another is killed by pirates, &c. At home or abroad we are 
more or less exposed, and the only way to live is to be ever ready to die. 

The Portuguese Governor Amaral, of Macao, has lately been assas- 
sinated in the most barbarous manner. He was riding out horseback, 
in daylight, accompanied by his aid-de-camp. When at some dis- 
tance from his house, a boy stepped up and presented him with a 
flower, fastened to the end of a pole. He took the flower, and the 
Chinese boy began to strike him in the face with the pole. While his 
attention was thus diverted, six Chinese men sprang upon him, run- 
ning him through with their spears, and pulling him from his horse. 
Having but one arm, he could not make much resistance ; and they 
dissevered his head and remaining hand, and fled, carrying these away 
with them. I know not what they did with the aid, nor whether or 
how he escaped. 

The body of the governor was discovered shortly after, and conveyed 
home. 

The English governor at Hong-Kong immediately sent over two 
men-of-war to their assistance at Macao, and the " Plymouth," an 
American man-of-war, was ordered down, by Commodore Geisinger, 
from Whampoa. The " Dolphin " being now there, they will, with 
these, have force sufficient to inflict punishment, or to give protection 
to the city. 

It is said that the Chinese governor " Su," of Canton, had offered 
a large reward for the head of Gov. Amaral ; and, if true, it is very 



312 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

probable that the head was in his possession the next day after the 
occurrence, though nothing is positively known on the subject. 

I have not yet had occasion to change my opinion in regard to the 
character of the Chinese. I believe they are generally a set of rogues, 
from the prowling thief, up through the ten grades of mandarins, to 
the emperor himself. There are, however, honorable exceptions, 
and some who have excellent qualities. I wonder what old Shem 
would say if he could see himself the father of two hundred millions 
of sucli people as these ! 

I have not decided that a heathen is consequently devoid of all 
good principle. But it is certain that they are all heathen here, and, 
if they have any principle, that they have no very good principles. 
They lie, steal and cheat, whenever they have an opportunity to make 
anything by it, and when they think they will not be discovered. This 
they do as if it was their right. They have no moral obligation, nor 
any obligation to any one, except to the government, and to those who 
have power sufficient to control them — and to these only at the time. 

They appear to consider it an excellent trait of character to have 
ability to cheat, or in any way to take advantage of foreigners. He 
that can do this the most adroitly and successfully is the most accom- 
plished. Whenever a foreigner goes to purchase anything, they ask 
him more than they would a Chinaman, and sometimes three or four 
times as much ; and though you may get an article for one third or 
half of what they at first ask for it, you can never obtain it so low as 
the Chinese would the same article. 

The shopkeepers pay the " boys " for bringing customers to their 
shops, unbeknown to the foreigner. My boy has sometimes been to 
shops the next day and got pay for my having purchased goods there. 
Sometimes he has stated the price of articles as more^ than that named 
by the shopkeeper, and kept the difference in price himself^ thus 
making a profit from both of us. The boy who purchases provisions 
for a family will get a sum from the shopkeeper for giving him the 
custom, and then make a percentage on the family as large as he finds 
that they can be imposed on. The establishment of a single gentle- 
man of my acquaintance here cost him over one hundred and fifty dol- 
lars a month for his provisions until he turned away the boy from his 
services, and then his expenses were only seventy-five dollars a month. 

With regards to all, truly, 

B. L. B. 



SHANQHAE. — LETTER TO A SISTER. — TEA SHIPMENT. 313 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

LETTER TO A SISTER. TEA SHIPMENT. CHINESE PROMISES. — CHINESE 

BOATMEN. SERVANTS, ETC. LETTER TO A BROTHER. DEPARTURE 

FROM SHANGHAE. ARRIVAL AT AMOT. 

LETTER TO SISTER L. 

Shanghae, Sat, Sept. Sih. 

My dear Sister : I could easily imagine myself at home and 
among you all, this evening. How very pleasant it is so to spend an 
evening occasionally that home is brought near, and I am reminded 
of you all as if you were really here ! 

At seven this evening I went out to dine with Mr. Alcock, one of 
the most agreeable of men. He was formerly a surgeon in the British 
navy, and, having resigned from ill health, is here as the English 
consul. I met the several members of his family at his house, also 
Mr. Fortune, a botanist, — all intelligent and entertaining, and quite 
unassuming. After tea we had music from the piano by Miss B., 
and then a duet from her and Mrs. A., and a trio in which I was the 
third performer. I called after this at Mr. Robinson's, and was quite 
surprised to find that the hour of eleven had arrived, thinking that 
I was making a nine o'clock call. It is now past twelve, and I will 
write no more to-night. 

Friday, Sept. 14/A. — I have called upon Mr. Carter, at Mr. Gris- 
wold's, and found them in the storehouse arranging a cargo of tea for 
Mr. C.'s vessel, the " Hamburg." The boxes of tea were piled up 
on both sides, with little streets leading through them. A number 
of Chinese were busily engaged in their various occupations on the 
chests, preparing them for shipment. One was labelling, another 
covering, numbering, varnishing, &c. I asked Mr. G. if there was 
tea enough in sight to fill the vessel, and he answered, " About one 
twenty-sixth part." 

Sunday, Sept. 16th. — This evening I dined with Mr. Dallas, and 
there met Mr. Jardine and several pleasant and sociable English 
gentlemen. After dinner, which was about nine, all repaired to the 
front part of the house, and enjoyed the cool air by a promenade on 
the veranda. I am surprised to find the English people in China so 
affable and sociable. I had believed them cold, pompous, overbear- 
ing, morose, and unsociable ; and they are nationally more reserved 
tli an the Americans ; but, so far as my experience goes, there is 
among them, in these parts, no lack of warm, hospitable, generous 
and kind-hearted feeling. 

Tuesday, Sept. 18th. — Went on board several vessels in the harbor 
to make inquiries and engage a passage to Amoy, there being a num- 
ber of vessels soon to sail. One captain could not to-day tell me 
27 



814 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

what would bs his accommodations, or the fare. Another would 
sail in three weeks, and the fare would be a hundred dollars. 

Wednesday, Sept. 19th. — Towards evening I took my boy and 
went to dine with Mr. Parish, an English friend, who lives in the 
city, within the walls, and is connected with the English consulate. 
He* lives in a Chinese house, with Chinese furniture, Chinese servants, 
and quite alone. I spent a pleasant evening, and returned at ten. 
On the way the barefooted coolies carried the chair nearly on a trot, 
and my boy, not wishing to be left behind, tried to keep up. After 
half a mile of heat, exertion and perspiration, in his big, clumsy shoes, 
and long, troublesome frock, he fell behind, evidently in disgust, and 
returned home about half an hour after us. 

Friday, Sept. 21st. — I have never known a Chinaman to keep his 
appointment. Three days ago I went into the city and purchased a 
beautiful Japanese cabinet, which was promised to be sent here this 
morning at half-past eight, but did not come at all. My tailor was 
also to have been here at nine, and he did not come. 1 have many 
times, since being here, had articles made, altered and repaired, and 
have made many appointments with the Chinese, but they have never 
punctually fulfilled one of them. They are always one, two, or 
more days after the time, and are sure to come at hours when I am 
engaged. I have impressed my desire of punctuality on them, telling 
them not to promise if they could not perform, but to extend the 
time. Sometimes they have deferred it for a week; but, in all 
the different ways that I could manage, I have never had a China- 
man keep his engagement. Only one with whom I have made an 
appointment came the same day, and lie was three hours after the 
time. 

My Japan case has been brought to-day ; my tailor also came to- 
day, but a day after the time. Some others have fulfilled engagements 
in like manner, which becomes annoying when one expects to leave 
at a certain time. 

Saturday, Sept. 22d. — Walked down to the Bunn to ascertain if 
the "Alexander Johnson " had gone ; and, finding that the vessel had 
not sailed, I wrote to the captain, engaging my passage to Amoy. The 
vessel had dropped down the stream, and is to leave Woosung on 
Monday next. 

Sunday, Sept. 23d. — My vessel has not yet gone, and I shall 
probably go down to Woosung to-night, and go on board there. 

I called on Mr. Williams and others, this forenoon, and then 
walked into the city, within the walls, Mr. Clark accompanying me. 
We went into the Tea-garden, stopping to see some picture exhibi- 
tions, and passing through some of the principal streets, out to the 
river. Seeing there a large junk, the largest among hundreds in the 
vicinity, and having never visited one, we took a small boat and went 
on board. It had lately returned from Siam. The supercargo was 
on board, and received us very politely, although he could say noth- 
ing to us, nor we anything to him. The arrangements within were 
very rude, and open, like a cradle. The main-mast was twelve feet 
in circumference where it entered the deck, and, I should judge, was 



CHINESE BOATMEN. 315 

near a hundred feet high ; made of one solid piece of teak-wood, 
brought from Singapore. 

They adopt very few of our improvements, and thus require many 
more men than we do to man a sailing craft. The crew of this vessel 
numbered ninety-two, thirty-two of whom are required to manage 
their broad and clumsy helm. 

On leaving the junk I ascertained that I had but nine cash left in 
my pocket to pay our boatman ; and I feared he would think, with- 
out a doubt, that I intended to cheat him. As we came to the shore 
I gave him what cash I had, and told him to go to the house with 
me and I would pay him in full ; but, disbelieving me, he began to 
work his boat oil, to prevent our landing. Mr. 0. observed his inten- 
tion, and sprang ashore. I tried to follow the example, but before I 
could reach the other end of the boat we Avere twenty or thirty feet 
away. Finally, seeing that thing3 were assuming a grave aspect, 
and not fancying to be at the disposition of a Chinese boatman, I 
made a desperate leap towards another boat, about ten feet distant, 
on one side, and, nearly pitching the boatman overboard, barely suc- 
ceeded in gaining it. Then, jumping and stepping from boat to boat, 
I reached the shore without difficulty. We made motions to the 
boatman to follow us home, and assured him that then we would gave 
him more ; but he evidently regarded us as trying to humbug him, 
and, giving a shout of indignation, he pushed oif from the shore. A 
hundred copper cash would have paid him sufficiently well, and from 
five to fifteen would have been the payment given by a Chinaman for 
the same service. 

The boatmen generally will go to one's house to get their fare. _ It 
is probable that misunderstanding is the cause of most of the disa- 
greements between the Chinese and foreigners ; and those, perhaps, 
often begin from as slight causes as the one here mentioned. 

We walked rapidly home, as I had an engagement to dine with Mr. 
Walcott. In a few minutes I was dressed, walked down to the ferry, 
crossed to the other side, walked to the house, a short distance, and 
there I met several friends with Mr. W. After dining, we seated 
ourselves in the veranda, a fine cool breeze coming through the build- 
ing, and, looking out over the river, Ave enjoyed a delightful view of 
the pretty scenery around. I strolled in the garden with Mr. Carter, 
and partook of ripe figs from the trees, Avhich Avere very nice. 
They Avere the first, fresh from the tree, that I had ever tasted or 
seen. But I like them best when dried. W r e all returned in Mr. 
W.'s boat ; and, aftenvards, I Avalked into the country Avith Mr. C, 
through the rice-fields and among the tombs. There was no church 
open in the city to-day, but services were held at the house of Dr. 
Lockhart. Many of the missionaries at this time are sick, and unable 
to go out. 

At the Tea-gardens this morning Avere some gymnastic performances, 
by a little girl and her mother, which Avere very good ; but, appar- 
ently not getting sufficient pay, they did not continue the exhibition 
long. The Chinese girl Avas very supple, bending herself into ail 
sorts of shapes. She Avas dressed in boy s clothing, and would bend 



316 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

backwards, touch her head, and, rolling over backwards like a hoop, 
would come up holding her head between her feet and hands. She 
performed quite a variety of wonderful feats. 

Monday, Sept. 2\th. — I did not retire to rest till past three this 
morning, and rose at six. I took a hasty breakfast with Mr. and 
Mrs. B., bade them " good-by " for the last time in China, made 
several calls on friends, and at nine was off with Captain Endicott 
for Woosung. We arrived on board of his vessel at half-past eleven 
a.m., and dined at seven p. m. ; afterwards, went on board of Captain 
Roundy's vessel to tea, and, returning, sat and chatted on deck with 
Captain E. till twelve, enjoying a beautiful moonlight evening. 

I think that I disappointed my boy, this morning, when I was com- 
pleting my packing. A part of my lock all at once disappeared. 
He was present, and pretended to look for it ; but I directly took 
another lock which I had, and placed it on the trunk. He appeared 
not pleased at this, and not a little disconcerted. I believe he in- 
tended to have had a chance at the trunk while it was unlocked, and 
I should be away for another lock. He knew that I kept my money 
there, and some other articles of value ; and often, when it was open 
for a few minutes, he would have some pretext to look after my 
clothing, or to arrange it a little better ; but this I would never 
allow him to do. I have already missed a number of articles, but I 
know not who to blame, not knowing when they were taken, nor 
where they have gone to. The boys are responsible for anything that 
is missing ; and they, probably, have to pay for many things which 
they do not lose ; but, if I do not know that they have taken an article, 
I do not like to charge them with it. At every place I make a change 
a few articles get out of the way, and are never seen again. 

Yours, B. L. B. 

LETTER TO A BROTHER. 

Yang-tze-kiang River \ opposite Woosung, Sept. 25th. 

My dear Brother S. : I am now about leaving this part of 
China, and, if you will excuse my journalizing, I will address this 
portion of it to you. I sent my boy this morning back to Shanghao 
by Captain Endicott, as he was going up with his boat, so that my 
last duties towards him, I believe, are performed. I did not let him 
know, till this morning, but that I intended to return to Shanghae ; 
and am afraid I did not give him sufficient opportunity to feel the 
usual interest in my clothes, and other things, and to take out some 
few mementoes fur himself, before my departure. I ma}', however, 
find he has anticipated me, and already performed that duty for 
himself, yet, as has been the case before this. 

This evening finds me at anchor, near the bar, about thirty miles 
down the river. One Chinese junk is also at anchor near us. The 
pilot and Captain B. left us about twelve m., and we came to anchor 
at five. Captain T. says that he does not like the risk of going over 
the bar at night, but will wait till morning. Captain K. sent his 
first officer over, who took me to his vessel. At breakfast we had 



ARRIVAL AT AMOY. 817 

some beef-steak, which reminded me of America, though the beef is 
generally rather poor in China. 

The " Alexander Johnson " having passed us, dropping down the 
stream, Captain R. sent off to know when she would sail. Word 
came that they only waited for me to go on board, and I hurried 
off directly. Captain R. put up a few bottles of beer, &c., for me, 
and sent Mr. Norton with me on board. Six men pulled at the oars, 
and in an hour Ave were on board the vessel. 

I shall remember, with much pleasure, all the friends at Shanghae 
and Woosung ; for I have received much hospitality and kindness 
from them. 

We have had a fair wind to this place. The bed of the river is so 
treacherous in its character that a man has to be kept continually at 
the side of the vessel, every minute casting the lead. 

Wednesday, Sept. 25th. — We were under way about nine a. m., 
and soon after passed Gutzlaff's Island on our right. The Saddle group 
were also in the same direction ; but the current took us into their 
midst. Having some disagreeable sensations of giddiness and sea- 
sickness, I lay down and kept stiil most of the day. 

Captain T. is a very pleasant man. He sailed from Glasgow, Scot- 
land, with a cargo, to China ; and now he is picking up freight wher- 
ever he may find it. He has a cargo of bean-cake to take down the 
coast. This is made from the refuse of pea-nats, after the oil has been 
expressed, into large cheese-like cakes, and is used as feed for cattle. 

Friday, Sept. 2Sth. — This evening 1 have had a little chat with a 
Chinaman passenger, by whom the cargo is owned. He is wealthy, 
and speaks a very few words of English. There are on board a dozen 
other Chinesa passengers. One of them, from Singapore, speaks Eng- 
lish very well. He had been to the missionary school there for ten 
years, when, having a good knowledge of English, he commenced 
trading for himself. Some of the Chinese learn English in the schools 
of the missionaries, and afterwards turn it to their own advantage for 
trading purposes, which in the Chinese character to me saems natural. 

Sunday, Sept. 30th. — About noon we could discern the high lands 
on the west coast of Formosa, about fifty miles to the eastward of us. 
They towered far above the clouds, which was evidence of their great 
elevation. They were nearly as high above the clouds as the clouds 
were above the sea. Several islands appeared on our starboard, their 
blue tops being just visible above the surface of the water. 

Towards evening I had a conversation with the Chinaman from 
Singapore. Knowing the languages, he is able to be what some term 
a " go-between " for foreigners and Chinese ; and this, in the way of 
business, is a very lucrative position. He remarked to me, 

" S'pose Chinaman speak English, can make plenty money, plenty." 

October 1st. — We arrived at Amoy at sundown, after a passage of 
six days from Shanghae. As we enter the harbor, Avhich lies in sev- 
eral miles from the coast, the country presents a very rough appear- 
ance, the high land on each side being covered with rocks, tumbled 
one on the other in every possible manner. 

Several gentlemen among the merchants came on board for theij 
21* 



518 china and Manilla. 

letters. At evening I went on shore, and called to deliver my letter 
of introduction to Mr. Tait ; but he was out. I met there a gentle- 
man, whom, in conversation, I found to be Dr. Winchester, physician 
to the English consulate ; and I delivered a letter which I had brought 
to him. He called with me, and introduced me to Dr. Hyslop, an Eng- 
lish missionary-physician. Returning, we saw Mr. T., who invited 
me to stop with him while I remain. Not intending to be in Amoy 
but a few days, yet as I may wish to prolong the time, and fearing 
to incommode, 1 did not like to accept this kindness ; but Mr. T. 
insisting, I was induced to remain. Mr. Bradley, who has just entered 
on his duties as American consul, is in partnership with Mr. T. ; but 
having gone to Hong-Kong, I did not see him. 

This evening, as I took a little walk, I encountered a " sing-song " 
near by. It was in the middle of a street, quite blocking it up. The 
actors appeared in high-colored, fantastic dresses, and, for music, 
made a great medley of noises, and disagreeable squalling sounds. 
Being alone, and in the night, I did not stop long, nor extend my 
walk. Truly yours, B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

VISITS AT AMOY. SAIL IN THE HARBOR. — VISIT AT THE ENGLISH CON- 
SULATE. CHINESE ADMIRAL AND PIRATES. TEMPLES AT AMOY. 

Tuesday, Oct. 2d. — After breakfast I went on board the vessel and 
brought my baggage on shore. During the forenoon I ^rent up to the 
British consulate's, — Mr. Tait lending me his chair, — and visited 
Dr. W., remaining till two p. m., and taking tiffin. I then hastened 
to Dr. Hyslop's, to go with him on board the " Dart," to see Capt. 
Porter. Capt. P. put in here on account of sickness, on his voyage 
down from Shanghae to Hong-Kong ; and now, on his way up, he is 
here again for the same cause. 

Having dined with Dr. and Mrs. II., we embarked on board a large 
Chinese sail-boat. The " Dart " lies down the harbor at the " islands," 
a distance of eight or ten miles. The head boatman did not wish to 
start until he had taken his chow-chow ; and, though it was growing 
dark and the weather looked squally, he commenced on his rice ; but 
Mr. T., who went to see us safely off, poked the old fellow so many 
times in the side with his cane, hurrying him, at the same time, with 
J* King kin J" (conio, be off !) that he was actually obliged to stir about 



COWARDICE OS" CHINESE SAILORS. 



sio 



in self-defence. He put his bowl of rice aside in disgust ; and, getting 
the boat in order, and his men on board, he hoisted his sails, and wo 
were fairly away. 

It was nearly dark, but we sped along for the first two or three 
miles, before a good breeze, very finely. Then the wind began to blow 
stronger and stronger, and the waves to rise higher and higher. We 
had three Chinese sailors on board, whose flimsy hearts could be known 
by the fear written on their faces, and they began to talk in a low 
voice with each other. Dr. H. caught the words " going back," and 
told them that we Avould listen to nothing of that kind, and that they 
must keep on. They went on, tacking against the wind and a hard 
sea. The waves continued to rise, and the Chinamen said that we 
could not go — there was too much wind, too much sea, and too much 
of everything bad. 

The boat was pitching considerably, and sometimes it seemed as if 
she was almost perpendicular on her stern. The sea occasionally 
dashed over us, and we had to sit with our legs hanging down in the 
scuttle-hole of the deck, to avoid being shaken off. Dr. H. asked me 
if I thought we had better proceed. I answered him that, as Capt. 
P. was dangerously ill, and as the sea did not break constantly or 
entirely over us, I thought we had better keep on ; and, besides that, 
we had already made half the distance. Still the old Chinaman per- 
sisted in saying that we could not go, we should be drowned, &c. Our 
boat danced like an eggshell, and the spray at times completely buried 
it ; so that, for a few moments, we would hardly know whether we 
were in the water or above it. Still we urged him on, and told him that 
if he did not proceed we would not pay him one cash of money ; when 
he concluded to keep on. With the wind and sea ahead, and the air 
filled with spray and water, our progress was slow ; and he finally said 
that he cared not for his pay, that it would do no good to a drowned 
man, and that we must go back. It was true that the boat was twist- 
ing and knocking about a good deal, and occasionally was thrown 
nearly on her side, and the sea did look a little fearful ; but, knowing 
the small amount of courage they possess in times of little or no dan- 
ger, we urged them on, telling them that we should soon reach the 
vessel. 

At length, when we thought they were making a tack as usual, we 
found ourselves nearing Amoy again, and there was no persuading 
them to a different course : they had turned about, and were returning 
home. Wo landed, and waited to make the trial again. As soon as 



320 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

the tide turned in our favor, Mr. T. gave us his large boat, with a 
number of Chinese sailors, and, after a blustering time, we reached 
the " Dart " about twelve at night. 

The sea was high, and our boat, as we came up, bounded against 
the vessel's side, somewhat to the alarm of those on board. They at 
first thought they were being attacked by pirates, and would have 
soon given us a corresponding reception, as they already had guns in 
their hands. We found Capt. P. very sick, and remained with him 
all night. 

Wednesday, Oct. 3d. — This morning early Mr. Potter, the first 
officer, got the vessel under way, and brought her up into the har- 
bor, to a more convenient situation. We came up in her, taking 
breakfast on board, and then went ashore. 

During the forenoon Dr. H. took me to his hospital, which is a free 
establishment, founded by the London Missionary Society for Chinese 
patients. 

I then went to Dr. W.'s to spend the day, walking with him to a 
neighboring hill, which is quite high, and the favorite promenade- 
ground of foreigners. I dined at six p. m., and in the evening enjoyed 
conversation and music. Although a mile or two to Mr. T.'s, I in- 
tended to walk ; but the doctor insisted on sending me by his chair and 
coolies, which certainly was a more comfortable way. 

LETTER TO BROTHER J. 

Jlmoy, Thursday, Oct. 4th, 18 — . 

Dear Brother J. : I am now spending a few days at the English 
consulate, with Mr. and Mrs. Lay ton. I went with Mrs. L. and looked 
over their garden. They have a romantic place, it being formerly 
the residence of a mandarin. On one side is a rock that overlooks the 
garden and adjoining fields. We ascended the rock, which is very high 
and arranged with seats, where a party may resort to sip their tea and 
to enjoy the cool of a hot summer's evening. 

Amoy, Sunday, Oct. 1th. — I took a chair and went up to Mr. 
Tait's, to attend church with him ; but, finding him gone, I told 
the coolies to take me " alia same piecy house that Mr. T. have 
makee go chin-chin Josh " (the same church Mr. T. attends). I suc- 
ceeded in making them understand ; and, coming to the house, I went 
up stairs and found the service half through. Rev. Mr. Young, an Eng- 
lish missionary, preached and conducted the singing. The meeting 
was held in one of the rooms of a missionary house, and the audience 
numbered about a dozen. 

I dined with Mr. T., and afterwards walked with him, Capt. Bing 
and Mr: Priestanaa, to the flag- staff on the hilL. This place ia very 



AMOY. BRITISH CONSULTS RESIDENCE. 321 

sightly, overlooking the city, harbor, islands, and surrounding coun- 
try. It contains the telegraphic house, and apparatus for signalizing 
vessels. Here I met Dr. H. , and Dr. and Mrs. W . , who had also come up 
for the walk and to enjoy the fresh breeze. I returned to Mr. T.'s, 
and, when ready to go home in the evening, the chair-bearers had 
1 .: : t, being probably tired of waiting. I, however, procured others, and 
was conveyed to the consulate. 

Monday, Oct. 8th. — You may like to know if foreigners get enough 
to eat in this part of the world ; and so I will tell you what we had 
on the dinner-table this evening. We had first soup, fish baked, roast 
goose, boiled mutton, stewed beef, and several kinds of vegetables; then 
we had puddings, marmalade, cheese and beer, plantains, five kinds of 
nuts, persimmons, guavas, pumaloes, four kinds of preserves, etc., 
and the various wines ; and lastly we had coffee. It was seven in the 
evening when we sat down to dinner. Mr. L. and I drank to the 
Queen, and then to the President of the United States, etc. Afterwards 
Mr. L. gave the health of my father, to be continued in his old age. 

After tea, at ten, I called at Dr. Winchester's, where I met Mr. 
Jackson, Mr. Tait, and Mr. Backhouse. The doctor, Mr. B. and my- 
self, remained after the others had left, in the veranda, enjoying a 
quiet chat. When I left, which was past twelve, the moon shone 
brightly overhead, lighting up the whole interior of the court. At- 
tracted by its silvery appearance, the cool air, and the quiet and death- 
like stillness, I took a seat on the stone steps, and enjoyed the 
tranquillity of the place alone. Completely shut out from the street, — 
for the doors at the bottom of the court were closed, — the buildings 
seemed like a kind of palace. I am told that it was formerly the resi- 
dence of the Chinese governor of this province ; and eveiwthing is laid 
out, handsomely arranged, befitting his station. Before me, at the 
head of the court, some fifteen or twenty feet higher than the others, 
was the large building of Mr. L., the consul, with long stone steps in 
front ; on the left, those of Dr. Winchester and Mr. Morrison, the in- 
terpreter ; and on the right, the residence of Mr. Backhouse, the vice- 
consul — the court containing the buildings of the consulate only. 
A pretty tree, heavily laden with pumaloes, as large as Dutch 
chesses, ornaments the background. Mrs. L. displays considerable 
taste in the arrangement of the house inside. The furniture is hand- 
some, with rich carpets ; and the rooms are decorated with English 
pictures and Chinese curiosities. I have learned to-day that it is 
feared the " Coquette," Capt. Prescott, is lost. 

Friday, Oct. 12th. — I have now returned to Mr. T.'s to make it 
my home again. Spent the clay and evening at Dr. Hyslop's. After 
dining, we all went out, taking a sail in the harbor. The wind 
blew quite strong, with considerable sea, alarming Mrs. II., one 
of the party, much for our safety; but we returned at dark without 
accident. On returning, I joined Dr. II. with the flute to some 
music. 

Saturday, Oct. \Zth. — Dined at Bev. Mr. Young's, and made, I be- 
lieve, the most of my meal on plum-pudding and plum-cake, which 
much reminded me of home. 



322 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

The mandarins were in a state of much alarm to-day, caused by a re- 
port that a large fleet of pirates were on the way to attack Amoy. The 
admiral, with his fleet of war-junks, left this morning to go out after 
them. I have very little faith that they will do anything towards cap- 
turing them. We probably shall hear that they saw them, fired at 
them from a distance, and turned and ran into the harbor again. 

Sunday, Oct. liih. — Mr. T. called me up this morning at half- 
past six, to join him in a walk up to the telegraph station, to ascertain 
what vessel is in sight, one having been telegraphed. We learned that 
it is the " Widgeon." 

After breakfast, Mr. T. went off to the coming vessel and obtained 
the letters. Mr. Bradley, the American consul, accompanied him 
back. He had been twenty days in coming up from Hong-Kong, 
having to beat against a head wind. The passage is often made in 
three days, and often in less time, with a fair wind. The rigging of 
the vessel was considerably shattered by the gales she had encoun- 
tered. 

The letters were all turned on to the table, but not one appeared 
for me. Fourteen days more, and it will be a year since my latest dates 
from home were received. I was considerably disappointed ; but, on 
examining my journal records, I find that my letter directing packages 
for me to be sent here could not have reached Hong-Kong in season to 
expect letters by this vessel. 

Mr. Bradley dined with us. He says that the typhoon of the 15th 
of last month did much damage, and many vessels were lost. The 
" Coquette " has not yet been heard from, and is supposed to be among 
the lost. I am very fortunate in not being on board of her, but am 
very sorry for Captain Prescott. It was to have been his last trip 
previous to returning to America. There was also on board a mis- 
sionary, with whom I was acquainted, and who has probably shared 
the same fate. I had spoken my passage with, and had everything 
ready in the evening to join him ; but, at the moment of leaving, some 
little remark from Mr. and Mrs. B. induced me to change my mind. I 
concluded to remain in Shanghae a few days longer, and then go down 
by the way of Amoy ; where I am now, and where I should not have 
been had I left at that time. On how slight a circumstance there 
depended the prolongation of my life ! 

Truly yours, B. L. B. 

Mr. T. and I took a little sail after dinner, and went off on board 
the "Alexander Johnson" in the evening, and came back at nine. We 
saw that the fleet of war-junks had returned, and was at anchor about 
half a mile from where they left yesterday morning, apparently 
not daring to leave the harbor. They say here that if there was 
any prospect of meeting the pirates the admiral would not venture 
out, for the pirates oftener capture the war-fleet than the fleet does 
the pirates. They stand more in fear of the pirates than the pirates do 



AMOY. — VISIT TO A TEMPLE. S23 

of them. The " Pilot," an English man-of-war, left, a day or two 
ago, in pursuit of them, and has not yet returned. 

Monday, Oct. 15th. — After breakfast I called, with Rev. Mr. Young, 
on the Rev. Mr. Doty ; and on the way we visited a temple, and took 
a view from some high rocks in the background. Mr. D. and wife are 
American missionaries from New York, all very agreeable. Rev. Dr. 
Cummings has gone home, and Rev. Mr. Poleman was drowned last 
year ; both of them Americans. 

I met Mr. Bradley during the day, had a pleasant conversation with 
him, and called on Dr. Hyslop, who accompanied me with his boy into 
the city. We visited two large Chinese temples, and also saw the resi- 
dence of the Taoutai (the governor), and that of the Chinese colonel 
of the army. There was very little, if anything, worth visiting in 
the city. We walked around on the walls, looking down on the 
houses and very dirty streets, and spent the evening at Dr. H.'s. 

Tuesday, Oct. IQth. — Rose at half-past sis. I dined with Rev. Mr. 
Y. at three p. m.; and, on my way back, called at Dr. Ilyslop's, 
who, in a boat, took me to visit a famous temple down the harbor. 
We passed below the Chinese fleet of war-junks, and landed on the 
beach near Cornwallis rock — watching our opportunity to jump from 
the boat and run up before the rapidly-following surf. We then 
crossed the wide and tedious sandy beach, climbed over the fortifica- 
tions, and made our nearest way across the fields to the temple. It 
was somewhat dark on arriving, so that we could not see to 
particularize much. 

In front of the temple and other buildings there are four cupola- 
shaped buildings, which stand in a row. The centre pillar of each 
of these is supported on the back of a huge tortoise, hewn out of 
stone ; and six pillars, standing in the form of a hexagon, support 
the outside. They are very prettily and accurately hewn and 
carved, and make an interesting appearance. The temple itself is a 
very large building, and extends back to the foot of rocky moun- 
tains, which rise in bold and craggy ledges and heaps of boulders 
behind. 

We went inside and saw a few of the large gods, and in the 
centre of the area an extremely pretty three or four storied pagoda. 
The roof of this temple was pierced, during the war, by a cannon-ball 
that was thrown from one of the English ships. It passed through 
the roof, and fell harmlessly at the feet of their idols ; which cir- 
cumstance — their gods and people escaping unharmed — indicated 



324 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

to the Chinese a great intervention of Heaven in their behalf. The 
inside of the roof was curiously formed, — locked in somewhat like the 
vertebrae in the spinal column of animals. The stone pillars were 
carved, by cutting away the surfaces and leaving the forms behind, 
with curious devices of lizards, dragons, etc., clinging on them. 
It growing dark very soon, the boy lighted a torch, and led us by 
a back way over a hill, which we ascended by stone steps, to a Chi- 
nese village. Here we passed the graves of Chinese who fell during 
the war with the English, and went down to the beach. The graves 
are all made in plaster-work, a foot high and a foot apart, in rows 
or platoons differing in form and style according to the several dy- 
nasties of their government. We walked along the beach in search 
of the boat ; but the boatmen had left, and taken it with them. How- 
ever, we made out to obtain another after a considerable walk, and 
arrived at the house of Dr. H. at about eight in the evening. After 
spending a couple of hours there, I returned home, and retired about 
twelve. 

Wednesday, Oct. 11th. — I called on Rev. Mr. Stronach, an English 
missionary ; dined with Mr. Milne, and afterwards walked with Mr. 
Potter, an English gentleman, to a neighboring hill. Over this emi- 
nence immense boulders are scattered in every direction, and one large 
one lies hanging on the very edge of the precipice, apparently just 
ready to fall and crush the Chinese dwellings below. In the evening 
I called on Mr. Bradley, and listened to his interesting conversation till 
twelve, then concluding to remain with him till the next day, send- 
ing my boy home. Mr. B. possesses a great fund of information. 
Having spent much of his life in travel, and in public office, he has read 
and observed much ; and being naturally communicative, I enjoyed my 
visit. Mr. B. is busily engaged with Lin. his interpreter, in his con- 
sular affairs, and is now corresponding with the mandarins for the 
purpose of arranging the days for making his official visits. This, 
in all the form and ceremony of Chinese etiquette, requires considerable 
writing, interpreting, and preparation beforehand. 

Thursday, Oct. 18th. — I arose at seven, and at eight came home 
to breakfast. Mr. Tait, not being able to imagine where I w r as, 
despatched last evening tw r o coolies in search of me, and kept the house 
open for me all night, my boy having neglected to tell hitn that I was 
not coming home, which trouble I was sorry to have caused. 

After attending an engagement at Mr. Layton's, I met Mr. T. at 
the residence of Mr. Backhouse, who was there waiting to accompany 



AMOY. GOV. SU AND THE ADMIRAL-PIRATE. 325 

me to the "White Stag Temple ; but, it being late, we concluded to 
defer it, and not to go to-daj'. In the afternoon I called at Captain 
Milne's, afterwards taking a walk with him and Mr. Potter to Tele- 
graph Hill, where we had a fine view over the city from the tops of 
the large boulders. 

I have been deliberating this day and evening upon going to Hong- 
Kong to-morrow. Two vessels, which have been expected to leave every 
day this week, will sail then. There are some reasons for going, and 
some for remaining a few days longer. My reasons for leaving are 
that I do not like to trespass longer upon Mr. Tait's kindness, as well 
as to spend so much time here, although I enjoy it. On the other 
hand, Mr. Lay ton has invited me to accompany him on board the 
u Pilot " when she comes in, to see the pirates which may have been 
captured. Mr. Bradley also invites me to accompany him in his offi- 
cial visits to the mandarins. There are several places besides which I 
should yet like to visit about Amoy ; and then I entertain some idea 
of visiting Fou-chow, eighty miles north of this, though Mr. L. advises 
me not to do so just now, as the pirates are so numerous between here 
and there. 

I learned at Mr. L.'s to-day that the people of Amoy are expect- 
ing the pirates here soon to make a descent upon the city ; that their 
emissaries are scattered in various parts over the city, to act in con- 
cert with them ; and that the more wealthy inhabitants are hourly, 
moving articles of value to places of safety into the country. The 
"Pilot" is out now for the purpose of breaking up their fleet, if 
possible. 

Gov. Su, at Canton, has made some overtures to the head pirate, 
Chap-ing-sai, to have him give up his profession ; but he demands two 
hundred thousand dollars and an office of mandarin, which Su as yet 
has refused to give. The admiral-pirate would take nothing less, and 
is now engaged in his acts of death and plunder. The Chinese war- 
junks remain at their anchorage, not yet venturing out. There are 
two towns in the vicinity of Amoy over which the pirates have the 
whole control, and the mandarins are too weak, and too much in fear 
of them, even to send a despatch, or to make any efforts to put them 
down. 

Friday, Oct. lOlh. — The "Dart" came in again to-day, to the 

great surprise and wonder of all. Some thought it was on account of 

the pirates, and some that Capt. P. again was sick ; but she had been 

wind-bound at the Piscadore Islands, and came to bring in the captain 

28 



326 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

and wife, and the crew of the "Sarah Trotman," which had been 
wrecked on those islands. I was fearful that Capt. Porter was quite 
ill again, or not living ; but he was well, and came with Mr. Croit, 
Mr. Morse, Capt. P. and Mr. C, to dine with Mr. Tait. 

It was the intention of Mr. T. and myself to visit the " White Stag 
Temple ; " but, owing to many interruptions, he was unable to accom- 
pany me, and we again had to defer it. After dinner, Mr. Macchi, 
Mr. Bradley and myself, made a visit to the " White Heart Temple," 
which was not far off, it being a little this side of the telegraph 
station. On the way we passed a pool into which female infants 
are thrown, and in which we could yet see them mouldering in the 
stagnant mud and water. 

The temple was pretty, but not very remarkable. The grounds 
were laid out with considerable taste, and a large banian-tree had a 
place in one corner of the yard. Curious winding stone steps led up 
and about in various directions, and there were numerous idols. 

A few mornings since, at the breakfast-table, Mr. T. made some 
amusement by his explanation of a peculiarity in the Chinese mode of 
cooking. He had helped me to a dish which I had never before seen. 
While partaking of it with good appetite, he asked me how I liked 
the " beef scollop." 

To this I answered, " Very well." 

It seemed to consist of beef-steak cut and pounded up very fine, 
without potatoes or seasoning, and it had little positive taste of any 
kind. He said, 

" I presume you know how the cook prepares this dish ? " 

I answered honestly that " I did not know." 

He continued, with a plausible air, 

" Well, I can tell you. The Chinese cooks have no chopping-knives, 
and, as a substitute, they chew the meat fine, in their own mouths." 

I partook of it afterwards, adding vinegar ; but I must say that my 
appetite for the dish was diminished. Still I was determined not to 
be induced by my imagination to give it up. Mr. B., I noticed, ate 
and swallowed with some difficulty, and probably I did myself. After 
a painful suspense of some minutes, Mr. T. observed, by way of 
climax, 

" Gentlemen, don't be afraid of it ; I never allow my cooks to use 
any tobacco whatever ! " 

We laid down our knives and forks, and Mr. T. enjoyed a good laugh 
while we gave our plates to the servants to be changed, and passed to 



AMOY. WHITE STAG TEMPLE. 827 

the next dish. After that I did not taste of the beef scollop — at least, 
for some days. 

At dinner one day we had some tripe served up in a new style, 
according to the Chinese method ; and the looks and odor of it were 
more disagreeable than our imaginations pictured the scollop, or any 
other article of food I have yet seen. Some quite amusing remarks 
were elicited by the presence of this dish. 

Saturday, October 20th. — About noon, started, in company with 
Mr. Tait, Mr. Patten and Mr. Craig, to visit the White Stag Temple. 
Mr. T., who was well acquainted with the country, led us through 
the streets of the city, passing the White Heart Temple on our way. 

We ascended the mountain by crooked flights of stone steps, passed 
over, and by corresponding flights of steps descended into a deep valley 
beyond. When part of the way down, we stopped a few minutes to 
look at an ancient tomb, built into the hill-side. This tomb occupied 
a space of twenty or thirty feet square, and was divided into three 
terraces, each of them one or two feet above the other, and all paved 
With flat stones. Four figures of their divinities, a little larger than 
life, and hewn out of stone, stood in front at each corner, and on one 
side stood the sculptured figure of a horse. 

On each side of us, and in every direction, were other tombs and 
graves ; in fact, hardly a spot of ground could be seen of a few feet 
square which had not a tomb or grave upon it. Then we came to a 
town or small city, and passed through its narrow, angular, and 
crowded streets. It was not remarkable for anything, except for its 
want of cleanliness, and for what is common to all Chinese places, the 
constant barking of their cowardly dogs at foreigners. We soon after 
came to the " White Stag Temple," which proved to be the same 
pretty temple which Dr. H. and I visited on the 16th. 

We remained but a short time, taking a cursory view of the various 
buildings, the gods, and the general arrangement of the whole. Two 
women were chin-chinning Josh at the shrine, on which, in front of 
the gods, the incense, or Josh-sticks, were burning and smoking. The 
women tried their luck with a bunch of bamboo slips, and the casting 
on the floor of two pieces of dice-wood. One of the women shook the 
bunch of slips in a bamboo box, until one gradually worked up and 
fell out on the ground. This, like all, having a motto engraved on it, 
the woman carried to the priest, who interpreted it, and gave her a 
corresponding response, for which she paid a number of copper cash. 
These responses are small pieces of paper written on, and prepared 



328 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

and kept on hand by the quantity. If I mistake not, the writing is a 
note-of-hand running to the departed friend of the bearer, and entitling 
them, after it is burned at the altar, to a certain sum of money in the 
next world. 

The two pieces of dice-wood are made from a bamboo root, cut 
about five inches long and split in halves, much resembling the two 
halves of a kidney-bean. The two parts are placed together and 
dropped upon the floor : if they fall opposite sides up, they are lucky ; 
but if they come with the same sides up, they are unlucky. One of 
the women took the two pieces in her hands, advanced to the idol, 
prostrated herself, knocking her head on the stones several times, and 
chin-chinning the idol, addressing petitions for its aid and favor, held 
up her hands with a countenance indicating entire faith in the power 
of the god, and let fall the two pieces of wood. These rebounded in 
different directions. With what anxiousness did her eye rapidly 
glance from one piece to the other ! and how pleased did she appear, 
on seeing one of the pieces with the round side up, and the other with 
the flat, to find herself lucky ! 

The other, an older woman, now advanced with her half-sized feet, 
in a half-hobbling gait, and took her turn. She was not so lucky. 
She tried them over and over with alternate chin-chinnings ; but either 
the two round sides came up, or the two flat. She went on, finally, 
with such desperation, that I really pitied her. She continued, how- 
ever, to pick them up and let them fall as fast as she could, until she 
was really lucky ; and then, with an air of satisfaction at having 
conquered, she gave the idol a look that seemed to say, " Well, you 
see I did succeed, notwithstanding ; " and then she left the temple. 
After they had gone we all tried our fortunes, much to the amazement 
of the priests. Some of us were lucky, and some unlucky : I was 
among the unlucky ones, but, persevering, became lucky. 

We did not visit the rear part of the grounds, which I should like 
to have done, though it is similar to other temples ; for the party wub 
in a hurry to proceed. The priests were all civil and very polite ; the 
expectation of little presents from us, perhaps, made them more so. 

We then proceeded through another village beyond, and turned into 
the valley, between mountains the tops and sides of which were 
covered with stone boulders, some of them of immense size, rounded 
in various shapes, and thrown into various positions. This part of 
the country was probably, at no very distant period, washed by the 
sea, as every appearance seemed to indicate. 



AMOY. JOSH-HOUSE. 329 

I here began to think that Mr. T. was taking us on a longer trip 
than we had anticipated ; and though his feet went lightly and nimbly 
over the ground, I was painfully conscious that mine were moving 
with some embarrassment. However, I followed on at a pretty rapid 
pace — winding and turning here and there, as the path directed, up 
hill and down. We left the valley, ascending the rocky heights, and 
climbing from peak to peak, till we had made the circuit of the range. 
In the midst of the tops of these mountains is a large hollow of land 
composed of sand, gravel and rocks, though a part of it is culti- 
vated. Near the centre of this we stopped at a small cottage, which 

was called Mrs. 's Folly, so called from her building a house in 

so elevated and retired a position, and where it could be seldom 
visited by herself or others. The house was closed, and I was told 
that she had yet never occupied it. The wind blew very strong, as I 
think it always does in this vicinity, and while on the peaks we were 
obliged to take some care not to be blown by a sudden gust over a 
precipice. 

Having travelled over the top, we commenced the descent on 
the side opposite that which we came up, directing our course 
towards home. The path was rfarrow and steep. My shoes were 
filled with gravel, my feet were sore, and I was nearly jagged out; 
and I think, from the long sighs that frequently escaped my compan- 
ions, that their condition did not differ much from mine. Mr. T., 
however, went on as if he had freshly started, laughing occasionally 
from one corner of his mouth, as he glanced at our unsteady steps. 
Immense boulder-rocks were piled up on both sides of us, from a size 
that I could lift in my arms, to that of one weighing thousands of 
tons. They were all oval-shaped, like an egg or paving-stone, and 
tumbled one upon another, in varied confusion. 

The mountain, in its whole extent to Amoy, is nearly of the same 
general character. In the side towards the city there are several 
small ravines, in which are recesses and glen-like places filled with the 
time-worn and blackened boulder-rocks ; and in these recesses, the 
wildest and most romantic-looking places being selected, wealthy 
Chinamen sometimes have a small temple or Josh-house built for their 
own particular benefit. These small temples are familiarly called 
" Josh-houses," though there is no such name in the Chinese language. 

In one of these wild-looking places the Hiqua (a mandarin) has a 
Josh-house, which he visits as inclination leads him. It is located in 
the midst of these boulders, and is so contrived that several of them 
28* 



330 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

form some part of the building or the grounds. Flights of steps are 
cut into them, twisting about in the oddest ways, — now leading up, 
and then down, and then between them, — and little bridges are thrown 
over, connecting them with the path . As you pass between the boulders, 
they are often several times your height ; and when you are above 
them, or on the little bridge, you can look among them and down into 
deep and dark chasms, and hear the water rippling and trickling 
through at the bottom. A pretty banian-tree is growing within the 
grounds, and many other trees and shrubs are interspersed around, 
wherever there is a place to take root on the rocky and barren soil. 

Entering the buildings of the Hiqua's Josh-house, we glanced at the 
idols, and then passed up stairs and stood upon a veranda that over- 
hung the ravine below, and commanded a very pretty view beyond, 
although so wild and full of barrenness. I never saw such a singular 
assemblage of rocks as was here presented. The mountains were liter- 
ally white with them ; and they were scattered in large heaps in the 
hollows. One immense boulder, shaped like an egg, had the small 
end broken off and left raised, like the open lid of a coffee-pot, the 
two parts being still in contact, like a hinge. 

We reached home at four p. m. After dining and resting, I went 
to the English consulate with Mr. T., and called at Dr. W.'s. 

Sunday, October 21st. — I attended church at the chapel of the 
missionaries at eleven a. m. Rev. Mr. Stronach, missionary from 
England, preached. After dining with Mr. T., I crossed the channel 
to Colonsu, — taking a sail on the water, and a walk on the island. 
The same kind of boulders, and the same barren appearance of the 
land, were seen here, as on the Amoy side. To cool ourselves, we 
ascended to the top of an enormous boulder, and from that elevated 
seat we enjoyed a refreshing breeze, and a view of this and the sur- 
rounding islands. We could discern, towering up from the centre of 
an island to the west, called " Pagoda Island," one single pagoda ; 
and to the south the high land in the distant horizon faintly disclosed 
another pagoda, enveloped in the blue haze. In the east, and about 
ten miles distant, are the six islands, extending across the entrance of 
the harbor, and the black, rocky shore of Amoy bay, and at the 
north a range of barren hills. In the valleys below and around ua 
are several small villages, composed of low buildings huddled together, 
— mostly of one story, and inhabited generally by fishermen. 

Mr. T. w;as very expert in ascending the rocks ; and much more 
than I was, for he had tirst to climb up himself, and then to pull me 



AMOT. VISIT TO THE HIHONG. 331 

up by the arm after him. And the descent was nearly as bad ; for 
we had to slide down the boulder and jump off, landing upon a solid 
rock below. 

Monday, October 22d. — This was the day appointed for the official 
visit to the mandarins, as had been arranged between them and Mr. 
Bradley, the American consul. By some misunderstanding of the 
hour, when I came to Mr. B.'s house they had all left. I hastened 
to overtake and join them on the way, and met them in quite a train 
of chairs returning from their visit to the Taoutai. I passed them in 
the narrow street, though there was scarcely room to do so, expecting 
the coolies would then turn around ; instead of which, they continued 
on. Fearing that I should lose the party, I called out several times 
to the coolies to turn about. They made some signs which I could 
not understand, and hurried on faster. Not understanding that they 
were going to the end or crossings of the street, where there was more 
room to turn, I scolded and threatened, and at last jumped out of 
the chair and caught the forward cooly by his long queue, and stopped 
them. With blusterings, signs and motions, I made them turn round 
on the spot. This they accomplished by backing into a Chinaman's 
store, and, after considerable tipping, turning and twisting, we 
headed the other way. Taking my seat inside again, we soon over- 
took the train, when I ascertained that we were on the way to the 
Hihong's. The party consisted of Mr. Bradley, Kev. Mr. Doty, Lin, 
the Chinese interpreter, Mr. D.'s linguist, myself, and several ser- 
vants. 

We soon came to the house, and, leaving our chairs in the street, 
entered. When inside of the outer door, we seemed to be in the hall 
itself; for the hall was a continuation of the passage-way — a kind 
of open space leading from the front to the rear. The Hihong was 
waiting, and at once advanced to meet us. Lin introduced Mr. B. as 
the consul from the United States of America for Amoy, Mr. D. as an 
American missionary, and myself as an American doctor. The Hi- 
hong shook each of us by the hand, — taking ours in both of his, 
intending probably to make use of our custom, but evidently forget- 
ting that it is one hand, and not two, that we shake. 

After a few words explanatory of the visit by Mr. B., he motioned 
to each of us singly to sit down. He did not ask Lin, the interpreter, 
to be seated, till he learned the relation he sustained to Mr. B., when 
by signs he made the same demonstration to him. 

Some conversation now took place, through the interpreter, between 



332 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

the two officials. After this the Hihong arose, and, addressing each 
of us singly, requested us to be seated at the table. This was covered 
with cakes, fruits, and sweetmeats. The chairs were placed in two 
rows, one on each side of the table, and facing each other. The Hi- 
hong placed us at the table as he chose, but I could not see that he 
wished to make any distinction. He was exceedingly polite, helping 
each of us to a piece of cake with his own fingers. The tea was 
brought on in cups with lids to them, each having a little metallic 
plate, instead of saucer, to hold the cup. 

While sitting at the table Lin interpreted for the Hihong and Mr. B., 
but, speaking indistinctly and in a low voice, I could only occasionally 
make out what was said. The conversation was mostly on their official 
relations, and afterwards respecting themselves and families. Mr. B. 
asked the Hihong how old he was. The Hihong, receiving this as a 
compliment, leaned far over the table towards Mr. B., with a face full 
of pleasure, and forcible tips to his head, answered that he was fifty- 
two. He then asked Mr. B. his age. This answered, Mr. B. asked 
how many children he had, and the Hihong replied, in the same grat- 
ified manner, that he had " six children." Various other questions 
of a similar nature were asked and answered, quite the reverse of 
our ideas of etiquette. 

The Hihong is the governor of customs. He was rather a good- 
looking man for a Chinaman, with a large frame, large head, choco- 
late-colored complexion, black, cunning eyes, and a dark, heavy mus- 
tache. His features were rounded and full, his face and head were 
smoothly shaved, and a long braided tail hung down his back. His 
neck was short, thick, and inclined, and throws his head considerably 
forward, which, when he walks, seems to be about half a foot or more 
in advance of his body ; and, not least, what a Chinaman is always 
desirous of being, he was fat and plump, though few comparatively 
are so. 

His dress was a long, dark-blue silk frock, worn over another frock, 
of a lighter color. The frock had, on its front and back, patches eight 
or twelve inches square, of gilt embroidered figuring. A necklace of 
large beads was suspended from his neck, hanging low down in front. 
Upon his head was a low, peculiar-shaped hat, with a long peacock- 
feather sticking out behind, and a red glass knob in the crown ; and 
he wore long, white leggins, and large and thick shoes, which were 
apparently made new for the occasion, and had each a resemblance to 
a tailor's goose. 



AMOY. THE HIQUAN. 833 

The two officials having a sufficiently long and amicable conversa- 
tion, Mr. B. setting the example, we arose to depart. We were now 
ready to take leave in any way that might be indicated by our host. I 
hoped it would be anything but shaking our hands. To me it is any- 
thing but agreeable to shake hands with a Chinaman. I can shake 
hands with a pump-handle, if it needs be ; but I would almost as wil- 
lingly submit my hand to the clasp of an eagle's claws, as to the long 
nails and bony fingers of Chinamen generally. His Chinese high- 
ness, however, observed his own custom — shaking his own hands at 
us with much politeness and affability, which we returned with ours 
in the same way, and which the principals continued doing until out 
of each other's sight. 

On coming to the street we found quite a crowd of people collected 
from curiosity, and looking through the gratings of the door to see 
what was going on at the mandarin's house ; but they all dispersed 
quietly as we left. 

We next took up our line of march to the Hiquan's, which was at 
some distance in the suburbs, and near the country. This mandarin 
lived in a palace, compared with the residence of the last. His grounds 
were extensive, and the buildings large and numerous. 

We entered a long and wide court-yard, through which we passed, 
and then, turning a right angle to the left, we were shown into the 
presence of his honor the Hiquan. He looked very much like the last 
functionary ; enough, I should suppose, to have been his brother. He 
received us very courteously. The ceremonies at the table were simi- 
lar to those before, without any particular difference. I believe that 
this mandarin is a judge, and successor to one of whom the English 
consul told me, who kept a Chinaman hung up by his arms three days 
in his house, and only liberated him on the interposition of the 
consul. 

The Chinaman had called on Mr. Layton to obtain redress for some 
grievance, and the English consul sent him, with his card, to the man- 
darin. The Chinese official demanded thirty dollars of his countryman, 
who could not pay it, and the mandarin suspended him by his arms, 
day and night, till Mr. L. heard of it and interfered. By the perse- 
verance of Mr. L. the mandarin was turned out of his office, and the 
next night took poison and died in his bed. 

From this place we went to the residence of the Chambdo, a manda- 
rin, who is a general or colonel, or some high officer in the Chinese 
army, and lives inside the city wall. We were here received as we 



334 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

were by the other officials ; but while here a little misunderstanding 
arose respecting Lin, the interpreter. The Chambdo, seeming to doubt 
Lin's right of rank to sit at the table with him, made a show of feel- 
ing, with some cutting remarks, expressive of his wounded pride and 
rage at the intrusion. Lin, considering himself disgraced, became 
also in a rage, and was about to leave ; but the difficulty was adjusted 
by a little explanation from Mr. B., which restored Lin to the good 
graces of the mandarin. The term "mandarin" is not a Chinese 
word, but has been introduced from some of the foreign languages, 
and refers to ten ranks of officers under the government. 

LETTER TO SISTER L. F. 

Amoy, Tuesday, Oct. 23c?. 

My dear Sister L. F : At ten, this a. m., I went to the house of 
Rev. Mr. Doty, to be present at the reception of the Taoutai (that is, 
the governor) , who returns the visit made yesterday by the American 
consul, Mr. Bradley. Mr. B. was there, waiting, and equipped in his 
dark-blue coat with brass buttons, &c. 

A few minutes past the hour, we heard the reports of cannon. 
" Ah," said Mr. D., " he has started ; three salutes are always given 
on the mandarins' leaving their own dwelling." Soon after, three cards 
(that is, three slips of red paper, three inches wide and six long, with the 
name of the Taoutai upon them) were handed in, one for Mr. B., one 
for Mr. D., and one for myself. As the cards are taken by servants 
and precede the train of the mandarin only a few moments in advance, 
we passed down the stairs to receive the Taoutai at the door. Here, 
thinking that two persons were enough to receive $ne, I was about 
making my retreat to the room again, to await there ; but I was in- 
formed that I must remain, as it would be deemed an insult to the 
mandarin if any one of us who made the visit yesterday was not at the 
door to receive him. 

Waiting a few minutes below, we heard the loud, tumultuous 
noises of the heralds who go before, carrying their badges, and, with 
wailing sounds, cry, " Clear the street ! " " clear the street ! " and thus 
signalize the approach of the " man of consaquence." Soon after, 
i long train of servants, bearing various insignia, appeared before the 
'door ; and then the Taoutai himself, carried by four bearers, was set 
down. He stepped out of his sedan, and entered the door with an air 
of considerable importance ; but was very graceful, polite, and digni- 
fied. In the salutation he evidently determined to have it right this 
time, for he shook his own hands first and afterwards ours, taking one 
of our hands in both of his. After several compliments with Mr. B., 
as to which should go first, he walked ahead, and we following, 
and a portion of his servants brought up the rear, and deposited them- 
selves in various places, standing behind him and about the room. One 
of them stood by him constantly, looking over his shoulder, and watch- 
ing his long pipe, which the Taoutai kept in constant operation. As 



AMOY. — RIEINQ IN THE STREETS. DOGS. 335 

the pipe required replenishing often, his business was to receive it and 
hand it to another servant to replenish and take charge of until again 
wanted. 

The Taoutai appeared much pleased with Mrs. D., who was " well 
favored," so to speak; nor did he seem to consider it a disgrace for 
her to be seen, as the presence of ladies is generally regarded by the 
Chinese ; but smiled, and often looked at her, gesticulated, and made 
complimentary remarks to her through the interpretation of Lin. 
Upon her presenting the cup of tea with her own hands, he rose from 
his chair to receive it, bowed several times, as if highly flattered by 
the attention, gave several grunts signifying his approbation, and sat 
down again. He remained an hour, talking and laughing, smoking 
and partaking of refreshment. He could not talk without an inter- 
preter, but his laughing did not require the aid of any one, and he left 
in high spirits, apparently much pleased with his visit. 

Returning home, I dined at Mr. Jackson's, and then took a horse- 
back ride with Mr. Smith, — they having two horses for their own 
convenience. We passed through the city, Mr. S. setting his horse 
off at a gallop from the first, and much to my fear that he would run 
over the~Chinese in the crowded streets. I was not aware, before leav- 
ing, that we were obliged to turn such short corners, pass through such 
narroAv streets, up flights of stone steps, and ascend such steep places 
on the hill, or I might not have attempted the excursion. I was quite 
surprised when I observed the horse of Mr. S., in advance of me, 
passing up the steps ; for I did not know that horses could ascend 
such. I felt, at first, some hesitation at proceeding in this manner, 
but there was no time for reflection ; and, after an hour, I could ride 
nearly as comfortably up or down the steps as on level ground. 
These little ponies are very sure-footed, especially when they have no 
iron on their hoofs. However, as it became very dark, we thought it 
best to lead our horses down the flag-staff hill ; for we had gone up 
some places where it seemed impossible to come down without going 
headlong over our horses' necks. By walking we succeeded very well, 
with the exception of slipping down myself a few times. 

While trotting through the crowded streets, I was amused to see 
a strange dog join that of Mr. S., running ahead, barking and yelp- 
ing. He completely cleared the way, causing the Chinamen to open a 
passage right and left ; and often, in their hurry, to tumble over each 
other. This dog jumped on any person in his way, and the Chinese, in 
their hurry to escape, would whirl round, pitch backwards over a stone 
step or upon some Chinawoman's cake and fruit stand, overturning 
it, and scattering the things over the stones. The poor Chinese, 
startled by the clattering of the horse so soon after the dogs, and not 
being able in the glare of lights to see as quickly as they could hear, 
would throw up their arms in all directions, half frightened out 
of their wits ; and, staggering backwards, fall into the open doors of 
shops behind, and perhaps upon some one sitting inside. . 

I was also not a little alarmed, for I was fearful that some one 
would be run over, and get us into difficulty with the people ; but, as 
I did not like to be left behind, and frequently could only see the tail 



336 CHINA ANI> MANILLA. 

of my friend's horse whirling the corner of the street ahead, I felt 
obliged to keep in sight. 

There are gates at intervals along the streets, which are closed at 
about ten in the evening, after which the only way to pass them is by 
crawling through a small and narrow aperture left at the lower part. 
These apertures are hardly large enough to admit the bodj-, and, in 
some cases, require a more or less desperate squeeze in the process. 
After taking tea with Mr. S., on my way home to Mr. T.'s I had all 
the gates to encounter, and had to humble myself accordingly. 

Wednesday, Oct. 2-ith. — It would seem that the gate-keepers did 
not intend to allow those out at this hour of the night to get through 
before it could be known whether they were thieves or good men. 

At four, this p. m., I accompanied Mr. Bradley to Mr. Doty's, 
where the other three mandarins were to return the visits. Near 
the hour appointed the reports of the guns were heard, and soon 
after the howling Chinese voices in the van of the train. The red 
cards now came in with the mandarins' names on them ; but to which 
mandarin each belonged was more than I could tell. Each card had 
two or three groups of crooked marks, more like the drawings of 
some Chinese insects than anything else, and are all alike to me ; 
but I shall have the names put on in English, and keep them as a 
curiosity. 

In a few minutes the street was full of sedan-chairs, servants with 
badges and banners, and a throng of street-loafers generally. The 
train drew up to the door, the sedans were put down, and the three 
mandarins, stepping out, shook hands with us. After this it seemed 
somewhat doubtful whether they would enter the house at all, as they 
stood bowing and nourishing to each other, each desiring the other to 
go in first ; though it was perfectly well understood to whom the 
right of precedence was at last to be yielded. Finally one of them 
really made a step forward and entered the door. The two others 
then had the same process to go through with each other, but made 
their evolutions rather faster, and got through rather sooner. At 
length all three were under way ; and, with their dozen servants and 
ourselves, there was a considerable procession marching up the 
stairs. 

After the same ceremonials had been performed as to which should 
be first seated, their boys handed the pipes, lighted them, and the 
three mandarins commenced smoking. They could only take one, two 
or three puffs before the pipe must be replenished. This was done by 
one servant taking the pipe and passing it to another, who removed 
the bowl, blew out the ashes, refilled it with fresh tobacco, and re- 
turned it through the first servant to the mandarin. The servant then 
applied the fire, and the smoking was resumed. 

While they were eating they used their pipes several times. They 
all three — the Hiquan (judge), the Hihong (governor of the custom- 
house), and, the Chambdo (the general in the army) — sat up to the 
table, drank tea, and partook of the cakes and sweetmeats. The 
Hiquan appears to enjoy himself very well, and is much more lively 
than the other. His rank is, I think, higher than the governor's, and 



AMOY. — STORM IN THE CHANNEL. 337 

the judge also ranks before the governor ; but the official position of the 
governor is superior to either. The Taoutai who came yesterday is the 
governor. The admiral is now away. 

The mandarins examined some daguerreotype likenesses of Mr. Doty's 
family, which they had never seen before ; but expressed very little sur- 
prise, and evinced little or no knowledge of the art. These men all 
appear to be very well disposed, good-natured, lively and social ; but 
their national character has always proved deceitful. 

They remained for an hour looking at the various things about the 
room, and seemed to enjoy their visit very well. They made many in- 
quiries about America ; and, though they could but see that our ar> 
and science were far in advance of theirs, still in their ow r n minds 
they seemed not to admit it ; and though they professed to meet as 
equals, their countenances indicated a feeling of superiority, so firmly 
does prejudice seem to have rooted itself in them. 

Truly yours, B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XL. 

TRIP ACROSS THE CHANNEL. RAMBLE UPON THE HILL. — VISIT TO THE 

SIX ISLANDS. — EQUIPMENT OF THE RECEIVING-SHIPS. — SAIL FOR FOU- 
CHOW. STOP AT CHIN-CHEW. CONTINUANCE OF THE PASSAGE. 

Thursday, Oct. 25th. — Mr. McRay and I dined together alone, Mr. 
Tait being absent. After this, Mr. Clark, who was wrecked in the 
" Sarah Trotman," accompanied us to the island Colonsu. Crossing the 
channel, we walked and climbed the high rocks as far as we could get, 
taking; various views of the island. At dark we reached our boat to 
return, and the prospect looked as dark as the evening. The wind blew 
hard ahead, but we thought we would try to cross, and set out. The 
tide was strong, and the spray and water occasionally dashed over us. 
We made about one third of the w T ay across, and still seemed to go 
through the water, but not to get ahead. The boatman pulled and 
tugged for about an hour, without effecting anything except to go 
astern, and we rendered our assistance ; but this-, if anything, only 
increased the difficulty. We were finally carried back to the island and 
nearly thrown on to the rocks, but finally got back to. the place from 
whence we started. Our clothes were wet, and we were chilly ; and to 
keep ourselves warm we spent an hour or two in walking, when, the 
29 



CHINA AND MANILLA. 

wind having much subsided, we started again, and reached home in 
safety to tea, about nine in the evening. 

Friday, Oct. 2Qth. — While I was out to-day, one of the chair 
coolies ran against a box by the side of the way, and knocked the 
chair-handles from his shoulders, letting me down with considerable of 
a crash on to the hard pavement. lie was, however, the most fright- 
ened, and directly started on again. 

In the evening I made some calls ; and, returning from Dr. 
Hyslop's at the late hour of twelve, I had again to encounter the gates 
with their small apertures. I found the house closed at Mr. Tait's, 
and, not desiring to disturb him, knocked only once, and was 
about returning to Dr. H.'s, when I heard footsteps; waiting a 
little, Mr. T. came and gave me admittance. The merchants are 
sometimes obliged to keep the keys of the house themselves, or 
their Chinese servants would be coming in and going out during 
the whole night. 

Saturday, Oct. 27th. — I was out early this morning, determined, 
after seeing Capt. Milne, and receiving his permission, to go on board 
of his ship at the Islands, and wait a vessel up from Hong-Kong for 
Fou-chow. Four vessels have been expected for over a week ; but the 
high winds have prevented their arrival, if not taken by pirates, which 
Capt. M. somewhat fears. 

Towards evening I walked alone on the hill, but found nothing new 
in my rambles. A little Chinese girl followed, at some distance, from 
curiosity, I suppose, to look at me. If I turned my head towards her, 
she would whirl and run back like a wild deer ; but when I was walk- 
ing on, I could hear her laughing and talking with her acquaintances 
a few rods behind. As I stopped to observe an old man mending 
shoes on the side of the street, a crowd gradually collected, and among 
them I noticed the same little girl exhibiting her courage by showing 
those around that she dared to run across about two rods in front of 
me, and daring some of the others to do it. Desiring to remove their 
timidity, I took out a few cash and offered to her. She did not 
dare approach near enough to take them, but manifested a wish that 
some other person would get and hand them to her, or that I would 
throw them on the ground to her. A Chinaman present tried to per- 
suade her to go and take them. At last I pretended to be as much in 
fear of her as she was of me, holding them out to her and at the 
same time shrinking behind one of the bystanders. By degrees she 
approached nearer and nearer, and again ran back ; then, seeing my 



THE SIX ISLANDS. 339 

apparent fear, she stepped up quite boldly and took the cash from my 
hand. After this, numbers of others were quite anxious to approach 
me. 

Seeing what appeared to be very nice, white, hard-looking skeins of 
twino, in bunches, on a stand by the way, and having long wished to 
obtain such an article, I bought three skeins, paying two cash for 
each. This seemed remarkably cheap, and I thought of purchasing a 
quantity ; but, in making a trial of its strength, it broke like cotton 
shreds. I then examined it more closely, and found it to be something 
very different from twine; and, making motions that I wished it for 
tying parcels, the man signified that it was chow-chow [something to 
eat]. I then perceived that it was made from rice, and something like 
vermicelli. 

"With Doctor and Mrs. Hyslop, and Miss Stronach, I took a sail 
around the island of Colonsu, a distance of about four miles. Having 
a delightful breeze, and a beautiful moonlight evening, we enjoyed it 
much. Dr. II. amused me with his pleasantry while out, joking Miss 
S. and Mrs. H. upon their fear of upsetting, etc. Returning a little 
after dark, we had dinner, which we enjoyed with capital appetites. 
After this, with our flutes and the aid of the piano, we made a little 
music, and at nine p.m. I went home, determined not to give Mr. T. 
cause this time for charging me with disturbing him at unseasonable 
hours. 

LETTER TO BROTHER J. 

Six Islands, Amoxj, Oct. 28. 

My dear Brother J.: I am now, through the kindness of Capt. 
Milne, on board the " Pathfinder," waiting for an opportunity to go 
up to Fou-chow. With Mr. Bradley and Mr. McKay I Avalked this 
morning to see the house which is to be Mr. B.'s residence, and then 
through some of the streets, visiting a number of shops around 
home. I took leave of Mr. T., who I think ought to be glad to part 
with me, having given up his own room to me, and taken another fur 
himself. I called at Mr. Priestman's, and then came down with Capt. 
Milne in his boat to the " Pathfinder " at the Islands. There are 
two other receiving ships here ; the " Royalist," Capt. Browning, and 
the " Lord Amherst," Capt. Fish. 

The Six Islands lie at the entrance of the harbor here, and serve as 
a breakwater, so that it is comparatively smooth inside. They are little 
else than large masses of rocks. One of them has a Josh-house on it, 
and a short, sandy beach ; and on its rough and rocky peak is a signal- 
station for vessels coming in. We went on shore at night, and 
walked up to this flag station. The beach is of soft sand, and covered 
with shells to the high- water mark ; but they are of an ordinary 



340 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

kind Horses, hogs, cows, etc., are kept on this island for the use of 
the ship. The surf runs so, that to prevent being wet we had to be 
carried from and to the boat. The Chinese boatmen took us on their 
backs, astride of their shoulders, — we sitting on their necks, — and 
thus carried us through the surf to the dry land ; and in like manner 
they place us in the boat again. 

October 29th. — I have again been on shore with Captain Milne, and 
walked on the island. There is an old fortification, which had one 
side blown out by the English during the war. On the island next to 
this are another fortification and three look-out places, appearing to the 
eye here like three narrow-shaped hay-stacks. 

The weather has changed very much since I came here. The mon- 
soon from the north-east blows very strong. The thermometer has 
fallen to 62°, nearly twenty degrees ; so that, instead of sleeping with 
no covering at all, a thick woollen blanket is necessary. 

The " Pathfinder " is a fine vessel for a receiving-ship. Three large 
cabins extend the whole length of the ship, with several small state- 
rooms, which make it seem like a fine house on shore, instead of a 
ship on the water. They keep it in very nice order, and all things in 
readiness for an attack from the pirates. Several guns are kept on 
deck, constantly loaded with grape-shot and cannon-balls, and even 
primed and pointing out of the port-holes. There is also a rack of 
muskets, swords and hatchets ; and the muskets are kept loaded. In 
each of the tops, some forty feet from the deck, are stands of muskets 
and ammunition ; so that, should they be driven to the rigging during 
a conflict, the firing may be directed from thence to the deck. Around 
the outside of the vessel is a rope net-work, to prevent the ship's being 
boarded in a sudden attack, and to keep out robbers at night. 

Looking into the room of Mr. Bradshaw, the first officer, I thought 
him well provided Avith weapons ; for fastened on the wall were several 
pairs of loaded pistols, a loaded double-barrelled gun, several hatchets, 
a sword, &c. 

A year and a half ago, near here, the pirates attacked two receiv- 
ing-ships, which had large cargoes of opium and specie on board, mur- 
dering the crew and officers. Only one man — a lascar — escaped, and 
ho is now on board of the " Pathfinder." 

Sunday, Novendter 4th. — I attempted to read last night in my ham- 
mock, but the swinging motion occasioned sickness, and I was obliged 
to give it up. The " Denia " came in this morning, seven days from 
Hong-Kong, and 1 went on board, but found no letters. 

Monday, November 5th. — I saw Captain Barcham this morning, 
and engaged my passage with him in the " Denia." lie said he did 
not care to take passengers, and did n't make anything by them ; but 
if I wanted to go, he would take me, out of accommodation. The 
distance is fifty or sixty miles, and price of passage fifty dollars. 

At half-past ten a. m. the " Denia " sailed, and, with a good breeze, 
we passed up the coast. I was up occasionally on deck ; but, on 
account of the blustering state of the weather, and the motion of the 
vessel, I had to keep, the most of the time, in a horizontal position 



CIIIN-CHEW HARBOR. 341 

below. At evening I vomited for the first time, from sea-sickness, since 
leaving America. 

Chin-chew Harbor, Tuesday, 6th. — I rose at seven. I slept none 
last night, being annoyed by numberless little ants crawling over me, 
which, with my sickness and the rolling and pitching of the vessel, 
was quite enough to prevent sleep. 

We had a quick passage up, arriving at the Chin-chew station at 
about twelve, — two hours over one day. In entering the harbor the 
vessel ground over a sunken rock, but did no harm. The country 
along the coast presents a very barren and gravelly appearance, is very 
mountainous, and produces no green vegetation ; but is all of a dry 
brown color. 

There are two receiving-ships lying here in Chin-chew harbor, — 
one the " Louisa," Captain King, and the other commanded by Cap- 
tain Miller. Receiving-ships are established at each of the ports all 
the way between Canton and Shanghae, and, I believe, for some dis- 
tance below and above these places. They are owned by the mercan- 
tile firms at Canton, and constitute the business places of those houses 
at the different ports. With the amount of opium and silver which 
they often have at a time, it would not be safe to have an establishment 
on shore ; and the vessels themselves are sometimes surprised and cap- 
tured, of which a number of melancholy instances testify. As soon 
as we came near the anchoring-place, Captains Miller and King came 
on board and received their letters and papers. Towards night we all 
dined on board the " Louisa," with Captain King, after which we 
went ashore for exercise and recreation. There Captain K. furnished 
me with a horse, and, the other three captains mounting theirs, we 
started off at a gallop, rode along the beach for several miles, and 
returned in single file by a narrow path, twisting and winding, up and 
down, through an uncultivated waste. 

Captain K. invited me to stay on board with him, while I remained 
here ; which politeness I was, of course, happy to accept, being entirely 
dependent on hospitality in these parts. As Captain B. does not go 
any further, I must remain at Chin-chew till an opportunity occurs 
for going on to Fou-chow-foo. 

Wednesday, November 1th. — After breakfast, with Captains K. and 
B. I went on shore for the purpose of gunning. After a long ram- 
ble over a marsh, and through the fields, we returned satisfied. Cap- 
tain K. shot one bird, the only one that was killed. We all dined 
with Captain Miller, after which we went ashore for a ride. We rode 
up the beach and into the country, which presented quite a sterile 
appearance. The houses and people looked very poor. When on our 
way out we had to pass a dry creek, which on our return the tide had 
filled with water; but our horses got through, with something of a 
wetting. The captains have a small yard, in which they raise live- 
stock for their own use. We looked in, and saw quite a variety; — 
hogs, sheep, goats, geese, ducks, chickens, pigeons, and monkeys. 
They here find it very difficult to obtain food for their horses, there 
being no hay in the vicinity. At present the feed of all kinds is so 
29* 



342 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

scarce that they are obliged to feed the stock — monkeys and all — 
with boiled rice. 

I went back with Captain M. to his ship, and, as the wind was 
high, and the sea rough, I concluded to remain through the night. 

Thursday, November 8th. — I returned on board of Captain King's 
vessel, to remain. I was prepared to go up in the " Gazelle," a little 
schooner which goes up to Fou-chow occasionally with stores for the 
receiving-ships. But it was supposed I had concluded otherwise, and 
the only sleeping place for my accommodation was occupied with 
goods. 

While riding with Captains M. and K., this afternoon, my horse had 
a fall. I have thought about it many times since, and I cannot 
imagine how it could have happened. The horse was walking leisurely 
with the others, a little distance in advance ; and, having just passed 
a Chinese village, I turned my head around to look back at a troop 
of boys who were hallooing after us, and the next moment I found 
myself sprawling on the hard ground, a number of feet before the 
horse, which also was rising to his feet again. The- Chinese boys 
acted as if they were looking for such an occurrence. There might 
have been a cord stretched across the path ; but I perceived nothing 
of the kind. 

Friday, November 9th. — The " Denia," in getting off this morning 
for Hong-Kong, run foul of, and carried away the jib-boom from, Cap- 
tain King's vessel. One of the men was severely hurt. On examm- 
ing his arm, I found it not broken, but severely bruised. 

Saturday, November 10th. — Captain King has exercised the crew 
of his vessel in firing the muskets and cannon. The men fired the 
muskets at a glass bottle thrown into the water, and the cannon at a 
buoy anchored a few hundred yards off. 

News came by land from Hong-Kong that fifty piratical junks had 
been lately taken by the English vessels of war. 

Monday, November 12th. — This afternoon I went ashore, and took 
a ride on horseback. The weather begins to be cold. Chinese mer- 
chants, in their long blue frocks, are on board every day, busy in 
inakiag their purchases. Yours, &c, B. L. B. 

LETTER TO A SISTER. 

Chin-chew, China, Nov. 14/A. 

My dear Sister E. : I have read nearly all this day. The weather 
is very cold ; it pinches me up, and I have no thick clothing here. A 
Chinese tailor is employed for me on blue coarse cotton cloth, the only 
material that can be obtained here; but these men are so dilatory I 
fear the clothing which was promised yesterday will not be completed 
before 1 shall be obliged to leave. I expected to have been in Hong- 
Kong by July, where all my clothing is. 

The " Zephyr," Captain Brown, arrived this afternoon, and leaves 
again to-morrow. Captain B. and the rest of us went on shore and 
took a horseback ride after dinner. 

Thursday, loth. — Weather very cold. Captains K., B., and my- 



TINGHAE BAY. 343 

self, breakfasted with Captain M. on board of his vessel. The wind 
blows too hard for us to leave for Fou-chow to-day, so that we shall 
remain till to-morrow forenoon. When on shore, after dinner, I saw 
some Chinamen ploughing. One of them held the plough by a single 
handle, and two other Chinamen were the oxen to draw it. 

Friday, l(5lh. — We all took breakfast on board the " Zephyr " this 
morning, and at eleven a. m., although the weather was nnpropitious, 
we stood out of the harbor for Fou-chow. Captains Miller and King 
accompanied us a few miles, returning in their sail-boat. 

The wind blows quite hard this afternoon, and, the sea being pretty 
high, the "Zephyr" dances about considerably, — too much so for 
my comfort. We passed a few red, rusty-looking villages, along the 
barren shore, which we kept in sight till evening. The night promises 
to be dark and stormy. 

Saturday, 17th. — We came to anchor in Tinghae Bay about eleven 
this forenoon, finding that we were making very little headway against 
the wind and tide. "Several junks (of pirates, they may be) are also 
here at anchor. The hills and country look as sterile as can be 
imagined. 

The last night was wild and fearful. I went on deck after dark, 
and it was with great difficulty that I could hold up and keep on my 
feet. I was quite dizzy when below, which would most probably have 
been followed by sickness, and I remained on deck most of the time. 
It was blowing a gale from the north-east, and very cold. The stars 
were all hid behind the dark clouds, the moon was upon the other side 
of the globe, and all around was so dark that neither shore nor sky 
could be discerned. The scenery of the ocean was different from any- 
thing seen before. All the light observable was the phosphorescent 
flash from the seas as they lashed one upon the other. Wherever a 
sea broke, the surface was beautifully illuminated. The water was as 
if actually on fire. Sometimes it was a long, narrow strip, like a river, 
undulating, and running to a great distance ; then a broad, irregular 
shape, separating into a variety of forms and figures. On every side 
patches of the fiery sea were frantically dancing and leaping, pursuing 
each other, with here and there a dash, and the vanishing flash, while 
the sides of the vessel and the wake behind were one continued stream 
of fire, as if ploughing through abed of buried embers. 

I did not once sleep during the night, so many thundering sounds 
were there constantly assailing my ears, — such as tramping on deck, 
pulling of ropes, flapping of sails, screeching of teakle-blocks, and 
the cries of the crew ; the dashing of the waves, the sea breaking over 
the decks, the howling of winds through the rigging ; then the vessel's 
rolling and pitching, the cracking of timbers and squeaking of joints, 
and the tremblings from end to end, as a heavy sea struck her. 

I felt a little anxiety when I reflected on our situation ; but this 
morning all was safe, except that a few hens were drowned, and some 
planks were carried away from both bows of the vessel. 

Tinyhae Bay, Sunday, November \$th. — The weather does not per- 
mit of our moving out to-day, and so we must be content to remain, 
however much we may dislike it. There are comparatively few houses 



3J4 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

to be seen on shore, and these are built on the side of the hill, one 
above another. The country looks very desolate. 

There are some fifteen or twenty junks here at anchor ; and yester- 
day Captain Brown fired off the large cannon, scattering the canister- 
shot over the water, for the double purpose of keeping the guns in 
order, and to let the Chinamen know that he had guns on board. 

Monday, Y^th. — This morning, the weather permitting, we were 
under way at four o'clock. Several of the junks left at the same 
time, evidently that to pirates they might appear to be under our pro- 
tection. In two or three hours we had distanced them so much that 
they were almost out of sight astern. This forenoon we passed two 
very suspicious-looking junks, having many men on their decks. One 
appeared to avoid us by keeping as far away from us as possible. The 
captain, who was well acquainted with such vessels, at once pronounced 
them " West coasters " (pirates). They would not dare to attack a 
foreign vessel, unless they could bring some twelve or twenty junks to 
bear against it. 

We beat up along the coast among innumerable islands, which, 
with the hills on the main land, produced a very picturesque appear- 
ance, though mostly covered with a barren soil. 

At one place there was a pagoda nine stories high, and on several 
of the high hills a kind of square tower, or fort. Some of the islands 
were masses of large rocks tumbled into heaps of pyramidical shape ; 
some of them were single solid rocks, like large mounds ; some were 
covered with a species of red clay, and on others the rocks were in 
such position that one could easily imagine them the ruins of ancient 
castles. Some of the islands near the main land had deep bays and 
inlets. 

At dusk we came to anchor at Pienau, at the entrance of some 
straits, where were three or four scattering junks. One of these 
looked so suspicious that the captain armed a boat, and sent the mate 
on board to ascertain if she was a pirate. He took with him twelve 
of the best men, with loaded muskets, pistols, and cutlasses. He 
returned, and reported that she was a trading junk from Shanghae. 

About ten o'clock this eve, one of these junks, at anchor a consid- 
erable distance off, pulled up her anchor, and made directly for our 
vessel ; but she merely cast some burning Josh-paper into the sea, and 
came to anchor close by us. What her object was we could not tell. 

We passed among rocks during the day, which were just discernible 
at low water, disclosing the dangers in navigating these waters. 

Yours, &c, 

B. L. B. 



A BAD PILOT. ACCIDENT. 345 



• CHAPTER XLI. 

PASSAGE TO FOU-C HOW CONTINUED. ARRIVE AT MINN RIVER STATION. 

SPORTING ON SHORE. BOAT TRIP UP THE RIVER. DISAGREEABLE 

POSITION ON LANDING AT EOl CHOW. WALK IN THE CITY. — FOU- 

CHOW BRIDGE. 

Tuesday, November 20th. — We weighed anchor this morning at 
about five o'clock, to make a passage, by the aid of a Chinese pilot, 
through the straits. Soon after, I perceived a queer motion to the 
vessel, and, upon going on deck, discovered that he had run us 
aground. Whether he did it with the intention of making us a wreck, 
that he might profit by the spoils, we could not know ; but all the 
time the junks lay a little way off, watching us. 

The vessel went up and down, striking on the bottom, while the 
captain manoeuvred to get her off. A small anchor was carried out 
in the boat some distance, and dropped astern. Attaching the rope to 
the windlass, and winding it up with handspikes, it drew the vessel 
astern. She was at last clear, and the captain ran her back to the 
anchorage, there to wait till the weather should be more favorable. 
Captain Brown determined not to attempt to go through the straits 
again, but to go outside. Could we get through the straits, we should 
pass inside of the islands under cover of the land, thus avoiding a high 
sea and the force of the strong north-east winds ; but now, by the 
other way, we must go out to sea, and encounter the bad weather. 

The old pilot was put ashore on the first "island to shift for himself, 
— a proceeding which he did not much relish, but to which he was 
obliged to submit. The first officer wanted to tie him up in the rigging, 
and give him a dozen or two ; but he was suffered to go free, with the 
loss of the greater portion of his fee, for false pilotage. 

Some junks which had left came back, and anchored near us, with 
the expectation, it would seem, that we should go to pieces ; in which 
case they would easily have made us their \ictims, and reaped a rich 
harvest from the wreck. It is not improbable that the old pilot was 
in league with them, and, if he had succeeded in his plans, would 
have come in fur a large share of the spoils. 

Mr. Morris, the mate, went on shore to buy provisions and water. 
He tried to obtain a bullock, but they asked sixteen dollars, — four 
times the sum paid for one at Chin-chew. He said that the old pilot 



346 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

had pawned his blanket for the purpose of obtaining something to eat. 
The old man was treated rather severely ; but the captain was much 
incensed at his pretending to pilot the vessel up, and hazarding a 
valuable cargo, when he was incompetent. We got under way in the 
afternoon, leaving the infested spot, and anchored ten miles below, 
under " Observatory Island," ready for an early start on the morrow ; 
but the awful, jarring, earthquake-like sensations of a vessel striking, 
[ shall not forget. 

Wednesday, 21st. — We were off early this morning, with heavy 
sea, and the wind blowing hard. I was nearly sea-sick all day, but 
kept about. Poor old " Blazes," one of the captain's two dogs, has 
been washed overboard. No one saw him when he went ; but the sea 
was sweeping over the deck all the forenoon, and he is gone. 

We have beat up against a head wind, passing a few miles beyond 
" Turnabout Island." Although sailing fast, we gain very little, hav- 
ing both wind and tide to buffet. The coast, as usual, continues hilly, 
barren, and rocky. 

Minn River, Thursday, November 22d. — Here I am at the opium- 
station, at the entrance of the Minn river, upon which the city of 
Fou-chow is situated. We arrived this forenoon, seven days from Amoy, 
but the delay by stopping at Chin-chew made in all eighteen days. 

We have fine weather, and it was very comfortable coming into the 
river after so much rough weather. The entrance is very pretty, with 
broad, smooth water, and high hills, with a little appearance of verdure 
upon them, which is the first I have seen between Amoy and this. 

We dined on board of Captain Heley's vessel, where I met Captain 
Crawford, and also Mr. Druit, of the " Gazelle." Mr. D. arrived 
yesterday, he having been two weeks on the passage. After din- 
ner, we all went on shore for a walk. To guard against surprise, one 
man followed behind, with loaded musket, pistols, hatchets, &c. We 
wound around on the sides of the hills, which are terraced off for 
cultivation almost to their very tops, and planted with sweet-potatoes. 
These hills, with their terraces, and the few small, scattering pines, 
look very pretty from the vessel ; and from the hills the view of the 
river below is beautiful. 

While on shore, we met a group of Chinamen, one of whom ad- 
dressed Captain C. in order to intercede for his friend. This man's 
friend, with several others, had attacked a Chinaman on the river, 
some few w r eeks ago, and robbed him of eight dollars that belonged to 
Captain C, who had not been able to arrest him till a few days since, 



SPORTING. A FRIGHTENED CHINAMAN. 347 

when he took him on board of his own vessel, and put him in irons. 
This friend of the robber had now come to pay the money, and solicit 
his liberation. Captain 0. received the money, but refused at present 
to let the man go, determining to make an example of him ; for the 
river is badly infested with pirates. 

We spent the evening with Captain Heley on board his vessel. 

Friday, 2?>d. — Taking a cup of chocolate, we formed a little party 
of Captains Brown and Heley, Mr. Druit and myself, and set off in 
two boats up the river to shoot ducks and geese, which are at times 
very plenty. As the sun arose, the scenery on the river was very pic- 
turesque. We saw a few flocks of ducks and curlews ; but all the 
game we killed Captain H. shot, which was one curlew, they being 
shy at our approach. 

Returning at nine in the^forenoon, we went ashore again at twelve 
m. to shoot pheasants ; but we travelled a long way over the hills, 
among the tombs, and graves, and small pines, without seeing any 
pheasants, or game of any kind. 

As we stood upon a hill, with our guns on our shoulders, looking at 
the river scenery, a Chinaman appeared, hallooing to us, and seeming 
in much trepidation about something. As he approached, he con- 
tinued to call out, placing his hands on his breast, bowing and chin- 
chinning. He seemed to be fearful that we might shoot him. Finding 
that we should not harm him, he came up, and led off a favorite bul- 
lock, which he was afraid we were going to kill. 

The view from these heights was very pretty. The hill was all ter- 
raced to the plain below, where the ground was regularly laid out 
into rice-fields. In our walks we saw a number of large snake-skins 
which had been lately shed, but none of the animals which had lived 
in them. Passing through a little grove of bamboo after pheasants, I 
shot obscurely at one which flew down from a tree. Hastening up, I 
found, instead of a pheasant, that I had mortally wounded a white 
hen. Seeing afterwards that we were near a village, I thought it 
best to find the owner and recompense him, whoever he might be, as 
the neglect of this caution on my part might be the means of creating 
fresh prejudices towards foreigners, when it should be discovered. 
Accordingly men, women and children, were called out, and it was ex- 
plained to them what I had done. One wrinkled-faced old woman sput- 
tered about a good deal, and claimed the hen. I paid her twenty-five 
cents, which she received, and then held up two of her bony fingers, sig- 
nifying that she wanted twice that sum. I had already paid her twice 



3-13 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

the worth of the hen ; and when those around saw that I was 
acquainted with the current price, they waved their hands to her, 
intimating that it was sufficient, and the old woman took the hen 
under her arm, making signs of much satisfaction. The whole party 
of Chinese then moved off, laughing, talking, and bestowing upon us 
their signs of approbation, like so many children. 

Saturday, Nov. 2-ilh. — I arose at four to go on board of the 
''Zephyr," and see Captain Brown off for Hong-Kong; but, as he 
was already dropping down, I sent him the forty dollars for my pas- 
sage up from Chin-chew, and went to my rest again. 

I saw the Chinaman prisoner and robber, who was sitting on deck 
in irons. He was an ugly-looking fellow, and some of his friends 
were on board endeavoring to obtain his release ; but the captain is 
not yet ready to let him go. 

At two p. m. I went on board a Chinese smuggling boat, to go up 
the river thirty miles, to Fou-chow. The view along the river was 
very fine. Chinese boats were sailing to and fro. On both sides 
were mountains of every form and shape, presenting terraces, tem- 
ples, forts, pagodas, and tombs. There were men at work in the 
fields, and quarrying stone from the steep mountain-bank ; clusters 
of rusty red houses, surrounded by and interspersed among green 
foliage, and villages scattered about the mountain base. 

It being quite cold in the evening, I found Captain C.'s cloak, 
which he, more considerate than myself, had loaned me, to be of 
great service. Towards dark, the Chinamen on board, who numbered 
over twenty, fixed their rough guns and matchlocks into the sides of 
the boat, and lighted their matches. I could see no reason for this 
movement, and in my endeavors to ascertain we could not under- 
stand a word with each other ; but I presumed it was not the sight of 
pirates, but the anticipation of their sudden appearance. \Ve arrived 
at the city about eight in the evening, with no interference. 

LETTER TO SISTER M. 

Fou-chow, Nov. 2[>th. 

My dear Sister : When I left Captain Crawford yesterday, he 
gave the necessary directions, to one of the Chinamen on board, how 
to proceed with me when we should arrive at Fou-chow ; which was, 
to conduct me to one of the missionaries, who were the only foreign- 
ers living there, except an English consul, who lived at a considerable 
distance within the city. 

In the evening, as we came in among the hundreds of junks and 
thousands of boats, and heard the jargon of the multitude of Chinese 



ARRIVAL AT 1'OU-CHOW. 349 

voices, I knew that the masses of houses which I could observe, piled 
in, one upon the other, and standing out in all directions, must be 
Fou-chow. I wished to ask the question, but no one could under- 
stand me. If I simply said. " Fou-chow? " to them, and pointed to 
the city, they would only laugh or look stupid ; or, if they were a 
little brighter than usual, they would say a long string of something 
which I could not understand. I thought it a crazy-iooking place, 
but still I wished to know if it was Fou-chow. If it was, where were 
we to land ? or had we got to go up three or four miles further ? in 
what direction did the missionary live ? and who was to show me the 
way? I waited patiently to watch the progress of things; and, 
by and by, one of the Chinamen commenced talking to me. I could 
not understand a word, but answered " yes " to everything ; and, 
as the boat made preparations for stopping, he made signs, pointing 
to my baggage. I could not see who the Chinaman was in the dark, 
and was suspicious of his intentions ; but my baggage was placed on 
board of a sampan which came alongside, and a woman held out her 
hand to assist me into it. I hesitated at first, till I should know 
where I was going, or till I might ascertain if they knew where I 
wished to go. But, not being able to make myself understood, and 
knowing that I must make a push in some direction, I took the hand 
of the woman, and stepped over the side into the boat. I made signs 
to those around, and they to me ; but neither, I suppose, understood 
the other. I saw my trunks all safe, and had my revolver in my 
pocket, to frighten them, should they attempt to take any advantage 
of me. My trunks being landed, I knew not what course to take. I 
could not leave my baggage alone to wander about in this strange 
place in search of the missionaries, and stood reflecting for a few 
minutes, when I observed one of the Chinamen who came in the 
boat very officious about my baggage, and taking it up to carry it 
off. I stopped him, not knowing where he intended to take it, and 
not wishing to go, bag and baggage, to a stranger's house, before 
knowing whether I could there be accommodated. I, therefore, gave 
him my card, motioning him to take that to the house first. 

He took it and went, I having little faith that he would understand 
the meaning of it. Returning shortly with another man, and taking 
my baggage, I allowed them to go on, and followed, knowing that 
they could not make my position much worse. 

We passed through one dark street and turned into an alley, 
which led into a little open square, among some Chinese houses ; 
the men, striking a light, carried it inside of a house, where the 
owner was not at home. I asked the servants whose house this was. 
They made some incomprehensible signs, and I found that I could 
get no information. 

I considered it very strange that the servants to a foreigner should 
understand no words of English, and began to think that Chinese 
lived here. I, however, soon discovered, by the appearance of the 
furniture, that the dwelling belonged to some foreigner, and concluded 
that the owner must be one of the missionaries, and was out, on a 
visit, or for a walk. 
30 



350 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

The servant placed my bed in an adjoining room, and was proceed- 
ing to make it up on an empty bedstead, when I stopped him, not 
wishing to take possession in that way. I expected every minute to 
see the owner come in, and did not wish that he should think he was 
turned entirely out of the house. 

I seated myself, waiting for the owner to return. Captain C. had 
assured me that we should be at Fou-chow long before dark, so that 
i did not anticipate such a predicament. 

I waited till I thought it eleven or twelve o'clock at night. The 
sorvant had brought me four oranges to eat, and water to drink, for 
which I paid him. I was hungry, and ate one of the oranges, which 
was very sour, and was quite sufficient. The dog here was in rap- 
tures to see me, jumping about, turning somersets, and making the 
room resound with the knocks of his short tail on the floor. One 
light had gone out, the other was nearly gone, and I was chilled with 
cold ; and yet no one came. I found that I must make a shift soon, 
or be left alone in the darkness. I accordingly wrote on a card, 

" To the owner of this house. — Dear Sir: I am a stranger here, 
and have taken possession of a room which the servant has shown me 
into, for the night. Please excuse. Yours, respectfully, 

" Fou-chow, November 25th. B. L. Ball." 

I left this note upon the table for the gentleman to see when he 
should come home, and sat a little longer reading a paper which I 
had in my pocket. I felt particularly lonely, cold and shivering, for 
it was decidedly a cold night, and no fire. The dog sat looking anx- 
iously into my face, as if he had not eaten the whole day ; and, at 
every ruffle of my paper, he made the room ring with the violent 
thumpings of his short tail. I stepped out to get the poor animal 
something to eat, if I could get nothing for myself. There were few 
lights left in the streets, and, after groping in intricate alley-ways, I 
thought it prudent to return without anything. My light was in 
its last glimmerings, and no person had come to claim an ownership. 
I began seriously to think of retiring to bed, but did not wish to 
before ascertaining whether my host was a foreigner or a Chinaman. 
The furniture was very meagre for an occupied house, and half of it 
was Chinese. There were no books or papers to indicate the residence 
of a missionary ; but then the dog evidently, as he was not afraid of 
me, had some knowledge of foreigners ; I could come to no decision. 
The servants had gone to their rest in a room outside, and everything 
around was still, like death, except the frequent lonesome drummings 
of the dog's short tail. 

I went into the room, fastened the door, and made up a bed as 
wl'11 as I could ; for there were no sheets nor blankets, and only a 
bed, mattress, and pillows. However, with the aid of Captain C.'s 
cloak, and my large mosquito-net, I fixed a tolerable covering. 

Putting my revolver under my pillow, I arranged myself upon my 
bed just as the candle was expiring, and tried to compose myself to 
Bleep ; but, expecting every moment to hear the entering of the owner 



FOU-CHOW. MISSIONARIES AND THEIR FARE. 351 

of the house, heing chilled with cold, and hearing the thumping of 
the dog's short tail every time I moved or coughed, sleep was 
removed far from me. I got up and fixed some pieces of cloth on the 
floor for the dog to lie on, after which the animal could not disturb 
me by the knocking of his tail, and I slept some, though con- 
fusedly. 

Sunday, Nov. 25lh. — The morning came, and a knock at the door, 
with voices outside, awoke me. Presuming that the owner had come, 
I went to the door, and there saw a Chinaman with a note for me, 
which proved to be from one of the missionaries, asking me to follow 
the man, and to breakfast with him at his house. 

Soon after, a gentleman appeared, introducing himself as Mr. 
McClay, an American. He had received my card, and had Avritten the 
note. I explained to him my dilemma, when he told me that the 
house I had occupied was Capt. Crawford's, which he kept, in order to 
have rooms to come to when he visited the city, which he was in the 
habit of doing occasionally. So I got out of my difficulty more 
easily, and much more satisfactorily, than I expected. I went with Mr. 
McClay to his house, which stands on a hill in the suburbs, overlook- 
ing the city on one side, and the surrounding country on the other. 
I breakfasted with him at nine, and remained till three p. m., when I 
accompanied him to the missionary meeting at the house of Rev. Mr. 
Baldwin. 

After dining, we took a short walk around to a pretty hill, which is 
covered with tombs, graves, and a few pine clumps. At the distance 
of five or six miles on one side of this, and ten on the other, the view- 
is Availed in by high mountains. Below us, commencing at the foot 
of the hill, and extending to the north, lies the city, which the Fou-chow 
river divides into two unequal parts. The population is estimated at 
about a million, or about that of Canton. 

Truly yours, B. L. B. 

Wednesday, Nov. 2Sth. — Yesterday we made several calls at the 
houses of the missionaries, and at two p. m. dined at Rev. Mr. Baldwin's. 
His veranda has a view overlooking the river and an extensive 
boat population. The missionary fare reminds me much of that in 
America, — plain and simple, but good, and with very little of the 
Chinese mixtures in it. 

^ This morning, at nine a. m., I set out, with Rev. Mr. McClay and 
Rev. Mr. Richards, to walk around the city, and to call on Mr. Jack- 
son, the English consul. We crossed two bridges built entirely of 
hewn stone, one of which is called the " Great Fou-chow Bridge," or, 
in Chinese, " the bridge of ten thousand ages." 

Passing through a crowded street in the suburbs, where we were 
continually jostled by the multitude, we came, at the distance of three 
miles, to the city gate, which is protected by four towers. Entering 



352 CHINA AND. MANILLA. 

the gateway, which I should say was fifty feet thick, and built of solid 
stone, we came into a square space which seemed formed as a place 
of defence to the gate. Passing through this, we came to another gate 
of similar dimensions, which admitted us into the city. 

Ascending the walls, which were about fifteen feet thick, we passed 
through one of the towers where several Chinamen were twisting a kind 
of twine. These towers contain a large space inside, in which guns 
are kept for the defence of the city ; but in the mean time the rooms 
are occupied as lofts for twisting thread or twine. Stopping a few 
moments to allow them to examine the cloth of our coats, we passed 
along around on the wall. It was very warm, and we quenched our 
thirst with as many oranges as we could eat, paying for them one fifth 
of a cent a piece. My shoes were so broken that I could hardly keep 
them on my feet, which added much to my discomfort. But I can get 
no others short of Hong-Kong, and must wear them. Descending the 
wall and passing a short distance through streets, we ascended a hill, 
and, entering by some open buildings which were formerly attached to 
a temple, came to the consulate. 

Mr. Jackson's family consists of himself, wife, and two daughters. 
They received us very cordially, and made themselves very agreeable. 
They had visited Boston, and spoke of that city with much interest, 
and of the kindness they had received from Mr. Winchester and 
family, and others there. We had a pleasant conversation of an hour. 

The buildings, all being upon a hill, command a fine prospect over 
the city and surrounding country. The hill formerly was the seat of 
a large pagan temple, of which some portion of the buildings still 
remain. We remained there to tiffin, Mr. J. inviting me to come and 
spend a few days with them, when we resumed our walk, concluding 
not to make the whole circuit of the city, the weather was so hot. 

We passed along near the wall, looking into the shops. They offered 
us tea at one shop, and the pipe to smoke. The inmates were very curi- 
ous in their inquiries about me, — my name ; how old I was ; when 
I came ; where I came from ; what I was going to do ; how many 
brothers I had ; how old my father was, etc.; but, what seems queer, 
fciiey never ask about my sisters, and seldom about my mother. This 
inquisitiveness is very irksome, until a person knows that it is Chinese 
custom, and not impertinence. 

The shops were more numerous and more extensive than I have gen- 
erally found before. On stopping for a few minutes at one, a Crowd 
would collect around us, and nearly block up the street. As we walked 



FOU-CHOW BRIDGE. S53 

along the streets they would stop and look after us, as we should do if 
an elephant was being led through our streets. Children would run 
along ahead, telling their friends, and gaze at us, standing along our 
way. They are not so fearful of foreigners here as in some other cities. 
The beggars are very importunate, following us in such numbers and 
so closely that we had to turn and drive them off. One of the party 
told them that if they came to his house he would give them something 
to eat. They did not regard this, but, trotting along, would follow 
for miles, touching our elbows, running before us, and getting con- 
stantly in our way. Their plan was to annoy us in these various ways 
till we gave, them cash to get rid of them, which they then take to 
the temples and gambling-houses, and gamble away. The mission- 
aries, on account of the trouble it caused, do not now, as formerly, give 
them anything in the streets. Every day, more or less, the beggars 
come and receive something at their houses. My shoes chafing my 
feet, compelled me to take a chair home. The people seem pretty well- 
disposed, few using any insult towards us, though many were very 
coarse in their manners. 

The bridges over the river are about twelve feet wide ; and nearly 
one half of one side is taken up with stands »for selling confectionery, 
toys, clothing, etc., so that, with the multitude crossing back and 
forth, coolies with their burthen, merchandise, chairs, boards, planks, 
poles, etc., it makes a crowded mass to get through. 

I was home at three p. m., and took tea at seven with Rev. Mr. 
Peet, spending the evening with him, and there meeting Capt. Craw- 
ford, who came up last night. Capt. C. was amused at my adventures 
in his house. I told him that, had I known it was his house, I should 
have had a much more comfortable night. 

Thursday, Nov. 29th. — Rev. Mr. "White called this morning, and 
invited me to take a sail with him up the river. We went in his cov- 
ered boat, with three Chinamen at the oars, passing leisurely along, and 
a little beyond the upper bridge. Mr. W. had his gun with him, and 
occasionally we had a shot at the wild fowl with which the river 
abounds. There were to be seen many ducks, herons, white paddy- 
birds, large birds of the crane species, cormorants and buzzards, though 
we could not get very near them. 

We had a fine opportunity to view the far-famed " Fou-cbow 

Bridge," which is built entirely of stone, and has stood the freshets 

of some hundreds of years. It has twenty-nine arches or spans, though 

I believe some enthusiastic writer has given it one hundred. Some of 

30* 



354: CHINA AND MANILLA. 

the stone slabs or sleepers must be of great weight, measuring from 
forty-five to sixty feet in length, three feet in width, and two and a 
half thick. Spanning from pier to pier, it seems almost remarkable 
that they should resist their own weight. One has been broken and 
fallen into the water, and another has been lately replaced, it being 
raised into its proper position by making use of the rise and fall of 
the tide. The stone slab was floated up the river crosswise upon 
a junk to near the bridge. Temporary piers were built under each end 
of the stone, and when the tide fell it rested on them. The junk 
being lowered a number of feet by the same cause, the middle of the 
stone underneath was blocked up from the deck. When the tide rose, 
the vessel, blocking and slab, were lifted, and at the height of the 
tide the blocking was added to at each end on the piers holding it ; 
and then again at the middle when the tide was down. In this way, 
after it was high enough, the boat was floated into the opening, and 
fastened with the slab poised above its intended bed, when, as the tide 
receded, the slab lowered itself into its place. The bridge, with 
another layer crosswise, was near six feet thick of stone. There are 
also low stone railings on the sides. The tide in the river is very 
strong. Even at this distance, — about thirty miles from the sea, — 
the boatmen had to make two attempts before we could get through 
the bridgb, the water running like a sluice-way underneath, and 
carrying us down the stream. 

We went several miles up the river, occasionally landing, and took 
short walks along the shore. Pretty groves of olive-trees, the guava 
and pumalo, attracted our attention. The river is very wide, and 
constantly widening from the banks washing in. It seems now 
almost like a long, irregular lake. Quantities of timber and rafts are 
fastened all along the shore. Mr. W. shot a cormorant and a paddy- 
bird, and I shot a buzzard. Arrived home at two p. m. 



F0U-CH0W. HORSEBACK-RIDING ON THE GREAT WALL. 355 



CHAPTER XLII. 

LETTER TO A SISTER. — CHINESE CULPRIT. RIDE AND WALK ON THE 

CITY WALLS. CHINESE TROOPS. TARGET-SHOOTING. HOT SPRINGS. 

THEATRE. AUDIENCE. RETREAT. CHINESE LADIES. 

LETTER TO SISTER L. 

Fou-chow, China, Nov. 29th. 

My dear Sister : To-day Mr. McClay and I dined with Rev. Mr. 
Peet and his family, meeting there the other missionaries. There 
were Mr. and Mrs. Baldwin ; Mr. White, from New York, who entirely 
adopts the Chinese costume, and passes very well for a real Chinese ; 
Mr. and Mrs. Peet, from Vermont ; Mr. and Mrs. Cummings, from 
New Hampshire. Mr. McClay is from Concord, Pa. The mission- 
aries here are all cheerful, adopting mirth and pleasantry at their 
meals, and in hours of recreation ; and in conversation are quite en- 
tertaining. They have family worship morning and evening. 

Friday, Nov. 30th. — Mr. J., the English consul, sent his sedan- 
chair down for me, and I went up to his house to make a short visit. 
At the dinner-table I had a long and very agreeable conversation with 
Mr. and Mrs. J., and, in the evening, passed up into the sitting-room, 
which is in a separate building, and reached by a flight of steps out- 
side. These buildings were formerly a Chinese temple ; but they have 
been converted into a residence, and this is now the most commanding 
seat in the city. 

As I came up to-day I saw a Chinese prisoner sitting on the side of 
the street, chained, and with a large square board about his neck. He 
was placed there to serve as an example to others, for some offence he 
had committed. He looked so demure, and so ridiculous, that I could 
not help laughing, though he seemed to think it no laughing matter. 
The board, called the canque, was very thick and heavy, and made in 
two halves, to shut closely about his neck, and confined by a padlock. 

Saturday, Dec. 1st. — I walked about the grounds, and upon the 
hill adjoining the place, where I had a fine view of all parts of the 
city. Towards night, with Mr. J., I took a horseback ride upon the 
city wall. He had two fine horses, and we rode to the north a dis- 
tance of about three miles, passing through five or six towers. 

It seems singular to speak of riding horseback upon the wall ; but 
it is a very good place for such exercise, and, I believe, the only place 
where Mr. J. can ride. The top of the wall is fashioned like a wide 
trench, both of the sides being walled up with parapets several feet 
high. The towers are built in the walls, and rise above them, with a 
passage through, and gates. Some of them have cannon planted 
within — - large, rusty, clumsy-looking things. One of the towers has 
a gate, which is let dcwn or drawn up, commanding the conmiunica- 



856 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

tion of a canal beneath, which is arched over with stone, supporting 
the tower above, and is a great thoroughfare, where boats pass in or 
out of the city under the wall. 

It was dark on returning, and I rode in fear of breaking my neck, 
as we had to pass up and down steep places, and several long flights of 
stone steps ; but the ponies were sure-footed, and acquainted with the 
ground. Some of the gates were closed, and the boy, who followed on 
foot, attended to their being opened, which was readily done by the 
Chinese keepers. Some of the towers had no lights in them, and in one 
the guns lay scattered about, and I feared my horse would fall over 
them, or come in contact with the posts ; for I could see nothing but 
darkness. 

Sunday, Dec. 2d. — I took an early walk at sunrise, with the two 
young Misses J., about in the garden. How much I enjoyed this hour 
in their intelligent company, the ramble to the rocky pinnacle of the 
hill, the culling of flowers, the botanizing of them, and the accents of 
their happy voices in conversing, laughing, and prattling ! We wont 
in to breakfast at ten a. m. The consul reads prayers every Sunday in 
the drawing-room, which I attended ; and then read the Scriptures an 
hour — my usual custom on the Sabbath. At the close of the day I 
took a horseback ride on the walls. 

During the evening, hearing a great noise without, Mr. J. and my- 
self ascended to the terrace on the top of the house to ascertain its 
cause. We found it to proceed from one of the towers on the wall, 
in which there was a quarrel among a party of Chinese men and 
women. Their only weapons were words, though most discordant 
ones. We remained upon the terrace, promenading, talking on Chinese 
affairs, enjoying a view of the dimly-lighted city, and listening to the 
conglomeration of ejaculated Chinese voices, till near twelve o'clock. 

Monday, Dec. 2>d. — To-day I concluded that I would make the cir- 
cuit of the city, and visit the hot sulphur springs at its other side. 
Taking a chair and guide, I set out about eleven o'clock, and was 
carried upon the wall three miles, — as far as the hill over which the 
wall runs, and upon which it forms an angle occasionally, — getting 
out several times and stepping up into the embrasures, to take a look at 
the villages without. The country, being diversified with hills and val- 
leys, irregular-shaped fields, canals, bridges, and large trees, with 
rows of gateways, looked pretty, and very picturesque. I passed the 
execution ground ; a square piece of turfed ground putside of the wall, 
with one building on it, but nothing whatever to give it a distinguish- 
ing character. 

In descending a long flight of steps, having sent the chair back, I 
gave my old Chinaman guide a run. They being steep and smooth, he, 
thinking I could not stand as well in my shoes as he in his great 
clumsy ones, took my hand to assist me. Pretending that I could not 
hold back, I gradually started into a run down, and drew the old fel- 
low after me, much, as he thought, at the risk of his neck ; lie pull- 
ing back, with long exclamations, all the way down the flight. 1 had 
a good laugh ; and he, perceiving the trick, had to laugh also, though 
considerably frightened. 



FOU-CHOW. TARGET-SHOOTING. HOT SPRINGS. 357 

At one place the soldiers were practising with their bows and 
arrows, — for the Tartar troops seldom, if ever, use guns, the Chinese 
troops only using the matchlocks — guns much like ours ; but, instead 
of a flint, a lighted tow match is snapped on the priming. I took a 
seat upon the stone railing of the wall, to observe them. The place 
was an open, oblong space, below the walls and within the city. They 
had a target, of the size and shape of a man, with a circular spot 
painted on the breast, placed in the ground at the distance of perhaps 
forty or fifty paces. A mandarin sat in a chair on one side, in all the 
pomposity with which he could inflate himself, giving his important 
supervision to the affair. He reminded me of a strutting turkey-gob- 
bler, with its head drawn into its feathers. The soldiers were dressed 
in short frocks, with thick skull-caps, clumsy, heavy shoes, and black 
legging. They advanced in squads and fired, each six arrows, which 
they carried in a bundle on their backs. When any one took his turn, 
having fixed the arrow across the bow, he stepped forward with a 
spring of his legs, made a flourish with his bow in both hands, as if 
to clear the air of cobwebs, turned mechanically half around, with 
his left side in front, raised the bow with another flourish, until the 
arrow was at the height of his eye, and pulled the string, when the 
arrow flew into the neighborhood of the target. He then drew the other 
arrows from his quiver, and fired the six, one after the other ; then 
another bowman, flourishing forward, took his place. The arrows 
generally went over the head of the target beyond, or fell on the 
ground a few feet short of it, failing in the height of the aim or the 
force applied to the bow. When an arrow did happen to hit the mark 
and stuck in the target, an air of vain satisfaction was visible in all his 
actions ; and he would turn his face towards the place I sat, with an 
" Ar-r-r-r-h," and an expression of countenance which seemed to say, 
" Ah, that is the way we will serve the foreign devils ! " I remained 
about half an hour, till they were through, seeing only four or five 
arrows take effect, and then resumed my way upon the wall. 

Coming near the springs, we descended the wall, passing out the 
north gate, with a host of boys, and some men, following in our rear. 
They were rather noisy, and somewhat boisterous, and a few sticks and 
small stones were thrown ; but they effected nothing of a serious 
nature, and a little way outside of the walls they fell off, one by one. 
At last we came to the springs, which are seven or eight in number, 
each one being four or five feet in diameter, and curbed by a wall. The 
water was so hot that I could not bear my hand in it. Some of the 
springs were enclosed under a kind of shed, and numbers of the China- 
men were bathing there, several of whom had eruptions on the skin, 
and some were affected with leprosy. In one of these pools, Which 
was perhaps four feet wide, seven or eight men, covered with sores, 
were crowded in, leaving hardly room for another to stand in it. This 
spring was very strongly impregnated with sulphur. I could find no 
suitable place in which to take a bath myself. The baths seemed to be 
fully occupied, and as fast as one left another took his place, without 
any visible change of the water. 

Again ascending the wall, we continued on stopping occasionally to 



358 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

rest and to take a look of the country. A number of miles distant 
may be seen high mountains, which probably are the chemical labora- 
tories of these hot springs. 

On our way home, on the side of the city opposite to that which 
we had come, I observed, from the wall, a large temple on a hill, a 
short distance within the city, and took a stroll up to visit it. There 
were a great number of idols and priests about, and some people were 
worshipping. But, not liking the appearance and actions of the 
people of this part of the city, we returned to the wall again. 

At another place I discovered, at a short distance from us, a crowd 
of people at what appeared a temple of some kind. I descended from 
the wall slowly, and soon discovered that the building was open in 
front, that it was a sing-song, or theatre, and that it was full of peo- 
ple : the square in front was also crowded full. My Chinaman fol- 
lowed me quietly until he perceived that I was advancing towards the 
theatre, when he endeavored to stop me. I explained to him, as well 
as I could, that I did not intend to go in among them, but merely to 
get where I could observe them a little. Only one way led to it ; and 
I kept along beside a high plastered wall, to avoid, as much as possi- 
ble, being seen by the people at the theatre. I was soon able to see 
the actors upon the stage, dressed in all their bright and gaudy colors 
and golden dresses ; and, on the left side, the Chinese ladies in their 
beautiful green and blue embroidered silks. But I could not see as 
distinctly as I wished, and thought I would venture a little nearer, 
though my guide strongly protested. I knew that I could remain 
where I was but a few moments without being discovered ; and that, if 
I went nearer, there would be no wall to screen me, and we should be 
discovered at once. It would, however, be after I had secured a nearer 
view ; and, if it was necessary, I could retreat then as well as now. 
My guide drew his hand across his throat, pointing to them and then 
to me, to make me understand how they would serve me ; and went 
through various evolutions to induce me to return. But I wished for 
a nearer view, and walked along up the hill towards them. In a few 
minutes one of the actors on the stage discovered me, and, for a 
moment, stopped and looked at me ; then a man, one of the audience 
inside, saw me and looked ; and then two or three of the actors and 
several of the audience outside, seeing them staring at something, 
turned and looked also. I continued to advance, and saw all eyes, 
both inside of the theatre and out, turned full upon me. The actors 
had evidently all forgotten their parts, and had come to a stand. The 
ladies looked the picture of consternation, and remained motionless 
as statuary, altogether presenting quite a natural tableau. 

This lasted only a few moments, when, the first feeling of surprise 
being over, the mass seemed to be in commotion ; and yet no one 
moved. Two or three Chinamen, the tallest of the crowd outside, 
were vehemently motioning me away with their hands. Those seated 
inside had risen, and one of them, who, I presume, was a mandarin, 
also motioned at me with his hand, as if with authority, and with 
great importance. I kept an eye on them, and thought it would look 
better to pass by and continue on my way than to turn back. I moved 



FOU-CHOW. ESCAPE FROM A CROWD. 359 



a little to one side a»d went on a few steps, to see if there was an 
opening through beyond them. A passage extended a little distance 
upon the opposite side of the hill, and then seemed to be closed. Not 
wishing to be caught in a box of that kind, I retraced my steps, so 
that, if disposed, they should not cut me off; for, with an open way, I 
would risk my feet in a chase against their heavy shoes. I expected, 
however, that after they had seen me a few minutes their surprise 
would be over, and they would become quiet; but the longer i re- 
mained the more excited they became. 

The crowd outside soon began to move towards me with a threaten- 
ing aspect, and some of them came near, and stood staring at me. I 
thought it best to beat a retreat, but not a flying one, and came off 
the ground in good order, — - turning my back and walking slowly 
away, escorted by a small company of Chinese who followed behind. 
When they increased their speed to come up with me, I increased mine 
also ; so that I kept them at about the same distance from me, though 
some of the boys ran along by my side, crying out, and now and then 
advancing forward to peep into my face. The majority of those who 
started in the escort were left scattered along the way. Some went a 
little distance and then turned back, and others stood and looked until 
I was out of sight ; and when I was upon the wall again, I could see 
them on the hill in front of the theatre gazing over at me. Entering 
one of the towers which continue at intervals all the way along the 
wtill, I saw, near its centre, a party of well-dressed, small-looted 
ladies. Knowing their horror of foreigners, my first thought was how 
to avoid them. I could not go back and descend into the street below, 
for there I should encounter the gang from the theatre. There was 
no time for consideration ; and I concluded that I would prefer to take 
my chance with the ladies than with the men, although I might get 
into some difficulty by disturbing them. I walked briskly forward in 
a line directly behind them, so that they should not see me, prepared 
for a great scream, and turned one side to go past. Their heads were 
uncovered, and, as I came up, I saw distinctly several very pretty, 
small-featured, doll-like faces. Their hands rested on each other's 
shoulders for support, and they tottled along on their small feet, like 
so many infants learning to walk. Their dresses were of several differ- 
ent kinds of silk, and I think each one was dressed in three different 
colors — bright green, blue, and purple. The outside frock was of 
one color, the skirt of another, and the trousers of another, each 
overlapping the other, contrasting richly. All the dresses were prettily- 
figured with embroidery, and some very beautifully so. I kept along 
at an angle a little outside, watching the Chinamen behind, and ob- 
serving what I could ; and I had a good look at them, for 1 knew it 
could make the matter no worse, so long as they did not see me. Soon 
one turned her head towards me, probably from hearing footsteps dif- 
ferent from the Chinese. I was careful to turn my head, at the same 
moment, towards the opposite side, as if I did not see them ; but a 
scream of " Fanqui loo " (foreign devils), or something similar, fol- 
1 >wed, which* was caught up by the others as soon as their heads could 
turn to dse m;j. I expected them to fall to the ground in their fright, 



360 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

but they caught hold of each other confusedly ,^ind, huddling together 
and screaming, they uobbled, as fast as their small feet and stiffened 
ankles wo ahi admit, into a corner of the tower, and buried their faces 
in each other s dresses. They did not make half so much ado as I 
had expected ; but they made enough. Their screams attracted the 
attention of the Chinese ; though I thought, by the glimpse I had of 
the men, that they seemed to be rather amused about it than other- 
wise. I passed on out of the door of the tower, and left them still 
huddled up in the corner, with their faces covered, and did not 
remain to see the result. Poor creatures ! I am sorry, but I presume 
I was the cause of broken rest to them that night. I hurried on ; 
the Chinamen behind followed some distance past the tower, and the 
boys threw small stones and sticks at me ; but I kept out of their 
way, increasing my pace whenever I saw the distance between us 
being diminished. They found, after a while, that they could not 
overtake me in their clumsy shoes ; and, giving up the chase, they 
turned and went back. I arrived home at four in the afternoon, 
pretty tired, and, dining, spent the evening in a long and interesting 
conversation with Mr. and Mrs. Jackson. 

Tuesday, Dec. 4th. — Arose at seven, and took a stroll over the 
garden and upon the hill with the dogs, giving them a chase among 
the rocks. Taking a chair, I returned to Mr. McClay's. Mrs. J. and 
the two daughters were going to Nan Ti, a place on the other side of 
the river, where the missionaries reside ; and we all went in company. 
The train of the three chairs, with the consular servants following, 
attracted considerable attention from the Chinese, and as we passed 
along many ran to get a peep at us. They were the most curious to 
see the foreign ladies ; and did not seem to perceive any impropriety 
in running along beside their chairs, holding on with one hand, and 
putting their heads round in front to get a good view of their faces. 

Truly yours, B. L. B. 

Thursday, Dec. bth. — After dining we went, with Rev. Mr. and 
Mrs. Cummino-s, and Rev. Mr. Baldwin, to look at the ruins of a 
fire which we were called up to see at four o'clock this morning. It 
had broken out just across the river, and was burning furiously. It 
illumined the city and country for many miles around. Fortunately 
there was no wind, the flames and smoke rising perpendicularly 
upward, in one immense column. The confused voices of the Chi- 
nese could be distinctly heard with the crackling timbers and crash- 
ing of falling tiles. The fire ceased only when it had burnt itself 
out. The Chinese have no means of quelling a fire but by pulling 
down the buildings. Some of the Portuguese from the lorchas went 
to the spot, and assisted very much with their axes. We found 
numerous beggars on the ground, pulling over the rubbish for nails 
and old iron. 

This morning, at daylight, some of the Chinese living near us have 



FOU-CHOW. CHUSAN MONASTERY. 361 

been very busy bringing away trash for fire-wood, and there is now 
nothing left on the ground of any value. At fires, the Chinese cus- 
tom allows any one to carry away, without molestation, whatever can 
be found among the ruins. 

Friday, Dec. 1th. — This morning early, Rev. Mr. Collins, Rev. Mr. 
MeClay, and myself, started off and made a visit to the monastery. 
This is called the " Chusan Monastery," and is one of the most in- 
teresting objects of its kind. But, as I have spoken of others, I shall 
say very little about this. 

A covered boat took us to a point six miles below, upon the oppo- 
site side of the river ; we landed and walked across the rice-fields, 
passing through two villages. "We then ascended the mountain by a 
flight of winding stone steps. Along the way we saw Chinese women 
and boys were raking the sides of the hills, among the small pines, 
to gather grass, leaves, &c, for fire-wood ; and others were carrying 
large bundles of it on their backs, down to their houses in the village 
below. We arrived at the monastery about ten, noticing by the 
way many pretty birds, and one pheasant, in its bright plumage. 

This monastery is of the Buddhist order, and is much like the one 
at Ningpoo. It is situated in a gap, sheltered by the hills, and almost 
enveloped by trees ; but in front, looking through the branches, it 
commands a view of the river below, extensive and pretty. 

•JS* w *Jr ?r w Hr 

We came next to a large pen, where were kept a number of fowls, 
geese, ducks, hens, and cocks ; and, in another adjoining, there 
were some hogs. These are sent here by individuals, who, believing 
they perceive something remarkable about the animals, and suner- 
stitiously thinking to do some great service to their Josh, pay the 
monks for keeping them in the temple. One goose was very large in 
size ; another had a broken wing, which grew hovering over its body ; 
another had a peculiar jerking motion of one leg in walking ; one 
duck was very long, and dragged the hinder part of its body upon 
the ground ; one cock had feathers growing upon its legs down to the 
feet ; one of the hogs had double fore-feet, and others had other 
peculiarities. 

The bell of the monastery appears to be kept constantly tolling, 
striking about once a minute. I went in and saw an old monk ring- 
ing it ; he was standing under the bell, holding a book in one hand, 
with the other hold of the rope, which was fastened to the tongue. 
He was gazing intently into his book of Chinese characters, mumbling 
31 



862 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

and chanting away by himself as if the fate of the Chinese nation 
was depending upon what he was doing, and now and then giving 
a convulsive pull at the bell-rope. Other monks were sitting stupidly 
about on low stools, looking vacantly into empty space. 

We hastened away, and followed a crooked path, up hill and 
down, to a spring, which is situated in a wild, romantic place, among 
the rocks and trees. Chinese characters were cut into the high rocks 
all about us. We visited a pretty grove back of the buildings, 
where were a number of large tombs rising up, one above the other, 
on the slope of the hill. And then we crossed over the hill back to 
our path, descended the long flights of steps, and arrived home at 
four p. m. 



CHAPTER XLII. 

LEAVE FOU-CHOW. ESCAPE OF MISSIONARIES FROM PIRATES. ON 

BOARD THE " DENIA " FOR HONG-KONG. CALL AT CHIN-CHEW. 

AMOY AND NAMOO. ARRIVE AT HONG-KONG. 

Saturday, Dec. 8th. — Learning of the arrival of the "Denia," 
Captain Bar chain, at the Minn station, and that this will be my 
only opportunity for some weeks, I have concluded to go down to 
Hong-Kong in her, and hastened my professional and other engage- 
ments, dining with Rev. Mr. Cummings. " Old Long-Legs " (a 
Chinaman, who goes under this name because of his long legs) runs 
a kind of express-boat, and is to take me down in his boat. 

In the evening I called, on my way to the boat, at Rev. Mr. Peet's, 
where I met Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson, who had just returned from 
a visit to the north. I made their acquaintance, as single people, 
while staying at Ningpoo, and was quite surprised to see them here 
a married couple. They came down in a Portuguese lorcha. I had 
just time to hear a few particulars of their narrow escape from 
pirates. Since I left them at Ningpoo they had occasion to visit 
Shanghae, and to cross that Chapoo bay so infested with pirates, and 
which I had crossed a short time before. They hired a Chinese boat 
at Ningpoo, and started. During the first part of the passage Mr. J. 
was quite sick, and was lying down.. Mrs. J. being up, and happen- 
ing to understand their dialect, overheard the boatmen arranging for 



LAMOIETTS ISLAND. 



363 



their destruction. Mr. Johnson was to be killed and thrown over- 
board at night, &c. &c. &c. She immediately communicated the 
intelligence to her husband. They contrived to make an excuse, and 
to land as soon as possible at a city on the way. There they made 
known the facts to a mandarin, and procured his assistance in prose- 
cuting their journey. The pirates were not delivered up to justica, 
the mandarin fearing the revenge of their pirate friends. Had the 
pirates succeeded in their designs, their journey would have included 
both their marriage and their death ; they having been married but 
a little before, and this being their wedding trip. 

Bidding adieu to all my pleasant acquaintances in Fou-chow-foo, 
Rev. Mr. McClay saw me safely down to the boat ; and under the 
direction of " Old Long-Legs " the lights of Fou-chow soon disappeared 
from my sight. 

On board ship " Denia" coast of China, Sunday, December 9th. — 
Arrived here, at the Minn River station, before light this morning. I 
did not sleep any on the way, though I made many efforts to do so ; 
and, notwithstanding my new fur robe, a la Chinese, in which I was 
enveloped, I was quite cold. The boat was small, and I was obliged 
to curl down on my mattress, under the steering-oar, with no room for 
my head or feet, and scarcely any for my body ; and " Old Long-Legs," 
I fear, was crowded from his usual resting-place ; for he occupied a 
place in the open air, between the rowers. I had a cover above me, 
though open before and behind, and was but little wet by the drizzling 
rain that came down in the night. 

The " Denia " got under way at daylight ; but, the weather being 
rainy and thick, she was obliged to return, to wait till to-morrow 
morning. 

Monday, December 10th. — We were off again at daylight. Captains 
C. and H. came oh board, and, taking breakfast, went a little way 
out with us, returning in their boat. As we got outside, the sea 
became rough, and we had a disagreeable day. At night Ave came to 
anchor under the Lamoietts — a mountainous part of the coast, if not 
two islands that appear to make a part of the main land. We saw a 
fleet of pirates lying at anchor in a bay near the mouth of the Minn 
river. One junk outside, Captain B. said, was reconnoitring ; but 
they know the " Denia," and other coasting-vessels, so well that they 
would not make an attack without some advantage to start with. 

Captain B. has given orders to have a strict watch kept to-night. 
We are now at anchor near the Lamoietts (islands) not far from 



364 CIIIX A AND MANILLA. 

where the Chinese pilot ran us aground, when going up, some weeks 
since. 

Tuesday, December 11th. — At four this morning we left our 
anchorage, and in six hours arrived again at the opium station of 
Chin-chew, being less than a day from Fou-chow. 

In the afternoon Captains King and Miller came on board the 
" Denia " and stopped to dinner ; after which we went ashore, and took 
a horseback ride. I spent the eve with Captain K., and at an early 
hour came back to the " Denia." It blows very hard this eve, and I 
am very glad to be inside the harbor. 

Wednesday, December 12th. — Breakfasted with Captain M., and 
got off at eleven a. m. on our way down the coast. Arrived at 
the opium station at the islands, off Amoy, at five p. m., in six hours. 
Anchored, and went up to Amoy, with Captain Barcham, in Captain 
Priestman's boat. Took tea at Rev. Mr. Doty's, there meeting 
Mr. Morrison from the consulate. Remained at Mr. D.'s over night. 

Friday, December Vkih. — Under way before light this morning. 
Passed Chapel Island — a large rocky mass, with a hole through from 
one side to the other. Had light winds all the forenoon ; could not 
reach Nammo to-day, and at night came to anchor in a deep bay, with 
islands all around us. 

It is pretty dark, and a few lights may be seen in different places, 
glimmering along the shore. Many of the islands seem to be only 
bare rocks. The captain, this eve, before retiring, says, 

" Is it your watch, Mr. Watson? " 

" Yes, sir," answered the mate. 

" Well, keep a good look-out, keep half the men on deck, — guns 
all ready. If any boat comes along, let her have it. Let me know, 
at twelve o'clock, what the weather is. If she drives, call me." 

Saturday, December loth. — We hoisted the anchor and sailed at 
five; and reached Nammo, the opium station, at eleven a. m. The 
''Emma" was coming in, — eighteen days from Hong-Kong. We 
left at three r. u., and dashed along, under shortened sail, at the rate 
of twelve knots an hour. 

Sunday, December IQth. — Arrived in Hong-Kong about ten this 
f irenoon, in less than two days and a half from Amoy. I called at 
Mr. Drinker's, and found there, from all sources, between thirty and 
forty letters ; and was much rejoiced at receiving so much news from 
home, and all so good. 



HONG-KONG. A COLLISION. BOAT-GIRLS. 565 



LETTER TO SISTER H. 

Hong-Kong, Tuesday, December 18f/i. 

My dear Sister H. : The " Heber," Captain J. Patterson, from 
California, arrived yesterday. He, as you know, was formerly from 
Northboro, and we had a pleasant conversation together. I have been 
busy, most of the day, in my room, overhauling boxes and trunks, and 
attending to various things. All are at the theatre this evening but 
Mr. M. and myself, and we have been enjoying a pleasant chat, all to 
ourselves. 

Wednesday, December \§th. — I should have gone to Canton to-day, 
had there been any opportunity. I intend to go there and to Macao, 
and then to take up my departure for America. 

Thursday, December 20th. — Took the steamboat at twelve for 
Canton. As we were going out of the harbor, the steamer bringing 
the overland mail was just coming in. Much interest, of course, was 
manifested by the passengers, all expecting news from home, and they 
wished the steamboat to turn back ; but we kept on. The fare to 
Canton, including one meal, is eleven dollars and fifty cents. At ten 
in the evening we got aground within three miles of Canton, and, 
there being so many junks in the river, the captain thought best to 
come to anchor. Some of the passengers took sampans and went on, 
and others remained on board till morning. As there were some 
cushioned seats to lie upon, I preferred to remain. 

Friday, December 21st. — Early this morning we found ourselves 
on the way again ; and, after all our anchoring last night, ran into a 
Chinese country craft, and sunk her. She was laden to the water's 
edge with wood, &c, and went down before we had passed her. We 
were going very slow, and the bell was continually rung. I could 
not see or hear what became of the crew on board. A great many 
boats gathered round the scene, catching at planks, sticks, pieces of 
board and wood, and all the floating articles, without looking after 
their fellow-beings who were drowning. A queer set of people ! I 
asked the captain if the steamboat company was liable for accident 
to the Chinese boats. He said, " They pay for the boat — that 's all." 
So I suppose there is nothing said of the lives of the Chinese who are 
lost. 

A great noise is wafted off to us, as if there was a row among the 
Chinese on shore. Anchored in front of the factories. What a 
clamor and cackling there is among the boat-girls, as they strive with 
each other to be first with their boats at the steamer ! They crowd 
around the steps, pulling, pushing and screaming, laughing, scold- 
ing, crying, hallooing, swearing, crowding and jamming, scowling and 
scratching, and only not actually fighting. It is a Babel of confusion 
in miniature. 

I went to Acowo's hotel ; found living there Rev. Mr. Bridgeman, 
a former acquaintance in America ; and afterwards made calls on a 
few friends. 

Saturday, December 22d. — Everything seems so new, and yet so 
natural, that I wish to be going about all the time and looking. I 
31* 



3G6 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

made a visit with Dr. P. to his Chinese hospital, and afterwards to 
one of his patients, — Mr. B., who had both his legs shot through by 
the Chinese pirates, both bones being shattered by the balls. He is 
getting along remarkably well. 

Sunday, December 25th. — Christmas day. Christmas dinner with 
Dr. H., meeting there Dr. B. and family, and Rev. Mr. F. I remain 
at Dr. H.'s over to-night, to be ready for an excursion up the river 
early to-morrow morning. While I came down this morning to Dr. 
H.'s from the factories, which is about a mile, my new boy being 
unacquainted with the streets, I thought, as we arrived opposite the 
gate of the walls, it would be a good opportunity to make an attempt 
to enter within the city ; and put the resolve into execution, the result 
of which was, that I was hustled out, as I had expected. I knew well 
that it was prohibited to foreigners ; that I should, of course, be at my 
own risk ; but the project had occurred to me several times in passing, 
and I was determined to go in some way or other, or at least to make 
the trial. Desiring not in any way to implicate the boy, as he might 
in consequence lose his head, my first object was to get him out of 
sight, so that he should not know which way I had gone, and then, if 
I met with any difficulty, it might, perhaps, appear to the Chinese 
authorities that the boy did not know the way, and that I had got in 
by mistake. So, instead of passing by as usual, the boy, walking ahead, 
took the left, and I turned directly round, and mingled in with the 
throng of Chinese who were entering by one of the principal thorough- 
fares. Those in the streets did not pay much attention to me until I 
was under the arch of the gate ; when I perceived, from the stir 
among them, that they were taking notice of it. I had let my boy get 
so far ahead as not to have an opportunity to speak to me, to tell me 
that I was wrong ; and I knew he could not get to me, for the crowd, 
even if he should ascertain where I had gone. Once inside, I paid no 
regard to the people around me, but pushed along quietly, as if in a 
hurry. The gate-keepers called out to me, but I appeared not to hear 
them, and crowded by one after the other, as fast as I was able. The 
streets began to be pretty closely filled, and I found it difficult to get 
along. Still I kept on, as if not understanding anything, and as if 
wholly absorbed within myself. Some of the Chinese tried to stop me 
by putting their hands before me ; but I contrived to get by. I heard 
the frequent calls of, " Fan-qui-loa ! fan-qui-loa ! wilo, wilo, fan-qui- 
loa ! (Foreign Devil ! Foreign Devil ! Clear out, clear out, Foreign 
Devil ! ") as I continued to crowd through them. I felt the hands of 
the gate-keepers patting my shoulders, and heard their voices very 
near. Still I would understand nothing, — merely turning my head 
and graciously bowing, and then pushing ahead, leaving them amazed 
behind. The people seemed to pour in from the side streets, and, those 
already in stopping, it began to be hard work. The hands came 
oftener on my shoulders, and with more pressure ; and the voices 
were more frequent, and more positive. The narrow streets could not 
remain long free, they being soon thronged by any excitement, and it 
was next to impossible to continue to elude my pursuers. I turned my 
head often, ana bowed as politely as I could, and with all due defer- 



CANTON. TRIP TO GOLDEN HILL. 367 

ence, till at length the streets became so solidly blocked with people, 
and the demands of the gate-keepers so imperative, that I could not 
proceed further without using more force than I thought proper to 
exert under the circumstances. I also found a Chinaman on eacli side 
of me, whom, from their authoritative manner, I knew must be the 
gate-keepers. There was considerable confusion around ; yet I could 
see that the city was similar beyond to what it was between me and 
the gate ; and I allowed myself, from necessity, to be turned around by 
the two Chinamen. As I looked at them with much surprise, I think 
they believed that I had got in by mistake. They pulled me along, 
not very roughly, but crying out, incessantly, " Wilo ! Wilo ! •■'.' h\ 
returning I had time to observe the city, but found nothing different 
from that part of it outside the walls. I should say, how r ever, that 
things appeared to be a little more close and tidy, and the streets 
somewhat cleaner and drier. The stores I should think were not so 
numerous, as the buildings seemed to have more the character of 
dwelling-houses. I was conducted safely outside the gates again, 
without any accident further than the loss of my handkerchief, which 
was adroitly taken from my pocket during the melee, and the chagrin, 
if it may be so called, of being forcibly ejected from the city. But my 
curiosity was gratified, at least to a certain extent. 

Wednesday, December 2Qth. — Dr. B. called for us early this morn- 
ing, and, after partaking of a light breakfast, we stepped into the 
boat and pushed off, directing our course up the stream. The river 
at this hour was crowded with boats, and it was with some trouble 
that we could get along for a mile, and that quite slowly. Above the 
factories it was very easy, as the moving boats were comparatively few. 
We passed through the gate, which is formed by two hills, one on each 
side of the river ; went up twenty-five miles, and landed at a village 
called Golden Hill. Here, on a small eminence, was an old monastery? 
ancient aud interesting. We entered, and saw the priests and idols, 
but nothing much different from any other temple. The people 
showed no signs of hostility towards us, but were generally rough and 
uncouth in their manners. Some made coarse remarks about us, but, 
as I did not understand Chinese, ignorance was, perhaps, pleasanter. 
We distributed some religious tracts, which the monks and other 
Chinese received with eagerness, though the monks smiled sktisterly. 
We touched at several villages on our return, and arrived home at 
dark. In the evening, after tea at Dr. H.'s, I walked up to the facto- 
ries in company with Mr. and Mrs. Williams, who pass through the 
streets in this part without any fear. 

Saturday, December 2dth. — To-day we made a pleasant excursion 
into the country, a distance of eight miles, and visited the monastery 
at the " White Cloud Mountains." Our party consisted of Dr. H., 
Dr. B., MissB., Dr. Bowring, Mr. Meadows, Mr. French, and myself. 
At .six o'clock we l«ft, passing out to the open country, and pursued a 
winding course along the edge of a valley to the hills. We had for 
the party one chair, which answered to carry the tracts for distribu- 
tion, our food, and for any one to ride who should desire. We dis- 
tributed tracts to the people, which seemed to open the way for our 



368 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

proceeding without molestation. We arrived at the hills about ten, 
and ascended by a long flight of stone steps to the top. After resting, 
we visited the apartments devoted to the Chinese idols, sacred animals, 
&c, had a view from the heights beyond the monastery, and, returning, 
took our lunch seated upon a tomb within a grove of pine-trees. 
Descending, we passed through the leper village, crossed the Chinese 
military parade-ground, and returned by the opposite gate, making 
the circuit of the city. The people were civil through the whole 
route, and ready to receive the tracts. 

I have heard the population of the city of Canton so variously esti- 
mated, from one million and a half to two and a half, that I will here 
give it from the Chinese official document jo? 1847. 

Within the city walls, 365,400 ; outside the walls, 164,800, 530,400 
Water population, or those living in boats upon the river, 193.200 

723,400 

This does not include the transient people, or the imperial army, 
which, with the increase up to the present time, must be considerable 
more. Then the population of Canton is between seven and eight 
hundred thousand, and not a million. Yours, truly, B. L. B. 



CHAPTER XLIII. 

LETTER TO A SISTER-IN-LAW. — VISIT TO THE SECOND BAR PAGODA. — 

SINGULAR ROCKS, OR PALISADOES. CURIOUS BASIN. — ROW OF CAVES. 

CRUMBLING PAGODA. ANCIENT WALL. LETTER TO A BROTHER. — 

EXECUTION GROUND AT CANTON. STATISTICS OF EXECUTIONS FOR A 

NUMBER OF YEARS. DESCRIPTIONS OF THE FACTORIES. THE LORD'S 

PRAYER IN CHINESE. LETTERS ON THE MANUFACTURE AND PREPARA- 
TION OF TEA. 

LETTER TO A SISTER. 

Canton, China, January 1st, 1850. 

My dear Sister E. C. B. : This day, in company with Dr. B., 
Rev. Mr. Bridgeman, and Rev. Mr. Bonney, I made a boat excursion 
flown the river, twenty to twenty-five miles, to what is called the second 
bar pagoda, — a place some three or four miles inland, on the right 
bank of the river. 

1 went down last evening to Dr. B.'s house, and spent the night, — 
lis house being some two miles below the factories ; and this morning, 
at light, we had our coffee, and, stepping into the sampan, were on our 
way. When near Whampoa, ten miles below, we passed in sight of 
Mr. Everett's monument, which is plainly seen upon the hill-side of 
a pretty green island. Afterwards, at the town, we called for the two 
other gentlemen who were to accompany us ; and had a pleasant 
s.;i! down the river, landing about ten o'clock. We left our boat, 
uaid piocuodod on the bank of a creek, through a flat of rice-fields, 



CANTON. SINGULAR ROCKS. 369 

towards the high land. We passed through two or three hamlets, and 
found the people well disposed. Our only arras for defence were our 
umbrellas, and missionary tracts, which we distributed, as we passed 
along, to those at work in the fields or those at home in their houses. 

Following a grove of banana-trees for half a mile, the unripe fruit 
still hanging among the huge leaves, we came to the base of the 
heights, where we had a fine view before us. 

A whole line of rocks, not unlike those on the Hudson river, and 
upwards of a hundred feet high, extended along in a circular form, 
until lost to the sight. And in the background was the pagoda and 
a deserted wall, upon an eminence about two miles off, and very much 
higher than the rocks before us. 

The fissures in the rocks were nearly perpendicular, and the seams 
ran horizontally, so that those portions carried away gave the remain- 
ing masses a regular jointed appearance. At first they seemed to me 
more like the ruins of an old castle ; Dr. B. thought that they now 
remained just as they had been formed, and changed only by the action 
of natural causes and the lapse of time. But Mr. Bridgeman and I 
thought them to be an artificial work, which had been quarried at 
some former time ; while Mr. Bonney, I believe, was undecided in his 
opinion. We instanced, in support of our theory, the regular mathe- 
matical cuts and divisions in the rocks ; the marks of the chisel on 
them ; the various apartments uniting with each other ; single columns 
of stone standing alone ; square vats dug out of the solid rock at the 
base, and full of water, probably for the use of the workmen ; and we 
accounted for the absence of fragments on the ground on the proba- 
bility that they were all carried away and used in building their 
dike's, and the walls for their cities, &c. But I will not trouble you 
with these items ; neither party could convince the other of wrong 
conclusions. If it is the work of nature, it is a place of great interest ; 
but if artificial, it is of comparatively little interest. 

At short intervals the country presented new appearances. Some- 
times it was all rock for several hundred feet ; then for a correspond- 
ing distance there would be earth, grass, shrubs, and then a hill-side, 
steep, and jagged, with rocky edges. In one place there was a per- 
fectly smooth surface, from fifty to a hundred feet wide, its whole 
height being plane like the side of a house, except that it inclined 
from the top, inwardly. And at a little distance there was an appear- 
ance as if cornices and buttresses had been hewn, and left standing 
out from the solid rock, and blocks cut into other forms, without any 
apparent design. We asked some laborers near the spot what the 
place was. They said, "People carried away stone from there two 
hundred years ago." But we could learn nothing satisfactory from 
such a class of persons. 

Our time being limited, we hurried on, climbed the hill, and, after a 
walk of half a mile, over the high land, came to a great hollow, — a 
large basin formed in the ground, though at one side it had a natural 
opening leading out into the low flats. This was quite a novelty. 
The basin would probably contain two or three acres ; and near the 
centre was a small pond, walled in with stone, and filled with water 



370 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

of a red color, which flowed in a small stream from it through, a small 
town outside. The stone about here is all of the red sand-stone kind, 
which may account for the color of the water. 

On the opposite side of the basin is a row of caves or chambers, in 
the form of a semi-circle, opening out of the side of a hill, and resem- 
bling a row of sheds at a country meeting-house, though much larger. 
Dr. B. contends that they are all natural excavations. But I could 
not call them so, hardly more than I could the pagoda on the brow 
of the hill. 

It is true that where there exists any peculiar formation of the 
ground the Chinese will add and subtract, combining nature and art, 
until they make the place a curiosity. In this case, doubtless the 
remarkable formation of the grounds, and the ledge of sand-stone 
encircling the inside of the hollow, suggested to the Chinese the idea 
of the excavations. The more that particular places naturally differ 
from the general appearance of nature, the more importance do the 
Chinese seem to attach to them as localities for sacred purposes, — for 
the sites for temples, tombs, &c. A great majority of their temples 
are erected in such places ; and often much of nature is worked in with 
art, — their work being so planned that a large stone boulder shall 
make some part of the building ; or steps cut out of the solid rock, the 
flight of stairs leading to it ; or a zigzag path, winding around over a 
natural bridge, perhaps passing near or under an old crooked, gnarled- 
up tree, is made to form the way to the grounds. They hew down the 
side of a rock for an inscription-post, and many other things of a like 
character. 

Here each of the rooms opens out of the solid rock, forming nearly 
a square within : it is arched in front outside, though the ceiling 
within is not arched. Pillars from the natural rock have been left, 
sufficient to support the immense weight overhead. These stand in a 
circular line, in front, forming in part the divisions to the rooms, as 
well as the support of the arches. The ceiling is about twenty-five 
feet high, and the rooms about fifteen or twenty feet deep and wide. 
The apartments generally communicate, and often with hardly any 
division between them. Some of the rooms at the end of the circle 
were very low, and bear some appearance of having been washed out 
by the sea at some former time. They extend back for some distance, 
narrowing in height until they end in a single fissure at the extrem- 
ity, with large pillars of solid rock here and there, as if supporting 
the mass above. Some places were so low that one must stoop to walk 
beneath them ; at others, one could pass completely through under- 
neath the hill, and come out at the other side. The rooms and pillars 
of this part appear to have been worked upon, but never finished. 

The design of these rooms I cannot imagine. The only one in use 
is that which a few priests occupy for a Josh-house, containing all 
the necessary appendages, idols, incense, &c, to a temple of worship. 
The other rooms were all empty, and apparently unused. The Josh- 
house probably is for the use of the village near by. 

At the extreme end of this circle and in front is a square well, or 
cistern, «.'mk deep into the solid rock, and partially filled with water. 



CANTON. — EXECUTION C-ROUND. 6 1 1 

As I went up to examine it, my friend, fearful that I should fall in, 
begged me not to go near it. I wished to see what signs or marks 
of implements there might be on it, but, at his very earnest en- 
treaties, I desisted. He said that it made him giddy to look near it, 
and he considered it a most dangerous place to approach. This well, 
I am confident, must be artificial, and supplied by rains. 

Leaving this place, we crossed over the hill into a deep valley, and 
ascended the other mountain, upon the top of which stood the pagoda. 
This is nearly two hundred feet high, but not as handsome as several 
of the other pagodas on the river, and is beginning to crumble to 
pieces. It is' like two hollow cones, one within the other, with a 
narrow passage and steps winding between these two walls, nearly to 
the top. 

We all started to go up, when Mr. Bonney, concluding it to be 
dangerous, remained below. We however went about half way, 
when, seeing the decaying nature of the walls, and that, in some places 
overhead, the bricks had fallen out, and others just ready to drop, 
Dr. B. turned back. Mr. Bridgeman and I passed on about thirty 
feet further, examining above, below, and around, to see if it was 
safe, when he concluded to retreat also. I then went on alone, wish- 
ing to get a view from the top. I proceeded slowly and carefully, 
and reached the terminus of the steps, and there I found the skeleton 
of a Chinaman lying on the floor, curled up, just as he lay appar- 
ently when he died. He probably went up there to die, like many 
others, in accordance with some superstitious belief. 

We left the pagoda, and within a hundred yards came to a high 
circular wall, eight or ten feet thick, and enclosing a few acres of 
ground. From the heaps of earth inside, and its appearance gener- 
ally, we concluded that it had been inhabited, though all now was 
covered with green turf. Perhaps this was a place of retreat for 
those who made the excavations in the rocks, and also for those who 
built the pagoda. No doubt they are connected in some way. I 
intended to have noticed if the stone composing the wall was of the 
same kind as that of the sheds, or excavations, but, in the heat and 
fatigue, it was forgotten. We arrived home safely, at eight in the 
evening, fatigued, but much pleased, with the excursion. 

Yours, &c. B. L. B. 

LETTER TO BROTHER S. 

Canton, China, Jan. 2d. 
My dear Brother : Dr. B. accompanied me this morning, before 
breakfast, to the execution ground, which is in this quarter of the 
city, and there we met Dr. Bowring, and a young German prince, 
who, on account of the present troubles there, is now in the British 
navy. They had come, like ourselves, out of curiosity, to see the exe- 
cution ground of the Chinese. It is a narrow strip of ground, about 
fifteen or twenty feet wide, and, perhaps, two hundred feet long ; very 
unlike that at Fou-chow, which is a square plot of some two acres, 
outside the city, and covered with green turf. A row of dirty-look- 
ing houses on one side open upon it ; and, on the opposite side, is a 



372 CHINA AND MANILLA. 

high brick wall, separating it from the other buildings. A street 
crosses at each end, which, at the time of an execution, are both 
barricaded, to keep out the rabble. 

I looked to discover evidences of its having been used as the execu- 
tion ground ; but at first saw none. A little further on, in a kind 
of pen made of wooden rails against the wall, were about thirty 
heads, with the long tails, or braids of hair, still attached to them, 
thrown together promiscuously, like heads of calves in a slaughter- 
house. On each head was attached a wooden label, giving the name 
of its proprietor, and that of the prison in which he had been con- 
fined. Some of the heads looked as if just severed from their bodies ; 
others were beginning to decay ; and others were quite advanced in 
a state of decomposition. It was a very disgusting sight. 

On a little dry ground, a few feet from this, were several dark- 
looking spots, the blood-stains of seven unfortunate creatures, executed 
only two or three days since. 

As a curiosity, I picked up one of the detached labels lying on 
the ground ; but the doctor persuaded me not to take it away, the 
Chinese being very superstitious on these points. They might think, 
perhaps, that the soul of the man to whom the label belonged was 
also being carried away by the Fanqui. 

The number of criminals put to death in the whole of China must 
be very great. In only one city, Canton, for instance, but which 
includes all from the two provinces called the two Cantons, with a 
population estimated at thirty-one millions, there were executed, 
during thirteen years prior to 1847, four thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-seven persons. 

From that number, there were beheaded by the cutlass, . . 4751 

There were strangled 113 men and 10 women, 123 

Cut to pieces (one form of which, as some say, is by slicing ) 23 
alive from the feet), 12 men and 11 women, J 

Making in all, 4897 

This would average 372 for each year, more than one a day. 
The whole number of female